未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

一战前奏3/3:改变世界的一枪

A Shot that Changed the World - The Assassination of Franz Ferdinand I PRELUDE TO WW1 - Part 3/3

任何一个学生都知道
As any schoolboy or schoolgirl knows,
1914年6月28日 萨拉热窝
the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
费迪南大公被刺杀这一事件
in Sarajevo June 28, 1914 was
是点燃第一次世界大战的导火索
the match that touched off the conflagration of World War One.
我的名字是Indy Neidell 而这个节目 伟大的战争
My name is Indy Neidell, and this channel, the Great War,
整整100年后每周跟随一战
follows World War One week by week exactly 100 years later.
首先 我想讲一讲弗朗茨·斐迪南大公本人
First, I’d like to talk a little about Franz Ferdinand himself,
这是他的简介
so here is a very brief bio.
他1863年出生 是奥地利70位大公之一
He was born in 1863, one of Austria’s 70 archdukes
——那时还没有奥匈帝国这一说
it wasn’t called Austria-Hungary yet.
他的一个表亲死后 他被选中去继承一大笔遗产
He became very wealthy just before he reached his teens
那时他还是个年轻人 却已经很富裕了
when his cousin died and he waschosen to inherit a vast estate.
另一场深刻改变他命运的死亡发生在1889年
Another death in 1889 changed his destiny enormously—
——他的表亲之一鲁道夫王储自杀了
the suicide of his cousin Crown Prince Rudolf.
鲁道夫王子的死让费迪南的父亲成了奥匈帝国王位的继承人
This left Ferdinand’s father heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary,
但他很快宣布放弃王位
but he immediately renounced his position,
让费迪南继而统治帝国
leaving Franz Ferdinand next in line to rule the empire.
他死时依然在这个位置
He was still in this position when he died,
那时皇帝弗朗茨·约瑟夫84岁
by which time emperor Franz Josef was 84 years old
而费迪南50岁
and Ferdinand was 50.
如果你读过足够多
If you read pretty much any bio,
弗朗兹•费迪南的传记 无论长短
long or short, of Franz Ferdinand,
你会发现其实许多人都不喜欢他
you’ll discover that not a whole lot of people actually liked him.
当然 他的妻子公爵夫人苏菲亚除外
Well, except his wife, the Duchess Sophia.
她是个波西米亚的贵族 但并没有真正的皇室血统
She was a Bohemian aristocrat,but without actual royal blood,
所以皇室确保
so the imperial house made certain that
苏菲亚和她的孩子都不能继承王位
neither Sophia nor any of her children could ever inherit the throne.
这样意味着他们并不怎么被奥地利的贵族阶层所接受
This also meant that they weren’t muchaccepted by the Austrian aristocracy,
哪怕费迪南是下一任君主
in spite of his position as the next emperor,
很多人越矩将大公和夫人当做”废物”
and a lot of people went out of their way to treat the Archduke and duchess like crap.
所有传记中都提到的另一件事是
One other thing that every bio is sure to mention is
费迪南对狩猎的喜爱
Ferdinand’s passion for hunting-
资料记载在他在世的50年间
he apparently recorded over 250,000 creatures killed in
有25万生灵栽在他手上
in his 50 years on earth.
我认为这不太文明
I suppose that’s really neither here nor there,
但文明点的是 弗朗茨·斐迪南的观念
but what IS here AND there are Franz Ferdinand’s beliefs.
他非常守旧并且……
He was very conservative and…
或许用”无知”这个词更礼貌
let’s just call it “unenlightened” to be polite.
他憎恨匈牙利人
He hated the Hungarians,
觉得斯拉夫人低人一等
he thought the Slavs were less than humans,
他甚至称塞尔维亚人是”猪”
and he actually referred to Serbs as “pigs”.
他也是很虔诚的天主教徒
He was also very strongly Catholic,
也承担着当时反犹太教 反耶稣会士的精神负担
which carried with it the anti-Jewish anti-Jesuit baggage of the times.
他的确深爱自己的妻子
He did love his wife though…with a great passion,
并捍卫奥匈帝国
and the preservation of the Austrian Empire,
而几分钟后我们将回来讨论那个
and THAT is something we’ll come back to in a few minutes.
在那之前 让我们见见他的刺客加夫里洛·普林西普
Before that, let’s meet his assassin; Garvilo Princip.
普林西普是青年波斯尼亚的一员
Princip was a member of the Young Bosnians,
其为巴尔干的秘密暴力社会团体之一
one of several violent secret societies in the Balkans,
也是弗朗茨·斐迪南1914年3月宣布6月去波斯尼亚的旅行时
and one who decided to kill Franz Ferdinand
决定刺杀他的人
when he announced his June visit to Bosnia in March 1914.
五月普林西普和两个同伴去了塞尔维亚贝尔格莱德
Okay, so in May, Princip and two associates went to Belgrade, Serbia,
那儿他们从黑手党那里得到了四把手枪和六颗炸弹
where they were provided with four pistols and six bombs by the Black Hand,
普林西普在城市公园进行了一些射击训练
and Princip had some shooting practice in a city park.
那不是很有干系 我只是觉得应该指出
That’s not especially relevant,I just thought I’d like to point out
那个时候人们在城市公园进行射击训练
People had shooting practice in city parks back then.
所以在五月末
So, at the end of May,
普林西波与同伙走了八天回到了萨拉热窝 打算刺杀大公
Princip and company took an eight-day journey to Sarajevo, planning to kill the Archduke.
这里有必要指出
It’s important to note here, that
奥地利当权和大公本人意识到了某些刺杀的危险
the Austrian authorities and the Archduke himself were aware of the danger of some sort of murder attempt,
因为这些事在帝国尤其是巴尔干很常见
since these sort of things were pretty commonplace in the empire and especially in the Balkans.
这引用自 斐迪南前往萨拉热窝之前一天 他的车过热
Here’s a quote from Ferdinand the day he began his journey to Sarajevo and his car overheated,
“我们的旅行由一个很有预示的前兆开始
‘Our journey starts with an extremely promising omen.
这里我们的汽车在燃烧而到那里他们会向我们扔炸弹”
Here our car burns and down there theywill throw bombs at us.”
所以……在他们将抵达萨拉热窝前的那天晚上
So… the evening before they were supposed to arrive in Sarajevo,
弗朗兹费迪南和索菲亚的早早露面惊讶到了每个人
Franz Ferdinand and Sophia surprised everyone by turning up early, just on impulse,
只是一时冲动 在城里闲逛得很愉快
and had a really nice time wandering around the town,
这在当时是一个很有异国情调的地方
which was a pretty exotic place back then,
而那天晚上晚些时候出现了整件事件最伏笔的时刻之一
and later that evening came one of the great foreshadowing moments of all time;
波斯尼亚议会成员曾经敦促斐迪南和索菲亚
a member of the Bosnian parliament who had urged Ferdinand and Sophia
出于安全考虑取消整个旅行
to cancel the whole trip for reasons of safety,
呈至索菲亚面前 她回答说
was presented to Sophia, and she said this:
“事情不会总想你们说的那样发展
“Things do not always turn out the way you say they will.
我们去过的地方 每个人 下至最末等的塞尔维亚人
Wherever we have been, everyone, down to the last Serb,
都以极大的友好 礼貌 和真正的温暖欢迎我们
has greeted us with such great friendliness, politeness, and true warmth,
我们对我们的旅行非常高兴” 至今甚好
that we are very happy with our visit.” So far, so good.
然后那个叫做苏纳里奇的人 这样回答
Then the guy, who was named Sunaric, answered this
“殿下 我向上帝祈祷
“Your Highness, I pray to God that
当我明天晚上有幸见到你时 你再重复这段话吧”
when I have the honor of meeting you again tomorrow night you can repeat those words.”
然后当晚 他们举行了巨大的宴会 欢饮达旦
Then they had a big banquet that night, and late the next morning-
巧的是 这正是他们14周年结婚纪念日
coincidentally their 14th wedding anniversary-
大公车队离开了萨拉热窝车站
the archducal motorcade left Sarajevo station.
不少于7个青年波斯尼亚杀手部署在城镇的大桥上
No fewer than seven Young Bosnian hitmen were deployed on the town’s bridges,
大公必经之地之一
one of which the Archduke had to cross.
一个青年波斯尼亚成员向他的车扔了一颗炸弹 但它在爆炸前就从车罩上弹开了
One of the Young Bosnians threw a bomb at his car,but it bounced off the hood before it exploded,
伤到了大公的两个人
wounding two of the Archduke’s men.
车队行驶到市政厅 他们照常听了一堆演讲
The motorcade drove on to the town hall and they listened to a bunch of the usual speeches,
在那之后弗朗茨·斐迪南改变了计划
and then after that, Franz Ferdinand changed his plans.
他决定去探望被炸弹炸伤的人 看看他们是否安好
He decided to visit the men who’d been hurtby the bomb to see if they were okay,
所以他想去医院
so he wanted to go toward the hospital.
但是新路线有很多疑点谁被吩咐了什么 谁没被吩咐什么
But there was a lot of confusion over the new route and who’d been told what and who hadn’t been told what,
所以当大公的司机从阿佩尔码头离开时
so when the Archduke’s driver turned off the Appel Quay,
与大公同坐的将军告诉司机不要 回头 继续前往阿佩尔码头
the general sharing Ferdinand’s car told the driver no, no- back up and continue on Appel Quay…
所以司机停了车 因为汽车没有倒车档
…so the driver stopped the car, because it had no functioning in reverse gear,
然后他正停在加夫里洛·普林西普旁边
and he stop it, right next to where Gavrilo Princip was standing.
所以普林西普举起了他的手枪 就在几步开外射击了两次
So Princip raised his pistol and fired twice from a distance only a few feet away.
索菲亚当场死亡 而弗朗茨·斐迪南的遗言是
Sophie died instantly, and Franz Ferdinand’s last words were
“索菲亚 索菲亚 不要死 为我们的孩子活下去”
“Sophie, Sophie, don’t die- stay alive for our children.”
弗朗茨·斐迪南很快也死了
Franz Ferdinand died shortly after.
这整个计划能够成功 想起来很让人惊讶
It’s pretty amazing when you think about it that this whole enterprise could have possibly succeeded.
我的意思是这水平难以置信的业余
I mean it was so incredibly amateurish,
奥地利当局采取任何预防措施都无济于事
and had the Austrian authorities taken any precautions whatsoever…
我的意思是 许多人觉得黑手党更有可能与此有关
Well, I mean, think about it, there are loads of people who think the Black Hand had more to do with it,
但你会觉得他们计划了一些 或者见鬼 计划了全部
but you’d think they’d plan a little better or heck, plan AT ALL.
无论如何 这是直接结果:关于暗杀的闲言碎语立刻传遍了欧洲
Anyhow, here were the immediate results: word of the assassination spread instantly throughout Europe,
在波斯尼亚 截止7月底有超过5000名塞尔维亚人因此被捕
and in Bosnia by the end of July more than 5,000 Serbs had been jailed,
许多人后来在战争爆发时被绞死
many of whom were later hanged when the war broke out.
普林西普被抓进监狱 但比奥地利法律下的执行死刑年龄小了27天
Princip was put in prison, being 27 days too young to receive the death penalty under Austrian law.
现在只有一两个欧洲领袖严重意识到了这次行动后的政治后果
Now, there were one or two European leaders who were seriously worried about the political consequences of the act,
但欧洲大部分对此的反应大都相似
but most of Europe reacted by thinking it was more of the same-
巴尔干的常事 另一桩巴尔干谋杀
the usual Balkan business, another Balkan killing.
即使在维也纳 也没有多少哀悼活动因为弗朗茨·斐迪南不讨人喜欢
There was very little mourning, even in Vienna, for the unloved Franz Ferdinand,
他的葬礼只举行了15分钟
and his funeral service only lasted 15 minutes,
但数年后有一件事变得明确了……
but there was one thing that became apparent only years later….
你看 普林西普 或者塞尔维亚人 或者黑手党 或者无论谁你觉得藏在谋杀后的
You see, Princip, or the Serbs,or the Black Hand, or whoever you like to say
真的真的真的杀错人了
was behind the killing,really really really got the wrong guy.
弗朗茨·斐迪南 尽管大谈塞尔维亚人是猪
Franz Ferdinand, for all his talk about Serbs being pigs,
或者俄罗斯独裁是未来的榜样
or Russian autocracy being a good model for the future,
他所有落后过时的理念但在两件非常重要的事情上很有看法
for all his backward and outdated beliefs,had strong opinions on two very important things;
一 与帝国大多数人相反 他完全反对与俄国作战
1) in contrast to most of the empire, he was absolutely against any war with Russia,
反复强调他会尽他所有的力量阻止
and stated repeatedly that he would do anything in his power to prevent it,
而二 因为他将帝国置于高于个人信仰的位置上
and 2) since he put the empire above his personal beliefs,
并使帝国再次工作
and to make the empire work once again,
他在将帝国从一个奥地利-匈牙利的二元帝国
he was sympathetic to the idea of making the bi-partite state of Austria-Hungary
变为奥地利匈牙利和斯拉夫人民联盟作为帝国第三部分的的三元帝国的事情上很有共感
into a tri-partite state of Austria, Hungary, and a union of the Slavic peoples as the third part of the empire.
所以当一个塞尔维亚人刺杀了弗朗茨·斐迪南时 这刺杀不仅违背了塞尔维亚的利益
So when a Serb killed Franz Ferdinand, it was a killing that was not only against Serbian interests,
但既然奥地利将刺杀作为侵略塞尔维亚的依据
but since the Austrian Empire used the killing as a justification to invade Serbia,
甚至在它意味着对俄国的战争的情况下
even if it meant war with Russia-
普林西普射死了帝国唯一一个有决心并有能力制止战争的人 ——弗朗茨·斐迪南
Princip killed the one and only person in the empire who was determined and able to prevent that war
– Franz Ferdinand.
这是伟大的战争前奏的第三集
This was episode number 3 of our Great War Prelude to war Special.
如果你错过了前两集 你可以点击这里看第一集和第二集
Now if you missed the first two episodes you can klick here to watch both episode 1 and episode 2

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

刺耳的掌声

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZmHxq28440c

相关推荐