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小沙钱也有大科学——密恐警告 – 译学馆
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小沙钱也有大科学——密恐警告

A Sand Dollar's Breakfast is Totally Metal | Deep Look

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DEEP LOOK
这是来自海浪的礼物
It’s a beachcomber’s prize.
但它只是沙钱的空壳……一个沙钱骨架
But this sand dollar is just an empty husk… a skeleton.
这才是沙钱真正的样子
This is what sand dollars really look like.
在加利福尼亚海滩附近
Off the coast of California,
沙钱在太平洋海底依偎在一起
Pacific sand dollars snuggle up together,
就像一大堆紫色海物饼干
like a big pile of purple sea cookies.
它们毛茸茸的……看起来有点可爱
They’re fuzzy… almost cuddly.
但离近点看
But look closer…
茸毛实际上是由细小的刺组成的……
That fuzz is actually made up of tiny spines…
数以千计的小刺
thousands of them.
有些长长的尖尖的
Some long and spiky,
另一些圆圆的
others rounder.
处于棘刺中的是微型管脚
Mixed in are miniature tube feet
顶端长着可以抓取东西的小吸盘
with grabby little suckers on the ends.
沙钱用吸盘仔细地筛选沙子
They use them to meticulously sift the sand
然后把抓到的沙粒一路向下传递
and pass the grains down the line,
直到它们到达沙钱的口中
until they reach the sand dollar’s mouth
口器长在底部正中
at the very center of its underside,
埋在所有的刺里面
buried under all those spines.
沙钱吃沙子
Sand dollars eat sand.
它们以沙子表面的藻类和细菌为食
They’re after the algae and bacteria that coat the grains.
这些沙钱能用边缘让自己站起来
And these sand dollars can also stand themselves up on their sides
利用它们边缘的长刺
to use the long spines around their edges
来捕捉漂浮的微小浮游生物
to trap tiny plankton floating by.
那么看起来像一朵五瓣花的那一面呢?
So what about that part that looks like a flower with five petals?
它被称为“翼瓣”
It’s called the “petaloid”.
这一面长着特殊的管脚
They have special tube feet there
可以帮助沙钱吸收水中的氧气
that help the sand dollar breathe,
让沙钱呼吸
absorbing oxygen out of the water.
你可以在沙钱的近亲
You can see that same five-point body
比如海星和海胆身上
plan on the skeletons of their relatives
看到一样的五个点
like starfish and sea urchins.
事实上 沙钱就是平海胆的一种
In fact, sand dollars are just a type of flat sea urchin.
但沙钱的亲戚们更喜欢有很多岩石的海岸
But while their cousins prefer the rocky shore,
那里有更多的食物 而且方便藏匿
chock full of life and spots to hide…
沙钱没有这么舒适的栖息地
Sand dollars don’t have such a cozy place to live.
它们只能受海底沙滩基本运动的摆布
They’re at the mercy of what’s basically an undersea desert,
身体随着海水的翻腾和潮涌移动
Thrashed and sandblasted.
所以扁平状的身体是种优势
So being flat is an advantage.
沙钱用圆润流畅的外形抗击强劲的水流
They’re sleeker, streamlined against the powerful currents.
它们还有另一个严谨的应对方案让自己生存下去
And they have another scrupulous solution for staying put.
不是所有沙子都一样
Not all sand is the same.
有些沙子含重金属成分
Mixed in there are some extra-heavy grains.
成分是磁石 这是铁矿石的一种
They’re made of magnetite, a type of iron ore.
科学家认为 随着沙钱的生长
Scientists think that as they grow,
小沙钱把磁石从沙子里挖出来吞下去
young sand dollars sort them out and swallow them…
不断的吃 越吃越多
grain after grain.
重金属在沙钱体内积累
The heavy ore builds up inside their bodies
帮助沙钱更容易沉在海底
and helps weigh them down to the seafloor.
在旧金山的加利福尼亚科学院
At the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco,
研究人员使用X射线来定位沙钱体内的重金属
researchers used x-rays of sand dollars to look for it.
看到那些明亮的白色区域了吗?
See those bright white areas?
那里就是储存磁石的地方
Those are the pockets of magnetite.
这就是为什么湍急的水域中
That’s how these tireless little creatures can hack it –
只有这些小东西生存下来
out here in such turbulent waters
而其他生物则不能的原因
where most other things can’t.
事实证明 哪怕只是躺在海底也要付出很多努力
Turns out, it takes a lot of work to just lay around.
想知道我们如何和沙钱亲密接触的吗?
Want to know how we got so up close and personal with those sand dollars?
来Patreon关注我们 观看我们出海时的幕后视频吧
Follow us over to Patreon for a very seaworthy behind-the-scenes video.
加入我们在Patreon的社群可以解锁奖励视频
Join our community on Patreon to unlock rewards
比如会员专属直播 更多福利内容
like members only live streams, bonus content
还可以帮我们遴选以后视频拍些什么
and helping us pick upcoming episodes.
网站链接在视频描述中
Link in the description.
我们在Patreon等着你噢!
See you there!

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视频概述

你见过这个圆圆的小东西吗?它其实是一种生物。看起来毛茸茸的沙钱,为了能生活在湍急的海底,可着实付出了一番努力呢!

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短尾龙

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审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxZdBPDNiF4

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