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在太平洋上发现了一个新大陆! – 译学馆
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在太平洋上发现了一个新大陆!

A New Continent is Discovered in the Pacific Ocean!!!!

塑料制品的确为我们的生活提供了极大便利
The plastic things that we use everyday are of course convenient
其生产成本也特别低
and extraordinarily cheap to produce.
但我们用完之后会发生什么呢?
But what happens after we use them?
据研究人员称 人类产生的塑料垃圾
According to researchers, mankind produces so much plastic garbage
也许可以覆盖住
that it would be possible to cover the entire
地球的所有海岸地区
coastal area of the world with sacks of the stuff.
不幸的是 这些垃圾的大多数最终会流向海洋
Unfortunately, a major portion of this refuse ends up in the ocean.
不均等地分散漂浮在海面上
This floating garbage is unevenly distributed.
风和洋流使它们聚集在海洋的某处
Currents and winds caused it to accumulate in particular parts of the oceans.
慢慢的 这些漂至海岸的塑料会将整个大陆包围起来
Gradually the plastic that has arrived on our shores is surrounding entire continents.
最近一次发现大规模垃圾群是九十年代末
The latest garbage accumulation found in the late ’90s
位于太平洋北部
is in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean
人们称其为“太平洋大垃圾带”
and is called the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.
根据各方面预计
According to various estimates,
这些垃圾总重达1亿吨
the mass of this waste is up to 100 million tons and the patch area
所占面积约在270,000到579,000平方英里之间
is anywhere from 270,000 to 579,000 square miles.
也就是大约150万平方公里
That’s about 1.5 million square kilometers.
因为这些垃圾不是浮在水面就是沉在水里
It’s difficult to determine more accurate dimensions,
所以很难得到更加精准的数据
as all of this is in and under the water.
但对比一下
But for comparison,
马达加斯加的大小约为193,000平方英里
the size of Madagascar is about 193,000 square miles.
即50万平方公里
That’s a half million square kilometers.
而格陵兰岛有772,000平方英里
And Greenland is 772,000 square miles.
也就是大约200万平方公里
That’s about 2 million square kilometers.
即这个垃圾带的面积介于马达加斯加与格陵兰岛之间
In other words, this patch is somewhere between the size of Madagascar and Greenland.
对一堆垃圾而言还不错 是吧?
Not bad for a pile of rubbish, right?
但这只是冰山一角
But we’re just getting started.
这个惊人的记录很可能被
This amazing record could be beaten by
2016年在智利海岸附近发现的一个垃圾带打破
a patch off the coast of Chile, discovered in 2016.
这个新形成的“岛”上有1/5的垃圾
1/5 of this waste of which this newly formed island consists is
是来源于过往船只
tossed overboard from passing ships.
而其余的部分则是岸边的下水道和排水沟的排放物
The rest is runoff from sewers and waterways along the shores.
环境学家们计算结果各不相同 但据估算
Calculations of environmentalists vary, but there is one estimate that
每年会有800万吨塑料进入地球各大洋
as much as 8 million tons of plastic enters the Earth’s oceans every year.
这几乎是全世界垃圾总量的3%
This is about 3% of the total of all of the world’s waste.
一般认为亚洲国家是主要的垃圾排放源
Asian countries are considered to be the main polluters,
以中国为主的国家大力发展工业污染环境
primarily China where industry is booming to the detriment of the environment
而政府对环境保护并没有引起足够重视
and to which not much attention is paid.
新发现的“垃圾大陆”可能会被认为是件好事
New continents might be considered a good thing,
尤其是那些坚信我们的星球已被严重污染的大思想家们
especially for big thinkers who believe our planet is suffering from overpopulation.
但海洋中的白色垃圾确实是个大问题
But plastic in the ocean is really a huge problem
而且不利于环境和谐
and it’s not a matter of aesthetics.
在太阳光的作用下波涛中的垃圾变得脆弱
Pieces of garbage carried by waves under the influence of sunlight become fragile
当与岩石 船体或其他垃圾发生碰撞时
and when colliding with rocks, ship hulls or pieces of other debris,
会轻易的解体为越来越小的碎片
easily break into smaller and smaller fragments.
鸟类及海洋生物会将塑料当作食物而误食
Birds and sea creatures swallow these tiny pieces of plastic thinking it’s food.
最好的情况下 这些东西能从动物肠道中排出来
In the best case, the foreign object will pass through the animals’ gut.
否则它们会导致动物死亡或者残留体内
But in other cases, it can kill the animal or remain in the body.
我们不知道这些塑料在生物的胃里残留多年
We don’t know what happens to a living creature
会造成什么样的影响
in whose stomach the plastic hangs around for years.
有可能会释放微量毒素
It might release a small amount of poisonous substances
让可怜的动物中毒
and poison the poor animal’s body.
毒素还能通过食物链进入其他生物 包括人类体内
Poisons can also reach other living beings, including humans along the food chain,
特别是 比如一包来自被污染水域的食用鱼
especially if, for example, a pack of commercial fish feeds in a littered area.
此外塑料本身还能吸收有毒物质 比如水银
Moreover the plastic itself can absorb poisonous substances, such as mercury.
垃圾的危害不限于毒性本身
This is not just a matter of toxic danger however.
海洋生物可能会被破渔网或其他垃圾形成的网状物缠住
Sea animals can become enmeshed in scraps of fishing nets and other wastes,
或者被聚乙烯废物
and also become entangled in polyethylene products,
例如塑料袋和磁带缠住
such as plastic bags and tapes.
同时由于这些垃圾残骸的存在
At the same time, due to the debris,
水面的反射率和透光率会发生变化
the water surface reflectivity and light permeability changes,
影响水下更深层的生物
affecting inhabitants of the lower layers.
时间久了 问题只会越来越严重
Over time, the problem will only increase.
根据预测 海洋中的塑料废物总量
According to some estimates, the total mass of plastic in the ocean
到本世纪中叶 会与海洋中所有鱼类的总重量相当
will reach that of the total mass of all fish in the ocean by the middle of the century.
这个问题有两个显而易见的解决方案
There are two obvious solutions to this problem.
一是想办法净化被污染的水域
One, to find ways to purify the water of the debris that is already in it.
第二是减少污染率
And two, to reduce the rate of pollution,
或者更理想的是完全停止污染
or ideally to stop it altogether,
或许可改用生物可降解的塑料等
perhaps by moving to the use of biodegradable plastics.
第一种方法是很多环境学家的最爱
The first approach is a favorite of many environmentalists,
也有不少有趣的解决方案
but there are also some interesting possibilities and works for
可以重复利用非可降解的塑料
the secondary use of nondegradable plastic.
有许多新品种的餐具和容器
There are new kinds of utensils and containers,
建筑材料甚至是纺织品是由废旧塑料所生成的
building materials and even fabric created from used plastic.
但这需要在垃圾收集分类方面持续努力
But this requires a sustained effort in the separate collection of garbage,
使用强制性的消费分类和分拣促进回收再利用
using aggressive consumer sorting and distribution to processing plants.
但这的确有效
But it can work.
比如说日本关西国际机场
In Japan, for example, the Kansai International Airport
就在一座垃圾堆成的人造岛上建造了一所冶炼工厂
and a metallurgical plant are built on artificial islands of garbage.
而东京湾的梦之岛公园
And in Tokyo Bay, Yumenoshima or “Dream Island”
就是一座用垃圾填充而成的人造岛
is an artificial island made from waste landfill
岛上建有一个公园 一座体育馆和一座博物馆
and includes a park, a stadium, a museum
在所有建筑之上是一个巨大的热带温室穹顶
and beautiful giant tropical greenhouse domes among other things.
这样可以消耗数以百万吨的垃圾
So they were able to dispense with millions of tons of garbage.
他们让垃圾不再具有毒性
They made it toxicologically safe
并且还扩大了国土面积 很不错
and they increased the size of the country. Not bad.
新加坡也启动了类似的项目
A similar project has been implemented in Singapore.
他们用垃圾建起了一座岛 并在上面种满了树木
A garbage island there has been planted with trees
其周围的生态环境非常的不错
and the ecological situation surrounding it is quite favorable,
已经成为了当地渔民的极佳捕鱼点
and has become rather popular among local fishermen.
著名的罗斯柴尔德王朝的后裔组织了一个团队
A team put together by an heir to the famous Rothschild dynasty
他们乘坐一艘塑料瓶制成的游艇
was able to travel from San Francisco to Australia
成功地从旧金山驶到了澳大利亚
on a yacht made from plastic bottles.
这艘船不负众望经受了大洋的考验
And the ship with honour withstood the mighty ocean’s test.
还有设计师和建筑师完全用塑料垃圾来建造房屋
Designers and architects are constructing entire buildings using plastic waste.
这些建筑大多是概念型的
These are however rather conceptual constructions
现阶段更多的是为了引起公众的重视而不是真的解决问题
that do more to draw attention to the problem than solve it.
还有一些项目是通过管道来清理海洋
There are also several projects in the pipeline to cleanse the oceans
利用负压将海水中的垃圾吸走
using contraptions that would capture the waste already in the water,
而不会影响海洋生物
without disturbing the marine inhabitants.
人们也在通过各种环保禁令
The growth of garbage patches is also being checked
控制垃圾带的增长速度
with the help of prohibitive measures.
在一些国家和州 超市向顾客提供
In some countries and states, it’s now forbidden to
免费塑料袋是被禁止的
give customers free plastic bags in supermarkets.
非降解塑料制作的容器也被限制使用
And there are bans on disposable utensils made from nondegradable plastic.
问题在于 想要制作既有利于环境
The problem is that it’s not particularly easy
又能耐受高温的塑料制品
to make plastic that is both eco-friendly
并不容易
and at the same time can withstand temperature extremes,
比如能放在微波炉内加热
such as going through a microwave cycle
或者只是放在冰箱中一段时间
or simply sitting in a refrigerator for a period of time.
即使我们找到了相关的替代性生产方案
And even if we can find an optimal solution for such production,
同相对稳定的塑料岛屿相比 制造过程本身
it’s always possible that the manufacturing process itself
还有可能引起更严重的环境问题
could create more environmental problems than an innocuous plastic island.
但我们可以使用生物可降解塑料
But we can replace much of this stuff
比如用淀粉 纤维素或其他类似物质制造的塑料
with a variety of different biodegradable plastics
来代替大部分塑料制品
made from such things as starch, cellulose and other similar materials.
可以用淀粉塑料袋取代普通的聚乙烯塑料袋
Common polyethylene plastic bags can be replaced with those made from starch.
它们很容易被降解 但很不幸
They do easily decompose, but unfortunately
它的承重性不太好
can, at this point, carry only a small load.
Oxo公司也推出了生物可降解袋子
There are also biodegradable bags made by the Oxo company.
是在聚乙烯合成过程中
During the manufacture of the polyethylene,
加入添加剂以加快塑料分解过程
substances are added that accelerate the plastics decomposition.
使用普通的加热或紫外线照射
Then just simple heat and ultraviolet light
就能使塑料袋分解
can turn a plastic bag into a small amount of debris,
最终通过土壤中的细菌完成整个降解过程
and then microbes in the soil complete the biodegradation process
整个过程只需要几年
in a matter of just a couple of years.
还有一种生物可降解包装能够在
There is biodegradable packaging that can crumble into dust
1到5年短时间内降解为尘土
during a short period of between 1 to 5 years.
但其同样需要合适的外界条件
But again this requires the right perfect conditions.
例如堆积 与水和紫外线接触
For example, composting, contact with water and ultraviolet light.
但总的来说 这方面的产业还是有生命力的
But in general, the prospects for this industry clearly do exist.
还有一些有趣的事
Here’s something interesting.
媒体上有不少报道
There have been a number of statements in the press that
认为垃圾数量其实比科学家所说的要少得多
the amount of garbage is actually much lower than what scientists say.
那么要么是垃圾自己分解了一部分 要么科学家们在说谎
So either it is disappearing somehow or the scientists are lying.
到底是哪个呢?
So, which is it?
确实有一种可能性是
Well, indeed there is the possibility that
海洋中的塑料会持续分解为极小的颗粒
the plastics in the ocean are breaking up into such extremely small particles
以至于在水中已观察不到
that they can no longer be seen in the water,
或者这些碎片沉积到了海底
or perhaps the debris is sinking to the bottom of the oceans
一同沉积的还有因吞噬而死亡的鱼
along with the fish that swallowed it and died,
或者还有被它们缠绕而死
or maybe marine dwellers get snagged by chunks of garbage
沉到海底的海洋生物
and are dragged down under the weight.
我们知道在北极和南极的冰层中
We know that some of the garbage gets frozen
冰封了一些垃圾
in the ice of the Arctic and Antarctic,
还有一些被带回了岸边
and some is carried back ashore onto beaches, for example.
例如最近夏威夷发现岸边的一些岩石
Some rocks recently appeared in Hawaii
其实一部分是塑料成分的
that turned out to be partially made of plastic.
是塑料被加热后粘连了沙石
Heated plastics bind together grains of sand,
鹅卵石 贝壳和其他自然材质
pebbles, shells and other natural materials.
在这种情况下 就有可能识别出聚集物中的
In this case, it’s possible to distinguish little broken things
小块垃圾 例如牙刷 玩具和其他类似的东西
like toothbrushes, toys and other such things embedded in the conglomeration.
然而还有一种更为乐观的可能性
But there is however a more optimistic possibility.
直到现在 仍有人相信人造聚合物
Until now, it was believed that human made polymers couldn’t
不可能被我们星球上的生物分解
be consumed or biodegraded by any of the inhabitants of our dear planet.
但现代有一种观点认为
But one more modern view holds that
海中垃圾的神秘消失
the mysterious disappearance of debris in the ocean
可能是由于海洋中的细菌所引起的
may be due to colonies of bacteria that have learned somehow
即使这些细菌不能降解塑料
that if they cannot consume and destroy the plastic,
也会将其分解为越来越小的碎片
they can nevertheless crush it into smaller and smaller pieces.
当然这种观点还没有被广泛接受
True, this view has not yet received widespread acceptance
这些塑料小颗粒的寿命和去向仍然无法解释
and the life and whereabouts of these plastic particles is still unexplained,
即使它们已经减少了这么多
even after this grinding down.
最近人们发现有一种昆虫
More recently, it turned out that at least one insect
至少学会了如何处理聚乙烯
has learned to deal with at least polyethylene.
这种叫蜡螟的普通昆虫的幼虫
The larvae of a common pest called wax moths are able to
可以在40分钟内把塑料袋吃出一个洞来
eat a hole in a plastic bag in a mere 40 minutes.
这是一位叫Federica Bertocchini的生物学家偶然的发现
This was a chance discovery by a biologist named Federica Bertocchini,
她在研究这种生物时
who, when studying the creatures,
清理过一个蜡螟入侵的蜂房
cleaned out one of the beehives that they had invaded,
把这些讨厌生物放入了一个塑料袋里
and put the detested pests into a plastic bag.
不久之后她去看塑料袋
Later she looked at the bag and saw
发现蜡螟幼虫在塑料袋上啃出了许多洞
that they had eaten a bunch of holes in it.
稍后的研究表明 一百只蜡螟在一起可以
A later experiment showed that a hundred wax moth caterpillars could break down
在半小时内吃掉92毫克的聚乙烯
92 milligrams of polyethylene in just half an hour.
生成副产品乙烯乙二醇
Ethylene glycol is the byproduct,
一般来说这是有毒物质 但它并不会伤害蛾子
normally a poisonous substance, but it does not harm the moths.
甚至有迹象表明普通的聚乙烯制品
Moreover, even regular polyethylene products
也可以被蛾子的幼虫所分解
were shown to be decomposed by the moth larvae.
科学家正在尝试提取这种
Scientists now intend to isolate the enzyme
由昆虫自然生成的生物酶 并进行人工合成
that the insect synthesizes naturally and then artificially recreated.
之所以会有这样效果是因为
How it all works is that it turns out
聚乙烯在物质结构上和蜜蜡很相似
polyethylene is similar in structure to beeswax.
对于这些借住蜂巢的昆虫来说
And for these pests that move into beehives,
吃蜜蜡正是他们的日常行为
eating beeswax is their usual routine.
蜡螟所表现出来的这种能力特别重要
This ability shown by the wax moth larvae is especially relevant,
因为世界上塑料垃圾40%的成分
given that polyethylene accounts for about
都是聚乙烯
40% of the world’s plastic garbage founded dumps.
或许自然真的在学习如何应对高分子聚合物
Perhaps nature really will learn how to cope with polymers,
就像40亿年前它最初应对
much as it coped with the at first indigestible cellulose
来自树木的难以分解的纤维素一样
from trees 400 million years ago.
最初的树木是细菌和真菌完全不能消化的
The first trees were once completely inedible for bacteria and fungi.
在40亿年前 一场环境灾害
It was 400 million years ago, an environmental disaster
让全世界都堆满了死树
as dead trees littered the world.
但如今死去的树木能够轻易的被分解成泥土
But they are now easily composed down into mere dirt.
所以我们可以得到这么一个乐观的结论
So we can draw such an optimistic conclusion.
我们应竭尽全力去帮助大自然
It’s our duty to assist nature as best we can,
最起码也应该为了我们自己的健康和舒适去这样做
at the very least, for our own health and comfort.
持之以恒的去关注处理废旧物并没有那么难
It’s not so difficult to be conscious of the fate of a discarded thing.
去商店的时候使用布购物袋 而不用塑料袋
To bring a cloth bag, instead of taking a plastic one to a store.
重复使用袋子
To reuse that bag many times,
避免使用一次性盘子 包装或容器
and to not get carried away using disposable plates, packaging and utensils,
尽你所能合理地使用纸制品
and to use paper products in their place when you can.
进行垃圾分类以保护我们的星球
Separating refuse by type helps the planet.
使用节能灯和太阳能
And using energy-saving lightbulbs and solar cells
可以大大降低对环境的影响
significantly reduces the total impact on the environment.
填埋垃圾的土地是很难恢复原状的
Land that is given over to landfills is difficult to return to normal
即使一个普通的废旧塑料袋或饮料瓶
and even a single discarded plastic bag or soda bottle
也能够破坏优美的景色
can spoil one’s impression of a picturesque panorama.
我们都知道要保持自己的身体和家中整洁
We have learned to keep our bodies and our homes cleaned.
那么下一步就应该是保持整个星球的清洁
The next step should be the purity of the planet.
不要等你的邻居 朋友和家人首先行动
Don’t wait for your neighbors, friends and family to act first.
从我做起
It truly all begins with you.
如果把你用透明胶带层层包裹起来
What will be if we wrap you around and round with Scotch tape,
扔到微波炉里头烤熟
throw the whole package into a microwave oven, roast it quite well.
把你拿去喂鲸鱼 然后扔到海洋中
Feed that to a giant hungry whale, after that, drown you in the ocean.
然后把你活埋 送到太空中去
then bury you alive, send you into space,
然后让你掉回地面 直接掉到马里亚纳海沟里
then let you drop back down to earth, straight to the bottom of the Mariana Trench.
然后把你放在一场噩梦般的暴风雨中吹干
After that, take you out and dry under a nightmare lightning storm.
为你穿衣打扮 梳头洗脸 然后绑在一架飞机上
Dress you up, comb you out, stick you onto a plane,
爬升到3万英尺的高空
climb to a height of 30,000 feet,
再次把你扔下去
and toss you out once more,
让你自由落体摔到坚硬的地面上
where you plummet back down to the unyielding surface,
当然不能用降落伞
of course without a parachute.
会发生什么呢?
What will happen then?
让我们来问问Arnold:兄弟 你还好吗?
Let’s ask Arnold. How are you feeling, buddy?
还站得起来吗?那试试这个
You still on your feet? Well then, how about this?
没时间解释了
There’s no time to explain.
点开描述区中的链接
Just click on the link in the description
看看精彩的系列卡通片的第一章吧
and watch the first episode in this awesomely great new cartoon series,
这个片子不久就会火遍全网的
soon to explode across the entire damn Internet.
来吧 点一下 你可抗拒不了我们的频道噢
Come on, press the button. You can’t resist subscribing to this channel.

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译制信息
视频概述

你知道白色垃圾已经到了多么恐怖的程度了吗?如何解决这个危机呢?

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

AF

审核员

审核员GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHverweu1xA

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