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第4周:老将军们的新战争-西线大屠杀 – 译学馆
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第4周:老将军们的新战争-西线大屠杀

A New War With Old Generals – Carnage on the Western Front I THE GREAT WAR - Week 4

在第一次世界大战中 许多将军几乎完全与20世纪的致命技术脱轨
Many of the generals of World War I were almost completely out of touch with the lethal technology of the twentieth century.
尤其在1914年8月 显而易见 它依然是一个问题
In August 1914 this became very apparent. It remained a problem
这个在战争中一直存在的问题 还引发了一场让数百万人口失去生命的大灾难
It remained a problem throughout the war though and led to the catastrophic loss of millions of young men’s lives.
我是Indy Neidell 欢迎来到第一次世界大战
My name is Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
本周初 奥地利人入侵塞尔维亚的进程十分缓慢
At the beginning of the week, the Austrians were slowly invading Serbia, the Germans were
德国人逼近华沙 并包围了比利时的要塞
the Germans were nearing Warsaw and besieging the fortresses of Belgium, the French had mounted their first
而法国在撤退之前开始了他们的第一次进攻 同时英国人向欧洲大陆派遣了军队 超过100000人
the French had mounted their first offensive before retreating, and the English were transporting over 100,000 troops to mainland Europe
我们现在看到的现代大炮 机枪 还有可以快速
What we’ll see is that when modern artillery, machine guns, and trains that could quickly
调动周围大陆军队的火车 而火车在一个世纪以前已经出现在战争中了
move millions of troops around the continent met field tactics from a century earlier,
本周 我们将来看看那些在战争过程中最血腥的屠杀
this week would spiral into some of the bloodiest carnage of the entire war.
当时法国已经有了作战计划 17号计划 基本包括了对德国边境的集中防御军力
The French had a battle plan, Plan XVII, which very basically involved a defensive concentration
从而反攻进入德国
of forces along the border with Germany with counterstrikes into
甚至是比利时
Germany or possibly Belgium.
法国军队的思想仍停留在19世纪 他们
The French army still thought it was the 1800s, and they went to
穿着色彩明艳的制服参战 军官们在阵前挥舞着军刀
war in brightly colored uniforms with officers waving sabres in the front mounted on chargers,
仪仗队演奏着音乐 保持着几个世纪以来
and marching bands playing music and the standard form of attack was masses
大部队向开阔地区进军的传统
of men advancing the way they had for centuries-in the open.
陆军上校塞里特 法国战前对抗柏林的军事专员 曾数次告知法国
Colonel Serret, the French pre-war military attaché to Berlin, had repeatedly told France
由于可在一定范围内进行战斗 穿褐色制服对防御现代大炮攻击的种种好处
of the benefits of drab uniforms to help defend against modern artillery now that war could
但均未被采纳 在8月20号 他的话得到了证实
be conducted at a distance, but he was ignored. His words proved prophetic on August 20th
当法国军队穿着他们明亮的军服在莫郎日作战时被屠杀了
though, as the French army, in their bright colors, were slaughtered at Morhange, where
这是德国军队占据的一个山顶基地 对周围数英里土地一览无遗
the German army had a hilltop base, which had an unobstructed view for miles and miles.
超过40000位穿着鲜艳的红蓝制服的法国青壮年 向一片开阔地区进军
The French, over 40,000 strong in their beautiful blue and red uniforms, marched straight across
德国人扫杀了法国军队 杀死了成千上万的士兵
open fields towards it. The Germans mowed down the French army columns, killing thousands
并带走了20000名俘虏
upon thousands and taking 20,000 prisoners. The French were forced to retreat all the
法军被迫撤到法国境内25公里处
way back into France, 25 kilometers within its own borders.
第二天 法国军队从树林茂密的阿登高地发起了另一次进攻
The next day, the French Army mounted another offensive in the forest of the Ardennes. French
法国总司令约瑟夫·雅克·塞泽尔·霞飞 这位似乎是
Commander in Chief Joseph Joffre, who during these early days of the war often seemed like
战争初期的法国独裁者 解决了所有的问题 在法国受到广泛欢迎的霞飞
dictator of France, he had it all figured out. Joffre, wildly popular in France and later
随后被称为爸爸霞飞 此时此刻他从未指挥过一支军队
known as Papa Joffre, had at this point never commanded an army before nor worked with a
也未和军队人员一起工作过
general army staff.
现在 他看到了之前的德国是多么强大 他也知道
Now, he had seen how strong the German left was the day before, and he knew how strong
位于右边的比利时是多么强大 所以他找出了弱点和错误之处
the right was in Belgium, so he figured the center was weak. He figured wrong.
在22号的一个浓雾下 法国袭击了比利时境内的维尔通
On the 22nd, the French attacked at Virton, just inside Belgium, in a heavy fog. When
当雾逐渐消散 法军意识到他们完全暴露在山顶上德国枪手的眼下
the fog suddenly cleared, the French found themselves completely exposed to German hilltop
在你试图猜想接下来发生了什么之前 先说一下 法军当时明文规定
gunners, and before you even try to guess what happened next, here’s a little piece
在队伍有足够的时间重装弹药时 袭击会在20秒内完成
of information French field regulations stated at the time that an assault could move 50 meters
袭击范围是50米 这些规则完全忽略了机枪的存在
in 20 seconds before an enemy would have time to reload. Those regulations totally omitted
维尔通就是一场灾难 法军恐慌了
the existence of machine guns. Virton was a catastrophe and the French panicked and
最终溃不成军
broke.
法国在贝尔方舟失去了他们的第三支武装力量 在罗西尼奥尔时也很糟糕
At Bellefontaine the French lost a third of their forces. At Rossignol, it was worse as
德军早已在狭窄路旁的树丛中部署好
the French forces were trapped on a narrow road by German troops already well-deployed
并扫杀了法军 甚至在西边的法国主力军
among the trees and the French were mowed down, and even the main French army further
都被迫从沙勒罗伊中撤退出来 避免被德军围攻
west was forced to retreat from Charleroi to avoid being surrounded.
在1914年8月22号这一天之内 法国损失了27 000名士兵
On one single day, August 22, 1914, the French lost 27,000 killed, as well as those wounded,
包括受伤人员 丢失人员和被捕人员
missing, and captured. This was the single greatest loss one nation would have in one
这是一战内一个国家在一天内所面临的最惨重的损失
single day during World War One. In fact, by the end of August, France had lost 75,000
法国在这场战争中失去了75000名士兵 另外200000人受伤了或被俘虏了
soldiers killed in the war, and another 200,000 wounded or prisoners. France never fully recovered
法国从来没有完全从这场战争中恢复过来 但她在逐渐恢复
from this, but it’s remarkable that she even recovered at all and was able to continue
并还能够去战斗 这已经很了不起了
to fight.
现在 德军的问题并不像之前的那么多了
Now, the German army’s problem wasn’t so much one of being out of time as it was
他们认为如果军官得到良好的训练
being out of touch. It was a belief that if an officer had been properly trained then
他会知道在战场上该做些什么 并且有独立行动的能力
he would know what to do in battle and could act independently of his orders. This independence
这份独立相反会困扰德国人 当德国在东线进行了他们的第一次主要进攻时
would come back to haunt the Germans and we saw it in play big style this week, as the
我们会在这周中看到它所发挥的作用
Germans launched their first major offensive on the Eastern Front.
德国最高统帅 陆军参谋长冯•毛奇曾给东边的军队下令
The German High Command, mainly army Chief of Staff von Moltke, had given orders to the
除非击败了法军 否则军队不许对俄国进行任何攻击
army in the east that they were not to make any attacks at all on the Russians until France
但是在战场上的德国将军弗朗索瓦看到了机会
had been defeated in the west, but the German General Francois in the field, seeing an opportunity,
于是无视这些命令 并在8月17号攻击俄国 造成了成千上万的伤亡
had disregarded these orders and attacked on August 17th, inflicting thousands of casualties
并带走了3000个俄军俘虏 取名极具讽刺意味的弗朗索瓦出生在卢森堡
and taking 3,000 Russian prisoners. The ironically named Francois was actually born in Luxembourg,
但他的父亲是普鲁士将军 弗朗索瓦是不愿放弃任何普鲁士领土的
but his father had been a Prussian general and Francois was loath to give up any Prussian
有句名言是 当他打败了俄国
territory, being famous quoted as saying “General Francois will withdraw when he has defeated
将军弗朗索瓦就退出战争
the Russians.”
弗朗索瓦认为尽管俄军有数量优势 但德军有武器优势
Francois believed that even though the Russians had the numbers, the German advantage in weapons
他们现在应该攻打俄国 他说服了他的长官凡•普里特维茨
and equipment meant that they should attack the Russians now, and he convinced his superior,
让长官也违反了命令 并在8月20号德军攻击了海因里希将军的领地
von Prittwitz, to also go against orders and on August 20th the Germans attacked at the
德军再次攻打俄国失败了
battle of Gumbinnen. The German attack against the Russians proved to be a failure, and Francois
弗朗索瓦和德军被迫撤退 然而数千名将士被俄军机枪扫杀
and the Germans were forced to retreat, thousands of them killed by the Russian guns, leaving
并有6000名俘虏在俄国手中
some 6,000 German prisoners in Russian hands.
这次失败后 小毛奇和普里特维茨十分恐慌
Moltke and Prittwitz panicked a bit after this defeat and worried that Berlin might
担心俄军甚至会威胁到柏林的安全 于是普里特维茨至少撤退了150公里
even be threatened by the Russian army. Prittwitz retreated more than 150 kilometers, leaving
把东普鲁士留给俄国 小毛奇把部分军队从法国前线转移到
East Prussia to the Russians, and Moltke transferred several divisions from the French front to
俄国前线
the Russian front.
然而 我们回顾下法国前线就知道 德国军队就在这里
However, if we look back over at the French front, the German army there was, as we’ve
准备实施我们之前提到过的施利芬计划 横扫比利时和法国北部
talked about before, implementing the Schlieffen Plan, by which they would sweep down through
绕过防守严密的德法边境
Belgium and northern France, bypassing the heavily defended Franco-German border, and
乐观的想在六周内拿下法国 所以之后德国的注意力可以全部转移到俄国
ideally defeat the French within six weeks so the whole German army could then turn its
因此小毛奇从法国撤军转而攻向俄国的
attention toward Russia. So Moltke taking troops away from France to use against Russia
这一主意不是最好的
might not have been his best idea.
但是施里芬计划似乎进行的很顺利 在8月20号 德国军队进入了布鲁塞尔
But the Schlieffen Plan seemed to be going well. On August 20th, German troops entered
从1870年被占的巴黎后 这是第一个被占领的欧洲国家首都
Brussels, the first European capital occupied by a foreign army since Paris in 1870.
想要看到过去被围困的将军及他们对命令的独立行动力
But to really see generals being both stuck in the past and acting independently of orders,
那么就得把眼光转向巴尔干半岛了
we have to turn our attention to the Balkans.
直到八月中旬 奥地利终于在德里纳河建军成功
By the middle of August, the Austrian army was finally established on the eastern shore
并开始向塞尔维亚进攻 但塞尔维亚知道他们的套路
of the Drina River and began advancing into Serbia. The Austrians soon learned the hard
奥地利人很快感到进攻的艰难 而且奥地利军队落后的无可救药
way that the Serbian army knew its business, and the Austrian army was hopelessly out-of-date.
塞尔维亚人用手榴弹一类的武器去恐吓奥地利人撤退
The Serbs used things like hand grenades, which scared the crap out of the Austrians,
这些奥地利人之前从未见过这些武器 奥地利将军奥斯卡•波蒂奥雷克对这些炮弹和现代山炮
who had never seen them before and Austrian General Oskar Potiorek had no interest in
不感兴趣 对他来说步兵与炮的协作没有存在的意义
things such as artillery ballistics and modern mountain guns, and to him infantry-artillery
实际上皇太子被被暗杀的那天 波蒂奥雷克与弗朗茨•斐迪南是在一辆车上的
coordination didn’t exist. Potiorek had actually been in the car with Franz Ferdinand
这就反映出了当天他对安全安排的不恰当
the day the Archduke was assassinated, and it was he who had botched security that day.
像许多其他在一战中的军事领导人
And like many of the other military leaders at this point in the war, he was a career
他从未亲眼见到战斗
officer who had never seen a day of battle.
8月15号 奥地利军队侵占了Mount Cer 这是德里纳河东边的一个30千米的高原
On August 15th, the Austrian army assaulted Mount Cer, a defended plateau about 30 kilometers
对奥地利人来说爬上去比较艰难 同时他们必须丢掉他们的大炮
east of the Drina. It was tough climbing for the Austrians and they had to leave their
这天晚上 大雨滂沱 他们到达了山顶
artillery behind. In the evening, in heavy rain, they reached the plateau. At one AM,
凌晨1点时 塞尔维亚军队包围了奥地利人 对正在熟睡且无组织的奥地利人开火
the Serbian troops closed in, opening fire on the sleeping and disorganized Austrians.
那时 塞尔维亚人将奥地利军士集合起来 杀了很多军官
In just the time it took for the Austrian army to rally, most of its officers were killed,
这场肉搏战持续到黎明
and hand-to-hand combat lasted until the dawn.
随着日出 塞尔维亚的救兵及炮队赶到了
With the dawn came Serbian reinforcements and artillery, and they forced the Austrian
他们逼迫着奥地利军队撤退 在8月20号 在Mount Cer战役中的幸存者全部撤退到了波斯尼亚
army to withdraw. On the 20th of August, the survivors of Mount Cer retreated all the way
这场战争中将近28000名人员伤亡
back to Bosnia, having suffered nearly 28,000 casualties in the battle and its aftermath.
直到8月24号的晚上 除了4500名战争的俘虏
By the evening of August 24th, no Austrians remained in Serbia except for 4,500 prisoners
没有奥地利人待在塞尔维亚
of war.
这周快结束时 德国人从东边撤退并向西进一步进攻
So at the end of this week, Germany was advancing in the west and retreating in the east, but
但是我们看到的更多的是一代被杀害或者残废的法国人
what we see most of all is a generation of Frenchman being killed and maimed because
因为高层还在拿破仑统治时期的幻想中
their high command was in a Napoleonic fantasy, and the great Austro-Hungarian Empire,
奥匈帝国中充满了不称职的官员 落后的设备 不与时俱进的观念
with its incompetent officers, outdated equipment, and outdated ideas had been humiliated by
被阿尔干半岛的一个小国家嘲笑
a tiny Balkan nation.
接下来的四年里 战争从1870年持续到1940年
Over the next four years, warfare would basically move from 1870 to 1940. Death would come to
从未想到士兵是以这样的方式结束生命的:空中 海上 海下
soldiers in never before imagined ways; from the skies, on the seas, under the
地面以上 地上 甚至是地下
seas, above the ground, on the ground, and even below the ground. The mindsets
虽然这些将领对死亡方式的改变速度缓慢
of the men leading these soldiers to their deaths changed only slowly though, and before
但在他们用现代的策略和技术之前 千百万的年轻人会死在战争中
they caught up with modern tactics and technology, ten million young men would die.
下个礼拜再见!点击得到每一集订阅
We’ll see you next week. Click subscribe to get each and every episode.
如果你想知道这是怎么发生的和发生的原因
And if you want to know how this all could have happend and why. You can watch our three
你可以看这三集:战争的前奏 点击这里
episodes of the Prelude to War Specials. Right here!
如果你有任何意见或问题 请写在下面的评论区中
And if you have any comment or questions put them right in the comment section below. We
我们乐意接受你们的建议
are happy to have them.

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