As any schoolboy or schoolgirl knows,
the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
in Sarajevo June 28, 1914 was
the match that touched off the conflagration of World War One.
我的名字是Indy Neidell 而这个节目 伟大的战争
My name is Indy Neidell, and this channel, the Great War,
follows World War One week by week exactly 100 years later.
First, I’d like to talk a little about Franz Ferdinand himself,
so here is a very brief bio.
He was born in 1863, one of Austria’s 70 archdukes
it wasn’t called Austria-Hungary yet.
He became very wealthy just before he reached his teens
when his cousin died and he waschosen to inherit a vast estate.
Another death in 1889 changed his destiny enormously—
the suicide of his cousin Crown Prince Rudolf.
This left Ferdinand’s father heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary,
but he immediately renounced his position,
leaving Franz Ferdinand next in line to rule the empire.
He was still in this position when he died,
by which time emperor Franz Josef was 84 years old
and Ferdinand was 50.
If you read pretty much any bio,
long or short, of Franz Ferdinand,
you’ll discover that not a whole lot of people actually liked him.
Well, except his wife, the Duchess Sophia.
She was a Bohemian aristocrat,but without actual royal blood,
so the imperial house made certain that
neither Sophia nor any of her children could ever inherit the throne.
This also meant that they weren’t muchaccepted by the Austrian aristocracy,
in spite of his position as the next emperor,
and a lot of people went out of their way to treat the Archduke and duchess like crap.
One other thing that every bio is sure to mention is
Ferdinand’s passion for hunting-
he apparently recorded over 250,000 creatures killed in
in his 50 years on earth.
I suppose that’s really neither here nor there,
but what IS here AND there are Franz Ferdinand’s beliefs.
He was very conservative and…
let’s just call it “unenlightened” to be polite.
He hated the Hungarians,
he thought the Slavs were less than humans,
and he actually referred to Serbs as “pigs”.
He was also very strongly Catholic,
which carried with it the anti-Jewish anti-Jesuit baggage of the times.
He did love his wife though…with a great passion,
and the preservation of the Austrian Empire,
and THAT is something we’ll come back to in a few minutes.
Before that, let’s meet his assassin; Garvilo Princip.
Princip was a member of the Young Bosnians,
one of several violent secret societies in the Balkans,
and one who decided to kill Franz Ferdinand
when he announced his June visit to Bosnia in March 1914.
Okay, so in May, Princip and two associates went to Belgrade, Serbia,
where they were provided with four pistols and six bombs by the Black Hand,
and Princip had some shooting practice in a city park.
That’s not especially relevant,I just thought I’d like to point out
People had shooting practice in city parks back then.
So, at the end of May,
Princip and company took an eight-day journey to Sarajevo, planning to kill the Archduke.
It’s important to note here, that
the Austrian authorities and the Archduke himself were aware of the danger of some sort of murder attempt,
since these sort of things were pretty commonplace in the empire and especially in the Balkans.
这引用自 斐迪南前往萨拉热窝之前一天 他的车过热
Here’s a quote from Ferdinand the day he began his journey to Sarajevo and his car overheated,
‘Our journey starts with an extremely promising omen.
Here our car burns and down there theywill throw bombs at us.”
So… the evening before they were supposed to arrive in Sarajevo,
Franz Ferdinand and Sophia surprised everyone by turning up early, just on impulse,
and had a really nice time wandering around the town,
which was a pretty exotic place back then,
and later that evening came one of the great foreshadowing moments of all time;
a member of the Bosnian parliament who had urged Ferdinand and Sophia
to cancel the whole trip for reasons of safety,
was presented to Sophia, and she said this:
“Things do not always turn out the way you say they will.
我们去过的地方 每个人 下至最末等的塞尔维亚人
Wherever we have been, everyone, down to the last Serb,
都以极大的友好 礼貌 和真正的温暖欢迎我们
has greeted us with such great friendliness, politeness, and true warmth,
that we are very happy with our visit.” So far, so good.
Then the guy, who was named Sunaric, answered this
“Your Highness, I pray to God that
when I have the honor of meeting you again tomorrow night you can repeat those words.”
然后当晚 他们举行了巨大的宴会 欢饮达旦
Then they had a big banquet that night, and late the next morning-
coincidentally their 14th wedding anniversary-
the archducal motorcade left Sarajevo station.
No fewer than seven Young Bosnian hitmen were deployed on the town’s bridges,
one of which the Archduke had to cross.
One of the Young Bosnians threw a bomb at his car,but it bounced off the hood before it exploded,
wounding two of the Archduke’s men.
The motorcade drove on to the town hall and they listened to a bunch of the usual speeches,
and then after that, Franz Ferdinand changed his plans.
He decided to visit the men who’d been hurtby the bomb to see if they were okay,
so he wanted to go toward the hospital.
But there was a lot of confusion over the new route and who’d been told what and who hadn’t been told what,
so when the Archduke’s driver turned off the Appel Quay,
与大公同坐的将军告诉司机不要 回头 继续前往阿佩尔码头
the general sharing Ferdinand’s car told the driver no, no- back up and continue on Appel Quay…
…so the driver stopped the car, because it had no functioning in reverse gear,
and he stop it, right next to where Gavrilo Princip was standing.
So Princip raised his pistol and fired twice from a distance only a few feet away.
Sophie died instantly, and Franz Ferdinand’s last words were
“索菲亚 索菲亚 不要死 为我们的孩子活下去”
“Sophie, Sophie, don’t die- stay alive for our children.”
Franz Ferdinand died shortly after.
It’s pretty amazing when you think about it that this whole enterprise could have possibly succeeded.
I mean it was so incredibly amateurish,
and had the Austrian authorities taken any precautions whatsoever…
Well, I mean, think about it, there are loads of people who think the Black Hand had more to do with it,
但你会觉得他们计划了一些 或者见鬼 计划了全部
but you’d think they’d plan a little better or heck, plan AT ALL.
Anyhow, here were the immediate results: word of the assassination spread instantly throughout Europe,
and in Bosnia by the end of July more than 5,000 Serbs had been jailed,
many of whom were later hanged when the war broke out.
Princip was put in prison, being 27 days too young to receive the death penalty under Austrian law.
Now, there were one or two European leaders who were seriously worried about the political consequences of the act,
but most of Europe reacted by thinking it was more of the same-
the usual Balkan business, another Balkan killing.
There was very little mourning, even in Vienna, for the unloved Franz Ferdinand,
and his funeral service only lasted 15 minutes,
but there was one thing that became apparent only years later….
你看 普林西普 或者塞尔维亚人 或者黑手党 或者无论谁你觉得藏在谋杀后的
You see, Princip, or the Serbs,or the Black Hand, or whoever you like to say
was behind the killing,really really really got the wrong guy.
Franz Ferdinand, for all his talk about Serbs being pigs,
or Russian autocracy being a good model for the future,
for all his backward and outdated beliefs,had strong opinions on two very important things;
一 与帝国大多数人相反 他完全反对与俄国作战
1) in contrast to most of the empire, he was absolutely against any war with Russia,
and stated repeatedly that he would do anything in his power to prevent it,
and 2) since he put the empire above his personal beliefs,
and to make the empire work once again,
he was sympathetic to the idea of making the bi-partite state of Austria-Hungary
into a tri-partite state of Austria, Hungary, and a union of the Slavic peoples as the third part of the empire.
So when a Serb killed Franz Ferdinand, it was a killing that was not only against Serbian interests,
but since the Austrian Empire used the killing as a justification to invade Serbia,
even if it meant war with Russia-
Princip killed the one and only person in the empire who was determined and able to prevent that war
– Franz Ferdinand.
This was episode number 3 of our Great War Prelude to war Special.
Now if you missed the first two episodes you can klick here to watch both episode 1 and episode 2