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给予机会比雷霆惩罚更重要 – 译学馆
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给予机会比雷霆惩罚更重要

A prosecutor's vision for a better justice system | Adam Foss

下面我将陈述我的观点
The following are my opinions,
这些都是我的个人看法
and do not reflect the opinions or policies
并不代表任何检察机关
of any particular prosecutor’s office.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我是一名检察官
I am a prosecutor.
我相信法律和秩序
I believe in law and order.
我的养父是警官、海军陆战队员养母是一名美发师
I am the adopted son of a police officer, a Marine and a hairdresser.
我相信责任感
I believe in accountability
也相信我们应该在社区中享有安全
and that we should all be safe in our communities.
我爱我的工作
I love my job
也爱我的同行们
and the people that do it.
我只是觉得我们有责任
I just think that it’s our responsibility
把工作做得更好
to do it better.
你们中间
By a show of hands,
有谁在25岁的时候
how many of you, by the age of 25,
在学校调过皮
had either acted up in school,
干过一些明令禁止的事儿
went somewhere you were specifically told to stay out of,
或者在未成年的时候喝过酒?举一下手
or drank alcohol before your legal age?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
好的
All right.
那么有谁偷过东西
How many of you shoplifted,
试过违禁药品
tried an illegal drug
或者打过架
or got into a physical fight —
对 即使跟兄弟姐妹也算
yes, even with a sibling?
有谁因为刚才说的这些事儿
Now, how many of you ever spent one day in jail
在监狱待过哪怕一天?
for any of those decisions?
那么 刚刚举手的各位
How many of you sitting here today
你们是觉得自己对社会是危险的?
think that you’re a danger to society
还是认为那只是年轻人的少不更事?
or should be defined by those actions of youthful indiscretion?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
好吧 我懂了
Point taken.
当我们谈论刑事司法改革时
When we talk about criminal justice reform,
我们常常关注几件事
we often focus on a few things,
这正是我今天要讲的
and that’s what I want to talk to you about today.
但首先我要说的是—— 既然你们都实话实说了
But first I’m going to — since you shared with me,
我也要对你们坦诚
I’m going to give you a confession on my part.
我读法学院
I went to law school
是为了多挣些钱
to make money.
当时 我对当公务员没兴趣
I had no interest in being a public servant,
也不喜欢刑法
I had no interest in criminal law,
更没想过会成为检察官
and I definitely didn’t think that I would ever be a prosecutor.
在法学院第一年临近结束时我得到了一个实习机会
Near the end of my first year of law school, I got an internship
是在波士顿市法院罗克斯伯里分院
in the Roxbury Division of Boston Municipal Court.
我知道罗克斯伯里 是波士顿的一个贫困社区
I knew of Roxbury as an impoverished neighborhood in Boston,
那里枪支泛滥 毒品成灾
plagued by gun violence and drug crime.
从我实习的第一天起我的人生和法律道路就此改变
My life and my legal career changed the first day of that internship.
我走进法庭 看见满屋子的人
I walked into a courtroom, and I saw an auditorium of people
一个挨一个的 排到法庭前面
who, one by one, would approach the front of that courtroom
都在口中说着几个字:
to say two words and two words only:
“我没罪”
“Not guilty.”
这些人大部分是黑人或者棕色人种
They were predominately black and brown.
之后法官、辩护律师和检察官
And then a judge, a defense attorney and a prosecutor
可能要在并不了解他们的前提下做出改变这些人一生的决定
would make life-altering decisions about that person without their input.
而他们大部分是白人
They were predominately white.
看着这些人一个个走上法庭
As each person, one by one, approached the front of that courtroom,
我禁不住想:
I couldn’t stop but think:
他们怎么会落到这步田地?
How did they get here?
我想了解他们的故事
I wanted to know their stories.
作为检察官 我翻阅了每一个案子的卷宗
And as the prosecutor read the facts of each case,
我对自己说
I was thinking to myself,
我们本可以预见这一切
we could have predicted that.
看上去这些都很容易预防啊
That seems so preventable…
我这么想并不是因为 我是刑法专家
not because I was an expert in criminal law,
而是因为这是常识
but because it was common sense.
通过这次实习
Over the course of the internship,
我开始意识到 法庭上的这些人
I began to recognize people in the auditorium,
来这里不是因为他们犯了罪
not because they were criminal masterminds
而是因为他们需要我们的帮助
but because they were coming to us for help
然而我们无动于衷的将他们打发走
and we were sending them out without any.
我在法学院的第二年给一位辩护律师当助手
My second year of law school I worked as a paralegal for a defense attorney,
这段经历让我遇到过很多被指控谋杀的年轻人
and in that experience I met many young men accused of murder.
即使是这种重犯我觉得他们也是有苦衷的
Even in our “worst,” I saw human stories.
他们的童年都很悲惨
And they all contained childhood trauma,
被虐待 贫困 失去亲人
victimization, poverty, loss,
缺乏教育
disengagement from school,
很早就被警察抓过 进入过司法程序
early interaction with the police and the criminal justice system,
在法庭里坐上了被告席
all leading to a seat in a courtroom.
这些被控谋杀的人最后被判终身监禁
Those convicted of murder were condemned to die in prison,
有一件事情我没有想明白
and it was during those meetings with those men that I couldn’t fathom
为什么我们要花这么多钱
why we would spend so much money
把这个人关在监狱里 长达80年
to keep this one person in jail for the next 80 years
而不是在最开始就善加利用这笔钱
when we could have reinvested it up front,
这样也许能从根本上阻止罪行的发生
and perhaps prevented the whole thing from happening in the first place.
(掌声)
(Applause)
在法学院的第三年
My third year of law school,
我为被指控一些轻度街头犯罪的人做辩护
I defended people accused of small street crimes,
他们大部分都有精神疾病
mostly mentally ill,
大部分无家可归
mostly homeless,
有毒瘾
mostly drug-addicted,
都需要帮助
all in need of help.
他们来寻求帮助
They would come to us,
我们什么也不做 直接打发走
and we would send them away without that help.
他们需要我们的协助
They were in need of our assistance.
而我们并没有提供
But we weren’t giving them any.
检察官 法官 辩护律师
Prosecuted, adjudged and defended
对他们一无所知
by people who knew nothing about them.
刑事审判工作效率低下我想从中改变它
The staggering inefficiency is what drove me to criminal justice work.
而其中的不公正让我想当一名保护者
The unfairness of it all made me want to be a defender.
我看到了检察官强大的力量
The power dynamic that I came to understand
因此我选择成为检察官
made me become a prosecutor.
我不想花太多时间来陈述问题
I don’t want to spend a lot of time talking about the problem.
我们都知道刑事司法系统需要改革
We know the criminal justice system needs reform,
我们还知道全美有两百三十万人被关在监狱中
we know there are 2.3 million people in American jails and prisons,
这让我们成为了全球在押犯人最多的国家
making us the most incarcerated nation on the planet.
我们知道还有700万人在缓刑期或者假释
We know there’s another seven million people on probation or parole,
我们知道刑事司法系统
we know that the criminal justice system
对于有色人种不公平
disproportionately affects people of color,
特别是穷困的有色人种
particularly poor people of color.
我们还知道体系失效无处不在
And we know there are system failures happening everywhere
人们被带上法庭
that bring people to our courtrooms.
但是我们不会去讨论
But what we do not discuss
我们的检察官们对待他们是多么的无能
is how ill-equipped our prosecutors are to receive them.
我们讨论刑事司法改革的时候
When we talk about criminal justice reform,
全社会只关注三件事
we, as a society, focus on three things.
抱怨 发微博和抗议
We complain, we tweet, we protest
矛头对准的是警察、法律
about the police, about sentencing laws
和监狱
and about prison.
我们几乎从来不会找检察官的茬
We rarely, if ever, talk about the prosecutor.
2009年秋天
In the fall of 2009,
一个小伙子被波士顿警察局逮捕
a young man was arrested by the Boston Police Department.
他是一名18岁的非裔美国人
He was 18 years old, he was African American
在当地一所公立学校上高三
and he was a senior at a local public school.
他的目标是考上大学
He had his sights set on college
然而他的低薪兼职工作并不能满足想报考的那所大学的
but his part-time, minimum-wage job wasn’t providing the financial opportunity
经济要求
he needed to enroll in school.
他做出了一系列错误的决定
In a series of bad decisions,
从一家店里偷走了30台笔记本电脑 并在网上出售
he stole 30 laptops from a store and sold them on the Internet.
这导致他被逮捕
This led to his arrest
并被控30项重罪
and a criminal complaint of 30 felony charges.
未来的牢狱之灾让克里斯托弗紧张不已
The potential jail time he faced is what stressed Christopher out the most.
但他并不明白
But what he had little understanding of
这项犯罪记录会对他的未来 造成多大的影响
was the impact a criminal record would have on his future.
是否传讯克里斯托弗
I was standing in arraignments that day
成了我要去面对的首要问题
when Christopher’s case came across my desk.
现在回想 那个时刻让人揪心
And at the risk of sounding dramatic, in that moment,
克里斯托弗的一生就在我的手中
I had Christopher’s life in my hands.
当时我29岁 刚刚当上检察官
I was 29 years old, a brand-new prosecutor,
对于我所做的决定将如何 影响克里斯托弗的人生
and I had little appreciation for how the decisions I would make
还没什么认识
would impact Christopher’s life.
克里斯托弗的案子很重要
Christopher’s case was a serious one
应该要遵照流程来处理
and it needed to be dealt with as such,
但我却不认为给他的人生贴上罪犯的标签
but I didn’t think branding him a felon for the rest of his life
是正确的解决之道
was the right answer.
大部分检察官 在刚入行的时候
For the most part, prosecutors step onto the job
对自己的决定所产生的影响力所知甚少
with little appreciation of the impact of our decisions,
而无论决定的动机是什么
regardless of our intent.
尽管我们有很大的自主权
Despite our broad discretion,
但是我们学的是尽量规避风险
we learn to avoid risk at all cost,
这让我们的自主权
rendering our discretion
形同虚设
basically useless.
我们已经习惯性地去相信
History has conditioned us to believe that somehow,
刑事司法系统会增强(人们的)责任感
the criminal justice system brings about accountability
改善公共安全
and improves public safety,
尽管事实可能正好相反
despite evidence to the contrary.
无论圈内圈外 评价我们 的标准就是是否定罪和胜诉
We’re judged internally and externally by our convictions and our trial wins,
因此检察官并没有动力
so prosecutors aren’t really incentivized to be creative
对不同的案子来具体问题具体分析
at our case dispositions,
或者冒险去相信人们
or to take risks on people we might not otherwise.
我们还抱着过时的方法不放
We stick to an outdated method,
想达成我们的目标让我们的社区更安全
counterproductive to achieving the very goal that we all want,
但往往事与愿违
and that’s safer communities.
我想如果处在我的位置大多数检察官会传讯克里斯托弗
Yet most prosecutors standing in my space would have arraigned Christopher.
他们对自己的能力知之甚少
They have little appreciation for what we can do.
传讯克里斯托弗会让他背上犯罪记录
Arraigning Christopher would give him a criminal record,
他会很难找到工作
making it harder for him to get a job,
这样就形成了一个恶性循环
setting in motion a cycle
正好证明如今的 刑事司法系统有多失败
that defines the failing criminal justice system today.
有犯罪记录 没有工作
With a criminal record and without a job,
克里斯托弗不可能养活自己更别说上学和买房子
Christopher would be unable to find employment, education or stable housing.
没有这些生活保障
Without those protective factors in his life,
克里斯托弗很可能会 在犯罪的道路上越走越远
Christopher would be more likely to commit further, more serious crime.
克里斯托弗接触刑事司法系统越多
The more contact Christopher had with the criminal justice system,
他就越可能一次又一次的
the more likely it would be that he would return again
回到这里…
and again and again —
他的孩子 家庭 同事
all at tremendous social cost to his children, to his family
会给社会带来沉重的经济负担
and to his peers.
而且 女士们先生们
And, ladies and gentlemen,
这对我们而言是一个 严重的公共安全问题
it is a terrible public safety outcome for the rest of us.
当我从法学院毕业后
When I came out of law school,
与所有人的做法一样
I did the same thing as everybody else.
我成为了一名检察官希望能主持公正
I came out as a prosecutor expected to do justice,
但什么是公正在课堂上是学不到的
but I never learned what justice was in my classes —
我们都没学到
none of us do.
我们都没学到
None of us do.
然而 检察官是刑事司法系统中
And yet, prosecutors are the most powerful actors
最重要的角色
in the criminal justice system.
我们的力量几乎是无限的
Our power is virtually boundless.
在大多数案件中 法官
In most cases, not the judge,
警察、立法机构
not the police, not the legislature,
市长、州长、总统
not the mayor, not the governor, not the President
都不能干涉检察官的判断
can tell us how to prosecute our cases.
是否传讯克里斯托弗是否给他留下犯罪记录
The decision to arraign Christopher and give him a criminal record
将是我一个人的决定
was exclusively mine.
我可以选择起诉他犯了30条重罪或者1条
I would choose whether to prosecute him for 30 felonies, for one felony,
或者轻罪
for a misdemeanor,
或者根本不起诉
or at all.
我将选择是让克里斯托弗采用认罪协议
I would choose whether to leverage Christopher into a plea deal
还是将案件诉诸公堂
or take the case to trial, and ultimately,
但最终 我将会决定是否让克里斯托弗进监狱
I would be in a position to ask for Christopher to go to jail.
检察官每天都能 自由地做出很多决定
These are decisions that prosecutors make every day unfettered,
但这些决定可能产生的严重后果
and we are unaware and untrained
我们是难以觉察到 或没被告知过的
of the grave consequences of those decisions.
去年夏天的一个晚上
One night this past summer,
我参加了一个小型聚会参加者是我们市里
I was at a small gathering of professional men of color
各行各业的非白人
from around the city.
我站在那儿 不停往嘴里塞 免费的三明治条
As I stood there stuffing free finger sandwiches into my mouth,
你们都明白这项公共服务–
as you do as public servant —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我注意到房间另一边
I noticed across the room,
一个年轻人微笑着向我挥手并向我走近
a young man waving and smiling at me and approaching me.
我觉得他很眼熟但想不起来在哪里见过
And I recognized him, but I couldn’t place from where,
我还在使劲回忆他已经一把抱住我
and before I knew it, this young man was hugging me.
对我说谢谢
And thanking me.
“你关心过我 改变了我的人生”
“You cared about me, and you changed my life.”
是克里斯托弗
It was Christopher.
我最终没有传讯他
See, I never arraigned Christopher.
他没有上法庭 也没有进监狱
He never faced a judge or a jail,
没有留下犯罪记录
he never had a criminal record.
我帮助克里斯托弗
Instead, I worked with Christopher;
首先认清了自己在这件事上的责任
first on being accountable for his actions,
然后确保他不会再犯
and then, putting him in a position where he wouldn’t re-offend.
我们追回了他卖掉电脑的四分之三
We recovered 75 percent of the computers that he sold
还给了百思买
and gave them back to Best Buy,
然后做了一个财务计划
and came up with a financial plan
来补偿没有覆盖到的电脑费用
to repay for the computers we couldn’t recover.
克里斯托弗参加了社区服务
Christopher did community service.
他还写了一篇文章关于这件案子如何改变了他的未来
He wrote an essay reflecting on how this case could impact his future
以及社区的未来
and that of the community.
他申请了大学
He applied to college,
得到了助学金
he obtained financial aid,
顺利完成了四年的大学课程
and he went on to graduate from a four-year school.
(掌声)
(Applause)
拥抱完之后 我看了看他的名牌
After we finished hugging, I looked at his name tag,
发现克里斯托弗已经是 波士顿一家大银行的经理
to learn that Christopher was the manager of a large bank in Boston.
他成功了——而且挣得比我多多了——
Christopher had accomplished — and making a lot more money than me —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
从我第一次在罗克斯伯里法庭遇到他
He had accomplished all of this
用了六年时间 他达成了所有的成就
in the six years since I had first seen him in Roxbury Court.
我不能说克里斯托弗的成功完全是因为我
I can’t take credit for Christopher’s journey to success,
但我的确将他带到了正确的道路上
but I certainly did my part to keep him on the path.
还有千万个克里斯托弗
There are thousands of Christophers out there,
其中一些被关在监狱里
some locked in our jails and prisons.
我们需要更多能
We need thousands of prosecutors
看清他们 保护他们的检察官
to recognize that and to protect them.
一个有工作的克里斯托弗 比一个被判刑的 对公众而言更安全
An employed Christopher is better for public safety than a condemned one.
对所有人都更有利
It’s a bigger win for all of us.
事后来看 没有传讯克里斯托弗
In retrospect, the decision not to throw the book at Christopher
做得很对
makes perfect sense.
当我第一次在罗克斯伯里见到他时
When I saw him that first day in Roxbury Court,
我看到站在那儿的不是一名罪犯
I didn’t see a criminal standing there.
我看见的是我自己 – 一位需要帮助的年轻人
I saw myself — a young person in need of intervention.
作为一个曾经因为出售毒品被抓的年轻人
As an individual caught selling a large quantity of drugs in my late teens,
我深深懂得给予机会
I knew firsthand the power of opportunity
比起刑事审判系统的雷霆惩罚更有力量
as opposed to the wrath of the criminal justice system.
一路走来 我得到了地区检察官、
Along the way, with the help and guidance of my district attorney,
监督人和法官的帮助和指导
my supervisor and judges,
我看到了检察官的力量
I learned the power of the prosecutor
能改变人的命运而不是毁掉一个人
to change lives instead of ruining them.
我们在波士顿也是这么做的
And that’s how we do it in Boston.
我们帮助过一名因偷食物喂孩子而被捕的妇女
We helped a woman who was arrested for stealing groceries to feed her kids
让她找到了一份工作
get a job.
一个遭虐待的年轻人打了另一个
Instead of putting an abused teenager in adult jail
我们没把他投进监狱
for punching another teenager,
而是让他接受心理治疗给他安排社区监护人
we secured mental health treatment and community supervision.
一个离家出走的女孩
A runaway girl who was arrested
因在街头卖淫被捕
for prostituting, to survive on the streets,
她需要的是一个安全的成长环境
needed a safe place to live and grow —
而这些是我们可以帮到她的
something we could help her with.
我们还帮过一个小伙子
I even helped a young man
他因为害怕放学后 被那些混帮派的大孩子欺负
who was so afraid of the older gang kids showing up after school,
某天早晨他往背包里装进的不是午餐盒
that one morning instead of a lunchbox into his backpack,
而是一把填满子弹的9毫米口径手枪
he put a loaded 9-millimeter.
我们将搜集材料、准备起诉的时间
We would spend our time that we’d normally take prepping our cases
——通常长达数月之久——
for months and months for trial down the road
用来寻找这些问题的真正解决之道
by coming up with real solutions to the problems as they presented.
我们的时间应该花在哪里比较好?
Which is the better way to spend our time?
你希望你的检察官如何使用他们的时间?
How would you prefer your prosecutors to spend theirs?
为什么我要把800亿美元
Why are we spending 80 billion dollars
投在一个失败的监狱系统上
on a prison industry that we know is failing,
而不是投到教育上
when we could take that money and reallocate it into education,
投到心理治疗上
into mental health treatment,
投到防止虐待上
into substance abuse treatment
投到社区中 使社区得到更好发展?
and to community investment so we can develop our neighborhoods?
(掌声)
(Applause)
这些跟在座各位有什么关系?
So why should this matter to you?
首先 我们花了许多钱
Well, one, we’re spending a lot of money.
我们的钱
Our money.
在某些州 把一个青少年关一年
It costs 109,000 dollars in some states
需要花费10万9千美元
to lock up a teenager for a year,
而这个人有60%的机率 再次被捕 继续蹲监狱
with a 60 percent chance that that person will return to the very same system.
这种投资回报实在糟糕
That is a terrible return on investment.
其次 这件事是对的 我们必须做
Number two: it’s the right thing to do.
如果检察官是导致问题的因素之一
If prosecutors were a part of creating the problem,
那要解决问题 我们责无旁贷
it’s incumbent on us to create a solution
我们可以采取其它的惩罚措施
and we can do that using other disciplines
有现成的数据和研究可以借鉴
that have already done the data and research for us.
第三
And number three:
你们的意见 你们的选择至关重要
your voice and your vote can make that happen.
下一次 如果在你们的辖区
The next time there’s a local district attorney’s election
有地方检察官选举
in your jurisdiction,
你可以问候选人几个问题
ask candidates these questions.
第一 你打算怎么做能让我和邻居们更安全?
One: What are you doing to make me and my neighbors safer?
第二 你会收集哪些数据?
Two: What data are you collecting,
你会如何训练你的检察官
and how are you training your prosecutors
来善用这些数据?
to make sure that it’s working?
第三
And number three:
如果你的措施并不是对每个人都有效
If it’s not working for everybody,
那你会怎么补救?
what are you doing to fix it?
如果他们无法回答这些问题
If they can’t answer the questions,
他们就不配做这项工作
they shouldn’t be doing the job.
在演讲最开始举手的每一个人
Each one of you that raised your hand at the beginning of this talk
你们就是最鲜活的例子你们阐明了机会的力量
is a living, breathing example of the power of opportunity,
引导的力量
of intervention,
支持的力量
of support
爱的力量
and of love.
也许对于自己当年的不当行为你们大家都得到了
While each of you may have faced your own brand of discipline
各自不同的惩罚
for whatever malfeasances you committed,
你们中没有任何人需要通过坐牢
barely any of you needed a day in jail
来成为今天的你们——
to make you the people that you are today —
世界上最精英的人群
some of the greatest minds on the planet.
每一天 成千上万次
Every day, thousands of times a day,
美国的检察官们都在行使自己的权力
prosecutors around the United States wield power so great
这权力有可能带来灾难
that it can bring about catastrophe
也可能带来机会
as quickly as it can bring about opportunity,
带来引导
intervention,
带来支持
support
甚至带来爱
and yes, even love.
这些都是一个强大社区的特质
Those qualities are the hallmarks of a strong community,
强大的社区就是安全的社区
and a strong community is a safe one.
如果我们的社区出现了问题
If our communities are broken,
不要让你选出来的律师们
don’t let the lawyers that you elect fix them
用那些过时的 低效的 昂贵的方法来修缮
with outdated, inefficient, expensive methods.
勇敢呼吁 不要选举那些 光想着让人坐牢的检察官
Demand more; vote for the prosecutor who’s helping people stay out of jail,
选那些愿意帮助人的
not putting them in.
选择更好的
Demand better.
你值得这一切 你的孩子值得这一切
You deserve it, your children deserve it,
捆绑在体系中的人们值得这一切
the people who are tied up in the system deserve it,
但是最重要的
but most of all,
我们宣誓要去保护和维护公正的人们需要这一切
the people that we are sworn to protect and do justice for demand it.
我们必须能
We must,
必须能做得更好
we must do better.
谢谢大家
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)
非常感谢
Thank you very much.

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视频概述

检察官用亲身经历来告诉你刑事司法系统出现了什么样的问题,为什么检察官们需要谨慎使用手中的权力,因为这可能会影响某个人的一生。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

知易行难

审核员

地火

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H1fvr9rGgSg

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