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一个有节能大梦想的小国

A small country with big ideas to get rid of fossil fuels | Monica Araya

【启点字幕组】
Light up the world
如果没有化石燃料
How do we build a society
我们该怎样建设社会
without fossil fuels?
这是个复杂又艰难的挑战
This is a very complex challenge,
而我相信 发展中国家将引领这场变革
and I believe developing countries could take the lead in this transition.
我知道这种说法充满争议
And I’m aware that this is a contentious statement,
但现实是 如果我们继续依赖化石燃料发展
but the reality is that so much is at stake in our countries
我们的国家将岌岌可危
if we let fossil fuels stay at the center of our development.
我们可以用采取不同的发展方式
We can do it differently.
现在已是时候 真的是时候
And it’s time, it really is time,
去打破迷思
to debunk the myth
国家并不是只能在发展
that a country has to choose between development on the one hand
和环境 再生资源 生活质量之间进行二选一
and environmental protection, renewables, quality of life, on the other.
我来自哥斯达黎加 一个发展中国家
I come from Costa Rica, a developing country.
我们有将近五百万的人口
We are nearly five million people,
位于美洲中部
and we live right in the middle of the Americas,
我们国家的位置很好记
so it’s very easy to remember where we live.
我们国家几乎全部的电力
Nearly 100 percent of our electricity
都来自于可再生能源
comes from renewable sources,
5种可再生能源
five of them.
水能 地热能
Hydropower, geothermal,
风能 太阳能 生物质能
wind, solar, biomass.
你知道吗 去年
Did you know that last year,
有299天
for 299 days,
我们没有使用
we did not use any fossil fuels
任何化石燃料来发电
in order to generate all our electricity?
这是个了不起的成就
It’s a fantastic achievement,
然而 这隐藏着一个矛盾
and yet, it hides a paradox,
那就是我们70%的能耗
which is that nearly 70 percent
还是石油
of all our energy consumption is oil.
为什么呢
Why?
因为我们的交通系统
Because of our transportation system,
就像大多数国家一样
which is totally dependent on fossil fuels,
完全依赖化石燃料
like it is in most countries.
如果我们将能源转型视作一场马拉松
So if we think of the energy transition as a marathon,
问题就是 我们该怎样到达终点
the question is, how do we get to the finish line,
该怎样使其他经济部门也实现脱碳
how do we decarbonize the rest of the economy?
可以说 如果我们都不能成功
And it’s fair to say that if we don’t succeed,
那么其他国家就更难了
it’s difficult to see who will.
因此 我才想跟你们讲讲哥斯达黎加的故事
So that is why I want to talk to you about Costa Rica,
因为我们国家很可能成为
because I believe we are a great candidate
开拓无化石燃料发展模式的先锋
in pioneering a vision for development without fossil fuels.
如果你们对我的国家有一点了解的话
If you know one thing about our country,
就知道我们国家没有军队
it’s that we don’t have an army.
这要回溯到1948年
So I’m going to take you back to 1948.
那一年 国家刚从内战中脱身
That year, the country was coming out of civil war.
无数国民死于战争
Thousands of Costa Ricans had died,
许多家庭四分五裂
and families were bitterly split.
然而 一个出乎意料的想法赢得了民心
And yet, a surprising idea won the hearts and minds:
我们要振兴国家
we would reboot the country,
而第二共和国将不再拥有军队
and that Second Republic would have no army.
因此我们废除了军队
So we abolished it.
时任总统
And the president at the time,
何塞·菲格雷斯【哥斯达黎加民族解放党创始人】
José Figueres,
亲手砸掉军事要塞的城墙以示决心
found a powerful way by smashing the walls of an army base.
接下来的1949年
The following year, 1949,
我们将这一决定以宪法形式永久定下来
we made that decision permanent in the new constitution,
也正是因此 我才能在近70年后的今天追溯当年
and that is why I can tell you that story nearly 70 years later.
我对此充满了感激
And I’m grateful.
感激在我出生之前就有了这一决定
I’m grateful they made that decision before I was born,
它让我和其他数百万民众
because it allowed me and millions of others
得以生活在非常稳定的国家中
to live in a very stable country.
你们可能会觉得这只是运气好
And you might be thinking that it was good luck,
但其实不是
but it wasn’t.
这都是深思熟虑后的决定
There was a pattern of deliberate choices.
在上世纪40年代 哥斯达黎加已有免费的教育和医保体系
In the ’40s, Costa Ricans were given free education and free health care.
我们叫它社会保障
We called that social guarantees.
通过废除军队
By abolishing the army,
我们得以将军费开支转移到社会发展上
we were able to turn military spending into social spending,
这是国家稳定的基石
and that was a driver of stability.
而到了50年代
In the ’50s —
到了50年代 我们开始投资水力发电
In the ’50s, we started investing in hydropower,
这保证了我们不会陷入
and that kept us away from the trap
依赖化石燃料发电的困局
of using fossil fuels for electricity generation,
而整个世界还在这困局中挣扎
which is what the world is struggling with today.
70年代 我们又投资建立国家公园
In the ’70s we invested in national parks,
这使我们避免了
and that kept us away
不惜一切代价一味追求发展 这种错误的逻辑
from the deeply flawed logic of growth, growth, growth at any cost
而这种逻辑被很多国家 特别是发展中国家所推崇
that you see others embracing, especially in the developing world.
90年代 我们开创了向生态系统服务者付薪酬的政策
In the ’90s, we pioneered payments for ecosystem services,
这帮助我们扭转森林砍伐的后果
and that helped us reverse deforestation
而且促进了生态旅游 而这如今是经济增长的重要引擎
and boosted ecotourism, which today is a key engine of growth.
所以在环境保护上投资
So investing in environmental protection
并不损害经济发展
did not hurt our economy.
事实上恰恰相反
Quite the opposite.
但这并不意味着我们完美无缺
And it doesn’t mean we are perfect,
也并不意味着我们没有矛盾
and it doesn’t mean we don’t have contradictions.
这不是重点
That’s not the point.
重点是 通过我们的决定
The point is that, by making our own choices,
我们能够灵活地处理发展过程中的问题
we were able to develop resilience in dealing with development problems.
同样的 像我们这样的国家
Also, if you take a country like ours,
人均GDP约1.1万美元
the GDP per capita is around 11,000 dollars,
当然这也取决于统计口径
depending on how you measure it.
但根据社会进步指数
But according to the Social Progress Index,
在将GDP转化为社会进步这一点上
we are an absolute outlier
我们绝对是超群的
when it comes to turning GDP into social progress.
废除了军队
Abolishing the army,
转而投资于保护自然环境和改善人民生活
investing in nature and people,
对国家发展也具有重大意义
did something very powerful, too.
这塑造了今天的我们
It shaped the narrative,
小国家也有大梦想
the narrative of a small country with big ideas,
而在这样的环境中长大也让我深受鼓舞
and it was very empowering to grow up with that narrative.
那么问题来了
So the question is,
我们这代人的下一个大梦想又是什么呢
what is the next big idea for this generation?
我想那就是
And I believe what comes next
永久放弃化石燃料
is for this generation to let go of fossil fuels for good,
就像废除军队那样
just as we did with the army.
化石燃料的使用导致了气候变化
Fossil fuels create climate change.
我们知道这点
We know that,
也知道人类在气候变化面前是多么不堪一击
and we know how vulnerable we are to the impacts of climate change.
所以作为发展中国家在寻求发展的同时
So as a developing country, it is in our best interest
摒弃后患无穷的化石燃料
to build development without fossil fuels
才符合我们的最大利益
that harm people in the first place.
因为
Because
如果可以用电力替代
why would we continue importing oil
我们又何必
for transportation
进口石油以供交通使用
if we can use electricity instead?
请记住
Remember,
在这个国家
this is the country
电力来自河水
where electricity comes from water in our rivers,
火山
heat from volcanoes,
风轮 太阳能板
wind turbines, solar panels,
以及生物废料
biowaste.
摒弃化石燃料 意味着我们的交通系统需变革
Abolishing fossil fuels means disrupting our transportation system
我们可以用电力驱动私家车 公交以及火车
so that we can power our cars, buses and trains with electricity
而不是肮脏的能源
instead of dirty energy.
而且让我告诉你们
And transportation, let me tell you,
交通已成为关乎哥斯达黎加人存亡的大问题
has become an existential issue for us Costa Ricans,
现行的交通模式 并不适合我们
because the model we have is not working for us.
它损害了人们的利益
It’s hurting people,
也损害了公司的利益
it’s hurting companies,
还威胁着我们的健康
and it’s hurting our health.
因为当政策和基础设施都无效时
Because when policies and infrastructure fail,
这就是每天都要发生的情况
this is what happens on a daily basis.
早上塞两个小时
Two hours in the morning,
晚上再塞两个小时
two hours in the evening.
我不理解为何我们要对此习以为常
I don’t understand why we have to accept this as normal.
我不愿
It’s offensive
每天都因此浪费时间
to have to waste our time like this every single day.
而这条公路的情况
And this highway is actually quite good
相较于其他一些国家的拥堵路段
compared to what you see in other countries
已经算不错的了
where traffic is exploding.
哥斯达黎加人 把这个叫做 Presa
You know, Costa Ricans call this “presa.”
Presa是被囚禁的意思
Presa means “imprisoned.”
而本该过着纯净生活的国民
And people are turning violent
也因此变得暴躁
in a country that is otherwise happy in pura vida.
这已经开始发生了
It’s happening.
因此我们必须采取行动
So a lot is at stake.
好消息是
The good news
当我们说到清洁交通
is that when we talk about clean transportation
和新型移动方式时
and different mobility,
我们不是在天方夜谭
we’re not talking about some distant utopia out there.
我们是在讲目前正蓬勃发展的电力交通
We’re talking about electric mobility that is happening today.
到2022年 电动汽车和传统汽车
By 2022, electric cars and conventional cars
预计成本相当
are expected to cost the same,
部分城市已开始试用电动公交
and cities are already trying electric buses.
而这些酷炫的家伙
And these really cool creatures
能节约成本
are saving money,
并减少污染
and they reduce pollution.
所以如果我们想在交通中摒弃化石燃料我们是能做到的
So if we want to get rid of oil-based transportation, we can,
因为我们现在有以往没有的选择
because we have options now that we didn’t have before.
这真的非常激动人心
It’s really exciting.
不过当然
But of course,
有人对此很不快
some get very uncomfortable with this idea,
他们会来跟你说
and they will come and they will tell you
全世界都依赖着石油哥斯达黎加也在所难免 现实一点吧
that the world is stuck with oil, and so is Costa Rica, so get real.
这是他们的说法
That’s what they tell you.
那你们知道该怎么反驳这番说词吗
And you know what the answer to that argument is?
1948年 我们并没有因为世界都依赖军队
That in 1948, we didn’t say the world is stuck with armies,
而保留我们的军队吧
so let’s keep our army, too.
没有 我们做出了勇敢的决定
No, we made a very brave choice,
而这一决定带来了彻底的改变
and that choice made the whole difference.
所以是时候让我们这一代人再勇敢起来
So it’s time for this generation to be brave again
彻底摒弃化石燃料
and abolish fossil fuels for good.
而且我有3个理由来解释 为什么一定要这样做
And I’ll give you three reasons why we have to do this.
第一
First,
我们的交通和城镇化模式已经崩溃
our model of transportation and urbanization is broken,
所以这是重新定义城市和交通的未来的最佳时机
so this is the best moment to redefine our urban and mobility future.
我们的城市不应为汽车而建
We don’t want cities that are built for cars.
而应以人为本
We want cities for people
在未来的城市里 我们可以步行 骑行
where we can walk and we can use bikes.
并且我们需要的是公共交通
And we want public transportation,
庞大的
lots of it,
无污染的 更完善的公共交通系统
public transportation that is clean and dignifying.
因为如果我们继续购买更多的传统汽车
Because if we continue adding fleets of conventional cars,
我们的城市将不堪重负
our cities will become unbearable.
第二 我们必须做出改变
Second, we have to change,
但是渐进的改变是不够的
but incremental change is not going to be sufficient.
我们需要的是根本性变革
We need transformational change.
我的国家也在实施一些渐进式改善计划
And there are some incremental projects in my country,
我也是第一个为此叫好的人
and I am the first one to celebrate them.
但是请不要自欺欺人
But let’s not kid ourselves.
我们要的不是这里来几辆漂亮的电动车
We’re not talking about ending up with really beautiful electric cars here
那里放几辆电动公交车 来做摆设
and a few electric buses there
一边又延续过去的基建投资模式
while we keep investing in the same kind of infrastructure,
这只会带来更多车 更多路 更多石油消耗
more cars, more roads, more oil.
我们要的是彻底从石油中解脱
We’re talking about breaking free from oil,
渐进主义做不到这一点
and you cannot get there through incrementalism.
第三 你们都知道
Third, and you know this one,
当今世界渴求灵感与启示
the world is hungry for inspiration.
人们渴望
It craves stories of success
成功解决复杂问题的实例
in dealing with complex issues,
特别是在发展中国家
especially in developing countries.
而我相信哥斯达黎加 可以给世界以新的启示
So I believe Costa Rica can be an inspiration to others,
就像去年 我们宣布
as we did last year when we disclosed
我们已经有很长一段时间
that for so many days we were not using any fossil fuels
没用化石燃料来发电了
in order to generate all our electricity.
这则消息迅速传遍世界
The news went viral around the world.
还有一点 也让我倍感骄傲
Also, and this makes me extremely proud,
一位哥斯达黎加女性 克里斯汀安娜·菲格雷斯【哥斯达黎加外交官 前总统费雷尔的女儿】
a Costa Rican woman, Christiana Figueres,
在巴黎气候协议谈判中起到了关键性的作用
played a decisive role in the negotiations of the Paris climate agreement.
所以我们必须捍卫这个成就 并且以身作则
So we have to protect that legacy and be an example.
那么接下来该做什么呢
So what comes next?
我们的民众
The people.
如何才能让人们接受这个想法
How do we get people to own this?
如何才能
How do we get people
让人们相信我们可以
to believe that it’s possible
建造一个没有化石燃料的社会
to build a society without fossil fuels?
很多工作需要从头开始
A lot of work from the ground up is needed.
这就是为什么 我们在2014年创建了哥斯达黎加Limpia
That is why, in 2014, we created Costa Rica Limpia.
Limpia的意思是清洁
“Limpia” means “clean,”
因为我们想启发和鼓励民众
because we want to empower and we want to inspire citizens.
如果广大民众不参与
If citizens don’t get engaged,
那清洁交通政策会被无限搁置
clean transportation decisions will be bogged down by endless,
会沦为无穷无尽的技术讨论
and I mean endless, technical discussions,
和不同利益团体的游说
and by avalanches of lobbying by various established interests.
成为一个完全依靠可再生能源的绿色国家这一梦想
Wanting to be a green country powered by renewables
早已是我们国家故事的一部分
is already part of our story.
我们不能让任何人夺走属于我们的故事
We should not let anybody take that away from us.
去年 我们聚集了来自7个省的民众
Last year, we brought people from our seven provinces
讨论气候变化对于他们的影响
to talk about climate change in terms that matter to them,
而今年我们又聚集了
and we also brought this year
另一批哥斯达黎加民众
another group of Costa Ricans
讨论可再生能源问题
to talk about renewable energy.
你知道吗
And you know what?
这些人几乎对一切事物都各执己见
These people disagree on almost everything
但却在可再生能源
except on renewable energy
清洁交通 和净化空气上达成高度一致
and clean transportation and clean air.
这种共识促进了团结
It brings people together.
真正能引导民众积极参与的关键
And the key to real participation
是让他们意识到自己并不渺小
is to help people not to feel small.
民众总感到无能为力
People feel powerless,
他们的呼声总被无视
and they are tired of not being heard.
所以我们要做的是具体的事情
So what we do is concrete things,
把专业问题转换成通俗的语言
and we translate technical issues into citizen language
去证明普通人也有重要作用而且可以团结起来发挥作用
to show that citizens have a role to play and can play it together.
我们首次紧密地监督
For the first time, we’re tracking the promises that were made
清洁交通方面的政策落实情况
on clean transportation,
政客也知道他们必须把政策落到实处
and politicos know that they have to deliver it,
而真正的关键在于形成联盟
but the tipping point will come when we form coalitions —
民众 企业
citizens, companies,
公共交通的拥护者
champions of public transportation —
联合起来 让电动交通成为新的常态
that will make electric mobility the new normal,
特别是在发展中国家
especially in a developing country.
到下一届选举的时候
By the time the next election comes,
我相信每一位候选人都必须在摒弃化石燃料使用
I believe every candidate will have to disclose where they stand
这一问题上表态
on the abolition of fossil fuels.
因为这一问题势必会成为政治主流
Because this question has to enter our mainstream politics.
我还要告诉你们 这并不只是气候政策
And I’m telling you, this is not a question of climate policy
或环保议程的问题
or environmental agenda.
这关乎我们对国家未来的理想
It’s about the country that we want
关乎我们的城市的现在
and the cities that we have
和未来
and the cities that we want
关乎由谁来决定未来
and who makes that choice.
因为归根结底 我们想证明的是
Because at the end of the day, what we have to show
依靠可再生能源谋发展
is that development with renewable energy
是有益于人的
is good for the people,
有益于哥斯达黎加的这一代人
for Costa Ricans that are alive today
更有益于我们的下一代
and especially for those who haven’t been born.
这是我们的国家博物馆
This is our National Museum today.
它明亮而平和
It’s bright and peaceful,
而当你站在它面前时
and when you stand up in front of it,
很难相信这里曾经是
it’s really hard to believe these were military barracks
40年代末的军营
at the end of the ’40s.
在这里 我们开启了没有军队的新生活
We started a new life without an army in this place,
而终有一天我们也会在这里
and here is where our abolition
宣布摒弃化石燃料
of fossil fuels will be announced one day.
我们将再一次创造历史
And we will make history again.
谢谢
Thank you.

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