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对抗Zika和其他蚊子传播疾病的秘密武器 – 译学馆
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对抗Zika和其他蚊子传播疾病的秘密武器

A secret weapon against Zika and other mosquito-borne diseases | Nina Fedoroff

Zika fever: our newest dread disease.
寨卡病毒感染症 我们最新发现的重大疾病
What is it? Where’d it come from?
它到底是什么?源自于哪里呢?
What do we do about it?
我们该如何对付它呢?
Well for most adults, it’s a relatively mild disease —
对于大部分成年人 它只是一个相对轻微的病毒——
a little fever, a little headache, joint pain, maybe a rash.
些许的发烧 稍微的头痛 关节疼痛 或许会长疹子
In fact, most people who get it
事实上大部分患病的人
don’t even know they’ve had it.
都不知道他们已经患病了
But the more we find out about the Zika virus
但当我们越深入了解 寨卡病毒感染症时
the more terrifying it becomes.
它却显得越来越恐怖
For example, doctors have noticed an uptick
例如 医生察觉到 一种疾病称作格林-巴利症候群
of something called Guillain-Barré syndrome in recent outbreaks.
在近期的病例中 有上升的趋势
In Guillain-Barré, your immune system attacks your nerve cells
格林-巴利症候群会 使你的免疫系统攻击
it can partially or even totally paralyze you. Fortunately,
你的神经细胞 造成你部分甚至完全的瘫痪
that’s quite rare, and most people recover.
可幸得是那非常稀少 大部分的人也都有康复
But if you’re pregnant when you’re infected
但如果你怀孕时患病
you’re at risk of something terrible. Indeed,
你就有风险获得 一个可怕的东西
a child with a deformed head.
是的 一个头畸形的小孩
Here’s a normal baby.
这是一个正常的婴儿
Here’s that infant with what’s called microcephaly.
这是一个患有我们所说的 “小头畸形”的婴儿
a brain in a head that’s too small.
一个脑袋在一个太小的头颅里
And there’s no known cure.
而且这并没有已知的治疗方法
It was actually doctors in northeastern Brazil
其实是一群在巴西东北部的医生们
who first noticed, just a year ago, after a Zika outbreak,
在一年前发现到 在寨卡病毒感染症爆发后
that there was a peak in the incidence of microcephaly.
小头畸形症的案例
It took medical doctors another year to be sure
达到高峰 医生又在花了一年的时间
that it was caused by the Zika virus,
才确定这是寨卡病毒感染症所导致的
but they’re now sure.
但现今他们确定了
And if you’re a”bring on the evidence” type,
如果你是 “给我证据”那类人
check out this publication.
看看这篇出版文章吧
So where did it come from,
它是源自于哪里?
and how did it get here?
又怎么传到这里的呢?
And it is here.
它的确已经在这里了
Like many of our viruses, it came out of Africa,
如同许多病毒一样 它源自于非洲
specifically the Zika forest in Uganda.
更明确的源自于 乌干达的寨卡森林
Researchers at the nearby Yellow Fever Research Institute
研究者在附近的 黄热病研究中心
identified an unknown virus in a monkey in the Zika forest
在一只在寨卡森林里的猴子 识别了一种未知的病毒
which is how it got its name.
也就是它名字的由来
The first human cases of Zika fever
第一个患有寨卡病毒的人类案例
surfaced a few years later in Uganda-Tanzania.
在几年后浮现于 乌干达-坦桑尼亚
The virus then spread through West Africa
病毒传布整个西非
and east through equatorial Asia — Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia.
向东到达赤道亚洲: 巴基斯坦 印度 马来西亚
But it was still mostly in monkeys and, of course, mosquitoes.
印度尼西亚但病毒大部分还是存在于猴子 当然
In fact in the 60 years
以及蚊子 事实上在他1947
between the time it was first identified in 1947 and 2007
第一次被发现到2007年
there were only 13 reported cases of human Zika fever.
这60年间 只有13件已知的人类患有 寨卡病毒的案例
And then something extraordinary happened on the tiny Micronesian Yap islands.
之后惊奇的事件发生了 在微小的密克罗尼西亚联邦的雅浦岛
There was an outbreak that affected fully 75 percent of the population.
寨卡病毒爆发将岛上 整整百分之七十五的人感染
How did it get there? By air.
它如何到传到那里的呢?
Today we have two billion commercial airline passengers.
通过空气 今天我们有二十亿的商业盈利航空的旅客
An infected passenger can board a plane,
一位已患病的旅客可以在
fly halfway around the world
出现患病的症状之前
before developing symptoms — if they develop symptoms at all.
甚至没有出现任何症状 踏上飞机
Then when they land,
飞跃半个地球 当他们着陆时
the local mosquitoes begin to bite them and spread the fever.
当地的蚊子将开始 叮咬他们 并且开始传播病毒
Zika fever then next surfaced in 2013 in French Polynesia.
寨卡病毒感染症之后在2013 出现于法属玻里尼西亚
By December of that year, it was being transmitted locally by the mosquitoes.
当年的12月 已由当地 的蚊子开始传染病毒
That led to an explosive outbreak in which almost 30,000 people were affected.
这也因此导致了爆发性的传染 使的将近30 000人受到影响
From there it radiated around the Pacific.
从那里 则开始向周围的
There were outbreaks in the Cook Islands, in New Caledonia,
太平洋发散 库克群岛 新喀里多尼亚
in Vanuatu, in the Solomon Islands
瓦努阿图
and almost all the way around to the coast
索罗门群岛都陆续出现了疫情 一直到近南美洲
of South America and Easter Island.
群岛海岸和复活节群岛然后
And then, in early 2015,
2015年初期
there was an upsurge of cases of a dengue-like syndrome
在巴西东北方的纳塔尔市
in the city of Natal in northeastern Brazil.
类登革热疫情的病例高涨
The virus wasn’t dengue,
传染的病毒并非登革热
it was Zika, and it spread rapidly —
而是寨卡
Recife down the coast, a big metropolitan center, soon became the epicenter.
并且在迅速的传播 沿岸的累西腓 作为广大的商业重镇 很快的成为了扩散的中心
Well people have speculated
有人推测或许是因为
that it was 2014 World Cup soccer fans
2014的世界足球杯的球迷
that brought the virus into the country.
将疫情带入了当地
But others have speculated that perhaps it was Pacific Islanders
但也有人认为是因为 当年在里约所举办的
participating in championship canoe races
独木舟冠军大赛
that were held in Rio that year that brought it in.
当中所参与的 太平洋岛上的居民们所传入的
Well today, this is only a year later.
至今
The virus is being locally transmitted by mosquitoes
也才一年后寨卡病毒已由 当地的蚊子所传播
virtually throughout South America, Central America, Mexico
近乎遍布了中美洲 南美洲 墨西哥
and the Caribbean Islands Until this year,
以及加勒比群岛
the many thousands of cases
一直到今年 在美国
that have been diagnosed in the US were contracted elsewhere.
所诊断出的上千个病例 都并非在美国本土
But as of this summer, it’s being transmitted locally in Miami.
遭到传染 但在这个夏季为止 它正在 迈阿密当地传播
It’s here.
它在这里了
So what do we do about it? Well,
所以我们该如何做呢?
preventing infection
要防止传染
is either about protecting people or about eliminating the mosquitoes.
要么在于保护民众 要么在于消灭蚊子
Let’s focus on people first.
让我们先来把焦点放在人身上
You can get vaccinated.
你可以注射疫苗
You can not travel to Zika areas.
你可以避免到寨卡病毒
Or you can cover up and apply insect repellent.
盛行的地区 或者你也可以将自己包覆起来
Getting vaccinated is not an option,
并且使用防蚊液 疫苗行不通
because there isn’t a vaccine yet
因为寨卡病毒
and there probably won’t be for a couple of years.
的疫苗还并不存在 并且在近几年应该
Staying home isn’t a foolproof protection either
还是如此 待在家中也不是一个 没有漏洞的办法
because we now know that it can be sexually transmitted.
因为我们现在知道 它可以透过性行为所传染
Covering up and applying insect repellent does work…
包覆起来并且使用防蚊液
until you forget.
确实行得通…. 直到你忘记为止
(Laughter)
(笑声)
So that leaves the mosquitoes,
所以焦点转到蚊子上了
and here’s how we control them now:
这就是我们现今控制它们的方法:
spraying insecticides.
喷洒杀虫剂
The protective gear is necessary because these are toxic chemicals
防护的装备是必须的 因为存在着有毒的化学药物
that kill people as well as bugs.
足以杀死人类以及蚊虫
Although it does take quite a lot more
当然杀死人类所需要的量
to kill a person than to kill a bug.
远超过杀死蚊虫所需要的量
These are pictures from Brazil and Nicaragua.
这些照片来自于 巴西以及尼加拉瓜
But it looks the same in Miami, Florida.
但相同的情境也可以在 迈阿密
And we of course can spray insecticides from planes.
佛罗里达看到 还有当然我们可以用 飞机喷洒杀虫剂
Last summer, mosquito control officials in Dorchester County, South Carolina,
去年的夏天 南卡罗来纳 多彻斯特郡管控蚊子的人员
authorized spraying of Naled, an insecticide,
在厂商的推荐之下 在某天的早晨
early one morning, as recommended by the manufacturer.
喷洒了二溴磷
Later that day, a beekeeper told reporters
一种杀虫剂 当天下午 一名养蜂人
that her bee yard looked like it had been nuked.
告诉了记者他的养殖蜜蜂的园区 仿佛被核武器攻击了
Oops.
哎呀!
Bees are the good guys.
蜜蜂应该是好人啊
The citizens of Florida protested, but spraying continued. Unfortunately,
佛罗里达州的居民虽 提出抗议
so did the increase in the number of Zika fever cases.
但喷洒并未停止 不幸的 寨卡病毒的案例 增加的数量也是如此
That’s because insecticides aren’t very effective.
那是因为 杀虫剂
So are there any approaches that
并不是非常有效
are perhaps more effective than spraying
那是否有比杀虫剂来的更有效并且
but with less downsides than toxic chemicals?
比有毒的化学药物 拥有更少的缺点的方式呢?
I’m a huge fan of biological controls,
我是生物防治的爱好者
and I share that view with Rachel Carson, author of”Silent Spring,”
而我与《寂静的春天》的作者 Rachel Carson有相同的看法
the book that is credited with starting the environmental movement.
这本书被视为 环保运动的创始者
In this book she tells the story, as an example,
这本书她讲述了一个故事
of how a very nasty insect pest of livestock
以在上个世纪被消灭了 一种针对牲畜的
was eliminated in the last century.
害虫为比喻在今日
No one knows that extraordinary story today.
这个惊奇的故事不为人知
So Jack Block and I, when we were writing an editorial
所以Jack Block与我 在撰写一篇有关当今
about the mosquito problem today, retold that story.
蚊子问题的 报导时重新讲述了那个故事
And in capsule form, it’s that pupae —
简单来说 也就是蛹——
that’s the immature form of the insect —
那是昆虫还未成熟的状态——
were irradiated until they were sterile, grown to adulthood
受到辐射直到它们失去生育能力 等到它们进入成年期之后
and then released from planes all over the Southwest,
再由飞机将它们释放
the Southeast and down into Mexico and into Central America
遍布整个西南到东南 再往下进入墨西哥
literally by the hundreds of millions from little airplanes,
然后中美洲 上百万只货真价实的小虫子 从飞机上被释放
eventually eliminating that terrible insect pest
最终将那糟糕的害虫
for most of the Western Hemisphere.
从大部分的西半球移除
Our real purpose in writing this editorial
我们撰写这篇报导
was to introduce readers to how we can do that today —
真正的目的是要 介绍给读者 我们如何在今日做到一样的
not with radiation but with our knowledge of genetics.
事情—— 并不是用辐射而是 用我们对基因所有的知识
Let me explain.
让我来说明
This is the bad guy: Aedes aegypti.
这个是坏人:埃及伊蚊
It’s the most common insect vector of diseases,
他是最常见的由昆虫 传染疾病的带原者
not just Zika but dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile virus
不只是寨卡 还有登革热 基孔肯雅热 西尼罗河病毒
and that ancient plague, yellow fever.
以及那古老的瘟疫
It’s an urban mosquito,
黄热病 它是一个城市型的蚊子
and it’s the female that does the dirty work.
而且是雌性在传染疾病
She bites to get a blood meal to feed her offspring.
它会叮咬取得血 来喂养它的孩子
Males don’t bite;
雄性的蚊子不会叮咬
they don’t even have the mouth parts to bite.
它们甚至连 用来叮咬的嘴部器官都没有
A little British company called Oxitec genetically modified that mosquito
一个名为Oxitec的英国小公司 基因改造了雌性的蚊子
so that when it mates with a wild female,
使它们与野生的雌性蚊子交配时
its eggs don’t develop to adulthood.
它们的卵不会发展到成年期
Let me show you.
让我展示给你看
This is the normal reproductive cycle.
这个是正常的生殖周期
Oxitec designed the mosquito so
Oxitec设计蚊子
that when the male mates with the wild female
使雄性的蚊子与野生雌性
the eggs don’t develop.
蚊子交配时 它们的卵不会成长
Sounds impossible?
听起来不可能?
Well let me show you just diagrammatically how they do it.
让我来用图表解释 他们如何做到的
Now this represents the nucleus of a mosquito cell,
这个代表蚊子细胞的细胞核
and that tangle in the middle represents its genome,
而中间的那一团 代表的是它的基因
the sum total of its genes.
它基因的总量
Scientists added a single gene
科学家多加了一个基因
that codes for a protein represented by this orange ball
来制造图片上那橘色球的蛋白质
that feeds back on itself to keep cranking out more of that protein.
这个蛋白质会持续的反馈给自己 来得到更多的蛋白质
The extra copies, however, go and gum up the mosquitoes’ genes,
那多的复制品会弄乱蚊子的基因
killing the organism.
并使它灭亡
To keep it alive in the laboratory they use a compound called tetracycline.
为了要使它在实验室存活 他们使用一种合成物称作四环素
Tetracycline shuts off that gene and allows normal development.
四环素会关掉那个基因 并且允许正常的发展
They added another little wrinkle so that they could study what happens.
他们也加了一个小机关 使他们能够研究所发生的事
And that is they added a
也就是他们加了一个基因
gene that makes the insect glow under UV light
使昆虫在UV光的照射下会发光
so that when they released it
这样昆虫被释放时他们
they could follow exactly how far it went
能确切知道它们飞的多远
how long it lived and all of the kinds of data
活了多久 以及各种 你需要的相关的资料
for a good scientific study.
来做完整的科学研究
Now this is the pupal stage, and at this stage
现在这是蛹的阶段
the females are larger than the males.
而在这个阶段 雌性会比雄性来得大
That allows them to sort them
这使得他们能够将
into the males and the females
雄性和雌性区分开来
and they allow only the males to grow to adulthood.
并且只让雄性成长至成年期
And let me remind you that males don’t bite.
让我再次提醒你 雌性不会叮咬
From there it’s pretty simple.
从这里 一切变的非常简单
They take beakers full of male mosquitoes,
他们拿着充满蚊子的烧杯
load them into milk cartons, and drive around the city,
放进牛奶箱 然后开车绕着市区
releasing them guided by GPS.
并且根据GPS
Here’s the mayor of a city releasing the first batch
将它们释放 这是一个市区的市长
of what they call the”friendly Aedes.”
释放第一批他们所说的 “友善伊蚊
Now I wish I could tell you this is an American city,
“ 我希望我能跟你说 这是一个美国的城市
but it’s not.
但并不是
It’s Piracicaba, Brazil.
这是巴西的皮拉西卡巴
The amazing thing is that in just a year
最惊奇的事情是 在仅仅一年的时间里
it brought down the cases of dengue by 91 percent.
登革热的案例 下降了百分之九十一
That’s better than any insecticide spraying can do.
那比喷洒任何杀虫剂 所得到的成果好许多
So why aren’t we using this remarkable biological control in the US?
所以我们为何不在美国 使用这个卓越的生物防治方法呢?
That’s because it’s a GMO: a genetically modified organism.
那是因为它是一个GMO 一个基因改造的生物
Notice the subtitle here says if the FDA would let them
注意副题中写到 如果FDA允许它们的话
they could do the same thing here, when Zika arrives.
当寨卡来到时 它们可以在这里同样的事情
And of course it has arrived.
当然寨卡的确来了
So now I have to tell you the short form
所以现在我必须告诉你
of the long, torturous story of GM regulation in the US
有关美国基因改造规范 又长 又折磨人故事的简短版
In the US,
在美国
there are three agencies that regulate genetically modified organisms:
有三个机构 来管理基因改造的生物
the FDA, the Food and Drug Administration,
FDA 食品药物管理局EPA
the EPA, the Environmental Protection Agency,
国家环境保护局
and the USDA, US Department of Agriculture.
以及 USDA
Took these folks two years to decide
美国农业部 这些人花了两年的时间
that it would be the FDA
才决定由食品药物管理局
that would regulate the genetically modified mosquito.
来管理基因改造的蚊子
And they would do it as a new animal drug,
并且他们将它看成一种新的动物药品
if that makes any sense.
这根本没有意义
Took them another five years going
他们又花了五年的时间
back and forth and back and forth
来来回回
to convince the FDA that this would not harm people,
说服了FDA这不会对人类有害
and it would not harm the environment.
也不会对环境有害
They finally gave them, this summer,
在这个夏天 他们终于被允许
permission to run a little test
在佛罗里达礁岛群
in the Florida Keys,
做一個小小的测试
where they had been invited years earlier when
在几年前登革热爆发的时候
they Keys had an outbreak of dengue.
他们就被邀请这么做了
Would that it were that easy.
如果这么简单就好了
When the local residents heard
在当地的居民听到
that there would be genetically modified mosquitoes tested in their community
会有基因改造的蚊子被释放到 他们的社区试验时
some of them began to organize protests.
部分的居民就开始组织抗议行动
They even organized a petition on the internet
他们甚至在网上组织了一个请愿书
with this cuddly logo,
还有这个可爱的标志
which eventually accumulated some 160,000 signatures
最终获得了160000个签名
And they demanded a referendum which
他们要求公投
will be conducted in just a couple of weeks
而且会在几个礼拜内举行
about whether the trials would be permitted at all.
这有关测试是否应该被批准
Well it’s Miami that really needs these better ways of controlling insects.
但其实是迈阿密才真正需要 这些比较好的方法来控制蚊虫
And there the attitudes are changing.
那里的态度也在转变事实上
In fact, very recently a bipartisan group
最近一个包含60
of more than 60 legislators
多个立法者的两党组织
wrote to HHS Secretary Sylvia Burwell
写信给HSS部长Sylvia Burwell请求他
asking that she, at the Federal level, expedite access for Florida
在联邦的层级 加速佛罗里达得到
to this new technology.
这项新科技
So the bottom line is this: biological control of harmful insects
所以结论是: 利用生物控制来控制害虫
can be both more effective and very much more environmentally friendly
可以比使用杀虫剂 也就是有毒的化学药物
than using insecticides, which are toxic chemicals.
来的有效 并且也 显著的对环境比较友善
That was true in Rachel Carson’s time; it’s true today.
这在Rachel Carson的时代是正确的 在我们的时代也是
What’s different is that we have enormously more information
不一样的是我们比那时的我们 拥有更多有关基因的知识
about genetics than we had then,

and therefore more ability to use that information
因此我们拥有更多的能力 运用那些信息
to affect these biological controls.
来影响控制这些生物
And I hope
我希望
that what I’ve done is aroused your curiosity enough
我有引起你的好奇心
to start your own inquiry — not into just GM mosquitoes
使得你开始 有你自己的疑问—— 不只是对于基因改造的蚊子
but to the other genetically modified organisms that are so controversial today.
而是还有对于在今日 备受争议的其他基因改造生物
I think if you do that,
我想如果你这么做
and you dig down through all of the misinformation,
并且你向下挖掘所有的错误信息
and the marketing on the part
以及有机食品产业
of the organic food industry and the Greenpeaces
和绿色和平等的
and find the science, the accurate science,
营销手段找寻科学 那真实的科学
you’ll be surprised and pleased.
你会感到惊讶以及满意
Thank you.
谢谢
(Applause)
(掌声

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