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成功公关的秘诀

A Recipe for PR Success | Jerry Silfwer | TEDxÖstersund

Let me start you off with a simple show of hands.
首先 我们来做个简单的举手调查
Please raise your hand for me if you have ever stayed at a hotel,
如果你以前住过的饭店
where there’s, where they serve egg and bacon for breakfast.
会在早餐时间供应鸡蛋和培根 请举手
Let me see your hands. Thank you.
请举手让我看看 谢谢
Now as I actually expected and I’m sure you did too.
不出我所料 我相信大家也一样
That was basically everyone.
基本上 所有人都举了手
However, what everyone doesn’t know about the whole egg and bacon thing,
但是 对于鸡蛋和培根 各位有所不知
is that that was actually a result of a hundred-year-old PR campaign.
这种早餐其实是一百年前的公关活动推广的结果
This PR campaign in the beginning of the 19th century,
这项19世纪初的公关活动
was orchestrated by a man named Edward Bernays.
是一个名叫爱德华•伯内斯的人策划的
Edward Bernays was actually the cousin of the famous psychologist Sigmund Freud
爱德华•伯内斯是著名心理学家 西格蒙德•佛洛依德的堂弟
and he has been dubbed in the later years to be the father of public relations.
他后来被人们称为“公关之父”
Now, what Edward Bernays did was that he had this client who was a food manufacturer,
伯内斯的一位客户是食品制造商
and this food manufacturer wanted Edward Bernays to help them
这家食品制造商希望伯内斯帮助他们
to get Americans to eat more meat.
让美国人多吃肉类
So, Edward Bernays thought it would be a good idea
伯内斯认为 让人们早餐吃的饱一点
to get people to eat a more heavy breakfast, a sturdier breakfast.
会是个好主意
So what he did was that he reached out to five thousand, five thousand doctors and physicians,
为此 他找了5千名医生
and asked them if Americans would benefit from having a sturdier breakfast.
问了他们 早餐吃得饱对美国人是否有益
4,500 of those doctors and physicians,
其中有4500名医生表示
they said, well, yes, that sounds reasonable.
是的 这种说法听起来很合理
And the rest is history.
后来的事 大家都知道了
Now, Edward Bernays did a lot of other things as well.
伯内斯也做了一大堆其他的事
One of the things he’s famous for in the PR world
其中一件让他闻名公关界的事
is that he had another client.
就是 他还有一个客户
I think this was in the late 1920s.
这好像是20世纪20年代末的事情了
Which was Lucky Strike, you know, the cigarette brand, the tobacco brand.
这个客户就是香烟品牌“好彩”
And Lucky Strike they were quite irritated of the fact that
让“好彩”苦恼的是
only men at this time smoked cigarettes, and women didn’t.
当时只有男性抽烟 女性不抽烟
So they felt that there was a 50% market that was literally, literally untapped.
这让他们觉得 市场还有一半未被开发
So he asked Bernays,
于是他问了伯内斯
can you help us to tap into this this enormous market?
你能帮我们开发这个巨大的市场吗?
So what Bernays did was that,
伯内斯的做法就是
he reached out to female influencers artists and actresses of the time,
他找了当时有影响的女性 艺术家和女演员
he reached out to feminist groups.
还找了一些女性主义团体
And this was a success,it worked.
结果成功了 此举奏效了
The feminist groups of the time even called these cigarettes the torches of freedom
当时的女性主义团体在进行推销时
when they had to do this.
甚至把香烟称作“自由的火炬”
So given this thing when people ask me what I do for a living,
所以 每当有人问我从事什么工作
and I say that I am a PR professional.
我会说我是一名公关专业人士
I do hesitate that some of times.
但有些时候 我会迟疑一下
Because public relations does have a bad reputation,
因为公关行业声名狼藉
which is ironic given the fact what what PR is all about.
考虑到公关的本质 这一点颇具讽刺意味
But for me I think that the core of PR
但是在我看来 公关的核心
is actually the personal relationships,
其实是人际关系
that businesses and brands can have with other people in the world.
即企业和品牌与世界各地的人建立起来的关系
So when looking at this and what the actual science behind relationships is,
所以 对于公关 以及人际关系背后的实际科学
I think there’s a very interesting hypothesis.
我觉得 可以用一个很有趣的假说来阐述
That’s the hypothesis of the social brain.
那就是社会大脑假说
It determines the way that we form groups,
它决定了人类组成团体的方式
all the way from the most close tight-knit group.
从关系最密切的团体
The support clique of about 3 to 5 people
也就是三到五人的支持型小团体
with whom we have the closest bonds,
也就是与我们关系最紧密的一群人
all the way up to the tribe.
一直大到部落
1000 to 2000 people that are sort of in our close proximity.
也就是在我们周围的一两千人
Some of you might also recognize the clan number of 150,
一个宗族有150人 你们可能觉得这个数字似曾相识
which has come to be known as the Dunbar number.
这个数字也就是所谓的邓巴数字
Now, here’s though a problem when working with brands.
但是 我们与品牌合作时会遇到一个问题
Because brands don’t really like this picture.
那就是 品牌并不喜欢这张图片
And that’s because they could easily just post something on Facebook,
因为他们可以直接在脸书上发表内容
throw a couple of hundred dollars on it ,
花上几百美元的广告费
and you would actually surpass this limit of a 1,000 to 2,000 people.
你接触到的人数就会超过一两千人的限制
The numbers are simply too small,
如果你考虑到人类建立关系的方式
if you look at how we like to forge relationships.
这些数字实在太小了
So I think I’ve come up with what the problem is.
我想 我已经找到了根本问题
Because every time a brand gives me a call
因为 每当有品牌打电话给我
and I come over and they need help with something.
我去拜访他们 他们向我求助
This is basically what they need help with.
这基本上就是他们需要的帮助
They want to reach out to to as many people as possible,
他们想接触未与自己建立关系的人
that they don’t yet have a relationship with.
而且人数越多越好
it can be, em, it can be employees, it can be fans,
比如员工 粉丝
followers, recognition, word of mouth.
追随者 知名度 口碑
So this is what they want help with.
这就是他们要的帮助
However, I would then suggest that they should focus on the existing relationships.
但是 我会建议他们应该关注现有的关系
But they seem too often then think, that,
然而很多时候 他们似乎会觉得
well, that’s a problem that we have already solved.
这个问题 我们早就解决了呀
Don’t care about them, Jerry.
杰瑞 你就别管这些了吧
Let’s focus on these magical big numbers on the other side.
我们来关注另一边的大数字吧
However, I would argue that this needs to change,
但是我认为 这种想法必须改变
because it is really the other way around.
因为情况正好相反
If you think think about this in sales terms,
如果从销售的角度思考
One could argue that the one side are cold leads
有人可能会说 其中一边暂无意向
and the other side are hot leads.
另一边则是有意向的
And then you decide which one is more important to go after.
然后你来决定 追求哪一种比较重要
this of course raises the question then, of how to actually do this thing.
这当然就涉及到了如何做的问题
So, we come from an era with mass communication.
我们这一时代拥有大众传播
And this era of mass communication has left us with a thinking that
而大众传播的时代让我们认为
we need to reach editorial space.
我们必须获得版面
Because if we can make ourselves newsworthy enough,
因为 只要能赋予自己足够的新闻价值
we can earn that space,
我们就会获得这个版面
and that will help us reach those big numbers.
从而接触到这么多的人
However, if we look at what has happened today with the social web,
但是 只要看一下今天的社交网络
the interconnectedness, and so forth, and so on.
以及人们相互建立起来的关系 等等
We can instead see that we have not mass communication anymore,
我们反而可以看到 我们有的不再是大众传播
but more of interpersonal relationships.
而是人际关系
And there’s no shortage.
而且我们的人际关系多的是
And I don’t know if you have ever thought about it that way,
不知道你们有没有这样想过
but there’s no shortage of editorial space anymore.
我们现在已经不缺版面了
Anyone can post something on Instagram,
任何人都可以在 Instagram 上发表内容
anyone can start a blog or a website,
任何人都可以建立博客或者网站
there’s simply no shortage of editorial space anymore.
版面早就已经不缺了
But there is a shortage of mental space.
但是稀缺的是精神空间
And you don’t get into that mental space by bombarding people with news.
而向人们进行新闻轰炸 并不是进入精神空间的方法
You get into that mental space by being relevant and trustworthy.
要想进入精神空间 就要与时并进 值得信赖
So, where does this leave us when it comes to those big numbers?
那么 这么大堆数字又有什么意义呢?
Well, I think it’s interesting to pose this question
我要提出一个很有趣的问题
of whether or not relationships can scale.
就是 人际关系可不可以扩展?
Is that a pipe dream? Or, is that something that actually can happen?
这究竟是在做白日梦 还是它真有可能发生?
Well, I like to think about this way.
我喜欢这样考虑问题
Let’s do a little math problem if you will.
我们来做个数学题吧
Imagine earning and winning over the hearts and mind of one true fan.
想象一下 你赢得了一个忠实粉丝的心
And for the sake of argument let’s say that this true fan.
再假设这个忠实粉丝
Each month, this one true fan recruits one other true fan,
每个月都会招募到另一名忠实粉丝
who in turn will recruit yet another true fan.
而这个粉丝另外又招募到一名忠实粉丝
So, if we translate this into grains of rice on a chess board,
如果将他们转化成棋盘上的米粒
it will present us with an interesting math problem, right?
我们就有了一道很有趣的数学题 对吧?
So the first month, there’s one true fan or in this example one grain of rice.
第一个月 我们有一名忠实粉丝 或者说一粒米
The second month, we have two grains of rice.
第二个月 我们有了两粒米
The third month, we have four. And so forth or so on.
第三个月 四粒米 以此类推
Now I can tell you this,
我可以告诉你的是
If you start to look at the actual number here,
只要观察具体的数字
and you start to think about whether or not social relationship can scale or not.
你就会开始思考 社交关系能不能扩展
There is some true magic that really starts to happen,
在这个棋盘的后半部分
on the second half of the chessboard.
奇迹开始出现了
If you calculate actually how much rice this would be,
如果你去算下米粒的数量
it would actually amount to a huge number.
你会得到好大的一个数字
And a way to relate to this number would be,
用另一个方法理解这个数字就是
if you take all these grains of rice and you put them in one big heap,
如果把这么多的米粒堆在一起
that heap would actually be bigger in volume than Mount Everest.
这堆米的容积就会比珠穆朗玛峰还要大
So that’s a lot of true fans
好多的忠实粉丝啊!
scaling by simply recruiting one new fan each and every month.
只要每人每个月招募一个新粉丝 就能进行扩展
Still, I find that most brands and businesses are still not impressed.
但是我发现 大部分品牌和企业还是没被打动
Because what they then want to know is that,
因为他们接下来想知道的是
how do you make it, in a world of infinite choices,
在一个存在无限多选择的世界里
how do you make, how do you create that one true fan?
这样的一个忠实粉丝要怎样培养呢?
How do you make them fall in love with your brand?
你要怎样让他们爱上你的品牌呢?
How do you make them join your mission, your vision?
你要怎样让他们加入你的使命和愿景呢?
And how do you emphasize all of this?
你要怎样强调这一切呢?
I think this is a very relevant question.
我觉得这是一个很重要的问题
And, to answer that question,
为了回答这个问题
what I would like to do is, to share my secret recipe for PR success.
我想分享一下成功公关的秘诀
And this secret recipe has nothing to do with all of those big numbers.
这个秘诀跟那些大数字毫无关系
So the secret recipe only contains of two parts.
这个秘诀只有两个部分
And it’s these two parts.
就是这两个部分
What you need is one stupid majority and one smart minority.
你需要一大群愚蠢的人和一小群聪明的人
That’s all you need to make a huge PR success.
大获成功的公关活动需要的就只有这些
Not only for the short term, but for the long term.
不仅仅是短期的成功 长期的成功也一样
And then you might wonder, you know, what, what is exactly a stupid majority.
你可能会想 愚蠢的大多数究竟是什么呢?
Well, a stupid majority is, when a great big number of people are about to be wrong very soon.
愚蠢的大多数 指的是一大群不久将会犯错的人
And there are a number of brands that have built very loyal fans,
根据我们的观察
loyal followings of fans, that we can recognize.
有几个品牌已经吸引到了一群很忠实的粉丝
I pulled up some example here.
这里有几个例子
where there used to be a time when we thought that
我们曾经以为
riding a skateboard wasn’t really a sport.
乘滑板不算是体育活动
Something that Red Bull was very early to adapt to.
但红牛公司老早就为此作出了应变
We have the example with Apple,
另一个例子就是苹果公司
who did think that it does really matter how technology looks on the outside.
他们认为 技术的外衣真的很重要
We have the example of Netflix,
网飞也是一个例子
and one that is going on right now,
目前正在发生的一件事
is where Elon Musk, the founder of Tesla Motors
就是特斯拉汽车创始人伊隆·马斯克
is proving to the world,
正在向世人证明
that the majority was stupid about electric cars.
多数人对电动车的认知是愚蠢的
And, as it seems, these stupid majorities they tend to be everywhere.
而且 愚蠢的大多数似乎到处都有
And when it comes to being everywhere,
说到“到处都有”
it’s very obvious to a lot of people,
你的业务必须找到这样的人
that you need to find these in your business.
这个道理 很多人再清楚不过了
Speaking of Netflix, I watched a documentary a couple of weeks ago,
说到网飞 我几周前看了一部纪录片
about this guy named Shep Gordon.
它讲述的是一位名叫Shep Gordon的人
Most of you have probably not heard of him,
这个人应该只有少数人听说过
but he is a legendary promoter of rock star arena type artists.
但在摇滚歌手的宣传方面 他是传奇人物
And one of his first clients was Alice Cooper,
Alice Cooper是他最初的客户之一
the horror rock star of his day.
他是代表他那个年代的恐怖摇滚明星
But in the beginning, Alice Cooper wasn’t known at all.
但是最初 Alice Cooper 根本就没名气
So, they went to London, in order to promote Alice Cooper in Great Britain.
于是 为了在大不列颠做宣传 他们去了伦敦
So they arrived in London and they had only ten days
他们抵达伦敦后 只有十天的时间
to fill up us a big, big stadium for his concert.
宣传他的演唱会 让庞大的体育场座无虚席
But here was the problem.
但这儿有个问题
No one in the UK really knew who Alice Cooper was.
在英国 没有人知道 Alice Cooper 是谁
So what Shep Gordon did, was that he plastered a naked picture of Alice Cooper.
于是 Shep Gordon 贴上了一幅 Alice Cooper 的裸照
And he hired a big truck and plastered his naked picture on this big truck.
他租了一辆大型货车 把裸照贴在了货车上
Had a driver go into the morning rush-hour traffic around Piccadilly Circus.
叫驾驶员在早上的交通繁忙时间 把货车开到皮卡迪利圆环
And then had that truck repeatedly break down.
然后让货车反复抛锚
Now this made a lot of people angry of course.
当然 此举激怒了很多人
And it made the news for for several cycles again and again.
而这件事也被新闻报道了一遍又一遍
And ten days later, Alice Cooper sold out the concert.
结果十天后 Alice Cooper 演唱会的门票售罄了
Now, you might think that I’m making the argument,
你可能以为我要说的
for that all publicity is good publicity.
就是所有的宣传都是好的宣传
But that’s not the case.
但情况不是这样的
What Shep Gordon did and he kept doing this throughout his career,
Shep Gordon 做到的一件事 也是他在整个职业生涯中一直在做的事
is that he had found this one stupid majority,
就是他找到了一群愚蠢的大多数
that he could just pound that stupid majority,
这样他就可以攻击这群愚蠢的多数人
and it would work every time.
这招每次都会见效
And that stupid majority was parents.
这群愚蠢的多数人就是父母
So what he did, was that he constantly made parents angry.
他所做的 就是不断激怒家长们
Which attracted the rebellious younger crowd.
从而把叛逆的年轻人吸引过来
And let me tell you the rebellious younger crowd is always going to be right in the end.
我告诉你 叛逆的年轻人最终都是对的
So where does this leave us?
这给我们留下了什么呢?
Well, I think it’s important to, for you to establish and to realize,
我认为 有一点很重要
and to figure out in your business your brands, for your organization.
就是你要为你的企业 品牌或组织思考一下
Figure out where is this stupid majority that is ready to fall.
找出这群会落入圈套的愚蠢的大多数在何处
Because that will make your brand relevant.
因为这样做会让你的品牌与时并进
That will make a smart minority really see
这样做会让聪明的少数人真正了解到
the logic of the fight that you’re about to fight.
你要进行的奋斗逻辑
Now as a final word, I would feel obliged to also add to this, that,
最后 我觉得我有义务补充一下
no, you don’t have to make parents angry.
你并不需要激怒家长
You don’t have to pick those people as your stupid majority.
你不需要把这些人当作你的愚蠢的多数人
You don’t have to make people eat more eggs and bacon.
不需要让人们多吃鸡蛋和培根
And you don’t have to make more people smoke.
也不需要让更多人抽烟
But in the same way, as there are so many stupid majorities
但是 正如市场中有很多愚蠢的多数人
is out there waiting to be taken down.
等待你来征服那样
There’s also so many smart minorities as well,
市场中也有很多聪明的少数人
and they’re eagerly awaiting your help.
他们非常期待你的帮助
So my final words in that case would be, to choose wisely.
这种情况下 我最后也只能说 请作出明智的选择
Thank you.
谢谢大家

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译制信息
视频概述

成功公关的秘诀

听录译者

Zeitgeist

翻译译者

搬那度

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAAALpyg2r4

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