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一个新的男性节育方法? – 译学馆
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一个新的男性节育方法?

A New Male Birth Control?

如果我让你画一个避孕的东西 你先想到的会是啥?
If I asked you to picture birth control, what pops into your brain?
口服避孕药 避孕贴 宫内避孕器 或者是避孕线?
The pill, the patch, IUDs, or maybe hormonal implants?
然鹅 以上这些东西都是给女人用的 摊手
But the thing is, all these options are for biosex females.
而对于男性 你就只能用杜蕾斯这类套套啦啦 要么就进行输精管切除手术
For biosex males, there’s really only condoms and vasectomies, where a surgeon shuts the
它会把你的输精管切掉然后让精液游离出蛋蛋
vas deferens tubes that let sperm travel up and out from the testicles.
虽然已经安全的进行过几次实验研究 希望能够达到可逆男性避孕 然鹅
Even though there’s been a bit of research on safe, reversible male birth control, no
卵用都没有
product has ever made it out of the lab.
这周的基础临床男性疾病研究期刊报道 一组研究员声称
And this week in the journal Basic and Clinical Andrology, a group of scientists announced
他们在男性避孕药上有一定进展 这个新药叫做《输精管胶》
some progress on a relatively new male contraceptive called Vasalgel.
这个输精管胶是一种粘性聚合凝胶 能够进入输精管与精液混合
Vasalgel is a sticky polymer gel that’s injected into the vas deferens tubes, physically
从而物理阻塞精液的射出
blocking sperm so it can’t swim up and mix with the semen.
因为精子依然能够产生 所以仍然能够有性的感觉
Since semen is still being made, all the sex and fluid stuff works the same.
但是 不射精也就不会受精 当然你也不会有意外之宝
But no sperm means no fertilization, and no pregnancy.
这也是一种可逆避孕药
It’s also designed to be a reversible contraceptive, so scientists can theoretically break down
注射碳酸钠溶液后 这个输精管胶就能够溶解
the gel and flush it out with a second injection of a sodium bicarbonate solution.
就是普通小苏打!
Plain old baking soda!
在将该新型避孕药适用于人体之前 研究者在动物体上
Before trying this contraceptive on humans, scientists have been testing its safety and
对其安全性及有效性进行实验(比如交配比较频繁的小白鼠小白兔)
effectiveness in animals, like rats and rabbits, who are known for having lots of sex.
该项研究还包括在加利福尼亚的国家灵长类动物研究中心的
And this new study involved injecting Vasalgel into 16 adult male rhesus monkeys at the California
雄性恒河猴身上注射输精管胶
National Primate Research Center.
这些猴子在注射后都具有良好的身体状况 并返回到它们的猴群继续生活
They were generally healthy after the treatment and went back to their monkey lives, interacting
并与住在一起的有良好生育能力的雌性猴进行交配
and mating with fertile females when they were housed together.
结果显示 即使有的雄猴与雌猴同居长达两年之久 都没有一只猴子
And even though some were continuously living with females for 2 entire years, not one fathered
孕育出后代!
a baby!
虽然看起来输精管胶的避孕成功率高大100% 但距离将其安全稳定的用于人体还有很长一段路
Even with that 100% success rate, Vasalgel is a long way from being safe and ready to
要走
go in humans.
在该项大研究里 十六只猴子的研究并不算大型研究 并且它们显示出一定副作用
Sixteen monkeys isn’t that big of a big study, and there were still some side-effects.
在一只猴子的手术中 在其中一边 凝胶没有正确注射
During one monkey’s surgery, the gel wasn’t injected properly on one side, so the researchers
所以最后研究者对其进行了输精管的部分切除手术
ended up giving him a partial vasectomy.
还有一只猴子是有了一个精子肿瘤 并且会疼痛 该肿瘤主要是由于
Another developed a sperm granuloma, which is basically a lump of sperm outside the vas
精子在输精管外聚集而形成
deferens that could become painful.
但是在记录在案的其他健康的恒河猴研究中
But the researchers looked at other rhesus monkey health data they had collected, too,
发现在进行过输精管切除术的猴子中 精子肿瘤是一个较普遍现象
and found that sperm granulomas seemed to be more common in monkeys with vasectomies
而输精管胶组的猴子相对较少
than in the group with Vasalgel.
不过最后研究并没有进行输精管胶溶解这一步的实验
Finally, this particular study didn’t try flushing out the Vasalgel, so we still don’t
所以我们依然不知道该类药物如何在灵长类动物中进行可逆
know how reversible it is in primates.
所以在该凝胶能够作为一种避孕药而广泛适用于人类之前 仍有许多工作要做
So there’s still a ton more work to do before Vasalgel becomes a widespread birth control
但现在至少能够看到曙光
option, but it’s off to a promising start.
虽然动物交配是一种研究方向 但还有一种或其他的方式所有种类繁殖都会用到
Even though animal sex is interesting, all species reproduce in one way or another.
你知道它有多神奇么?
You know what’s really weird?
再生
Regeneration.
水螅——一种黏糊糊的管状淡水动物 不是传说中的九头蛇或是Marvel villain
And hydra – the squishy tube-shaped freshwater animal, not the mythological sea serpent or
是一种编辑能够再生的动物
Marvel villain – are really, really good at it.
即使你把它们剁成几段组织块 它们依然在两天内就能长回来
Even if you chop them into tiny, shapeless chunks of tissue, they can regrow in just
——就是再长出触须 嘴 和黏糊糊的脚
two days – complete with tentacles, a mouth, and a sticky little foot.
这个能力引发了一系列问题 比如:这些组织块是怎么知道
This superpower raises a bunch of questions, though, like: how can a tissue chunk know
该在哪里长 长多少 而不会长成一种有好多触须或是三颗头的
how much to regrow and where, without becoming a weird frankenblob with extra tentacles and
奇怪生物?
triple-heads?
以色列科技大学的研究者这周在细胞出版社发表了一篇论文
Well, researchers from the Israel Institute of Technology published a study in Cell Press
主要介绍了组织的物理结构在再生中的重要性
this week, which looked at how important the tissue’s physical structure is for regeneration.
水螅的全身都有薄的平行肌动球蛋白纤维 与我们的肌肉组织类似
Hydra have thin, parallel actomyosin fibers running throughout their body, like our muscle tissue.
它们可以通过控制这些纤维来蠕动 不过这些纤维还能够
They can contract these fibers to wiggle around, but it turns out that the alignment of these
让断节的肢体很好的再生
fibers is really important to help chopped-up tissue reform the right way.
而且你瞧 水螅的身体构造特别简单:只在身体的一边有一个头和一只脚
See, hydra bodies are really simple: one head and one foot lined up along a single body axis.
并且再生条件也很低——当组织块扭成一个中空的球
And regeneration starts pretty simply too — when a tissue chunk twists and folds into
一个叫球状体的球
a hollow ball called a spheroid.
在这个球状体中的肌动球蛋白纤维的队列展示了它继承的结构
The alignment of actomyosin fibers in the spheroid lays out a structure that gets inherited
并遍布它整个新身体
throughout the new hydra’s body.
所以研究者打算研究这些不同的组织块是如何形成球状体的
So the researchers wanted to test how different tissue chunk shapes formed spheroids, and
并且如何影响再生
how that affects regeneration.
因为它可能会很畸形 很快
Because it can get real bad, real quickly.
因为肌动球蛋白纤维的稳定性与整齐性 方形组织块能够很好的交叠
Square tissue chunks folded really well, because the actomyosin fibers were stable and aligned,
并且其它边很灵活 能够接触纤维头
and the outer edges were flexible and could follow those fibers’ lead.
另一方面 会形成闭合环的水螅组织块不会良好交叠
On the other hand, slices of hydra shaped like closed rings didn’t fold so well, and
并且会通过不同的对齐方式在肌动球蛋白的不同区域形成球状体
formed spheroids with different regions of actomyosin aligned in different ways.
所以这些再生水螅都很畸形 并且一般会有很多条身体轴心——
So these regenerated hydra were more deformed, and usually had multiple body axes – like
比如有两张嘴和两只脚
two mouths and two feet.
开环状的更惨——多出的部分让肌动球蛋白对齐变得更困难
Open rings did even worse – that extra cut made figuring out actomyosin alignment even trickier.
但是有个现象:当研究者用铂线穿过这些环状体时
But here’s the thing: when the researchers threaded thin platinum wires into these ring-shaped
这些片段会以比较正确的姿势更快的再生——
fragments, they were more likely to regenerate correctly, and do it faster – maybe because
可能是因为肌动球蛋白纤维得到了更好的指引
the actomyosin fibers had more of a guide.
该项研究支持这一观点:不只是化学信号影响生长和发展
This new research supports the idea that it’s not just chemical signals that matter in growth
物理因素也会对细胞有较多方面的影响
and development, because physical forces influence cells in lots of ways too.
虽然水螅的再生是个比较极端的栗子
And even though hydra regeneration is a little more extreme, it’s similar to how we humans
但和我们人类的伤口自愈能力与胚胎发育能力相类似
heal wounds and develop as embryos.
所以从这些黏糊糊的管状物上能学到许多与我们相关的东西
So there’s a lot we can learn about ourselves from these squishy little tubes.
感谢收看这期科学秀 感谢赞助商Patreon
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, brought to you by our patrons on Patreon.
尤其感谢Space董事长SR Foxley
Thank you especially to our President of Space SR Foxley.
感谢您!
Thank you, SR!
另外 我们开了播客 希望你感兴趣
Additionally, we have just launched a podcast that we would like you to be interested in
如果你是一个成年人
if you are an adult person.
因为该播客主要是科学秀的员工日常讨论模式
Because it is just the scishow staff sitting around talking the way we normally talk, which
没准儿可能还有些粗话
can include some curse words.
因为科学秀里不能说播客名字 所以我会在简介里放上链接

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视频概述

一种很有前景的节育方法,而且是针对男性的

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vjn4cFfglSU

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