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速度与质量的关系 – 译学馆
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速度与质量的关系

A mind-blowing explanation of the speed of light | #1 of Top 10 2019 | Big Think

提问一名宇航员
So, Tom, you asked the question,
所以 Tom 你问
“How does mass increase as you go faster?”
“为什么速度越快质量越大?”
And this is really a wonderful part of Einstein’s theories.
这是爱因斯坦理论中一个非常有趣的部分
It actually is also relatively slippery and kind of complicated
其实它也是相对的 不确定的 有点复杂的
because to even answer this question at all,
因为甚至为了回答这个问题
we have to ask the rather strange question
我们要先想想另一个奇怪的问题
“What do you mean by mass?What is your definition of mass?”
“什么是质量?质量的定义是什么?”
You may have heard that
我们可能听说过
nothing with mass can possibly go at the speed of light.
任何有质量的物体都不可能以光速运动
The only things that travel at the speed of light are photons,
唯一能以光速运动的只有光子
pure energy, light, the speed of light.
纯能量体 光 光速
Nothing with any mass at all can travel at the speed of light
任何有质量的物体都不能以光速运动
because as it gets closer and closer to the speed of light,
因为随着它的速度越来越趋近光速
its mass increases.
质量也会随之增加
And if it were actually traveling at the speed of light,
所以一旦它真的以光速运动
it would have an infinite mass.
它的质量就会变得无限大
So think about that.
所以想一想
Even if you had a tiny little particle
即使你有一个非常小的物质
that was, say, billions of times less massive than an electron,
小到质量只有一个电子的几十亿分之一
just a tiny, tiny little piece of mass
它的质量微乎其微
if for some reason, that tiny thing accelerated to the speed of light,
假设不知为何 这个细小微粒加速到了光速
it would have an infinite mass.
它的质量会趋向于无穷大
And that’s a bit of a problem.
这就有点问题了
So let’s talk about this.
所以想一想
One of the things that you really have to realize is
我们必须要承认一件事情
the speed of light is very, very special.
那就是光速是非常非常特别的
It’s not just simply a speed of something moving through space.
它不仅仅是在太空穿梭的某样东西的速度
As you go faster and faster and closer to the speed of light,
随着你的速度越来越快 越来越趋近光速
time itself begins to slow down.
时间会开始慢下来
And space begins to contract.
空间开始收缩
As you go close to the speed of light,
随着你的速度趋近于光速
the entire universe becomes smaller and smaller
整个宇宙变得越来越小
until it basically just becomes a single point
直到你以光速运动时
when you’re going at the speed of light.
宇宙最终会变成一个点
And time, as you go closer to the speed of light,
随着你的速度越来越趋近光速
gets slower and slower
时间也变得越来越慢
until basically time is a single point at the speed of light.
达到光速后 最终变成了一个点
Light does not experience space or time.
光不具有空间和时间意义
It’s not just a speed going through something.
它也不仅仅是某物穿梭时的速度
All of the universe shifts around this constant, the speed of light.
整个宇宙都围绕着恒定光速偏移
Time and space itself stop when you go that speed.
当你到达光速时 时间和空间就不存在了
So the reason you can’t accelerate to the speed of light,
所以你不能加速到光速
and the reason we say you have an infinite mass is a little complicated
且质量会变得无穷大的原因都有点复杂
because the idea that mass actually is a measurement of energy.
因为质量可以用来测量能量
You may remember Einstein’s famous equation,
你还记得爱因斯坦著名的等式吗?
E equals MC squared.
E=MC²
Energy equals mass times the speed of light squared.
能量等于质量乘以光速的平方
Energy and mass are equivalent.
能量和质量是对等的
Mass is basically a measurement of how much energy there is in an object.
质量基本上衡量的就是物体当中的能量值
When you’re moving, you have the energy of your motion, too.
你移动时 携带着运动所产生的能量
That’s called kinetic energy, energy of motion.
也就是动能 运动的能量
So E equals MC squared,
所以E=MC²
now your mass has not just the stuff that’s in you
现在你的质量已不仅是你体里所包含的物质了
but also the energy of your motion.
还有你的动能
And that’s why mass seems to increase
这也就是你运动速度越快
as you go faster, and faster, and closer to the speed of light.
越趋近于光速 你的质量似乎就越大的原因
It’s not that you are actually getting any heavier.
那并不是说你在变重
The increase in mass is something that’s only observed
只有那些看到你路过的人
by people that are watching you go by.
才会察觉你的质量增加了
If you were on a spaceship going very fast at the speed of light,
如果你乘坐一辆太空飞船以光速前行
you don’t notice anything getting heavier.
你根本察觉不到有任何东西变重
You are on your spaceship.
你在你的太空飞船上面
You could jump up and down. You can skip rope.
可以上蹦下跳 可以跳绳
You can do whatever you want.
想做什么就做什么
You don’t notice any change at all.
根本察觉不到任何变化
But if people try to measure your mass as you go by
但要是有人在你经过时 试着测量你的质量
they not only are measuring your rest mass — your mass when you were still
他们不仅测量你的静质量(你静止时的质量)
but this added energy of this huge speed that you have through space.
还有你高速穿梭太空时附加的能量
And that’s called a relativistic mass.
这叫相对论性质量
And it’s a complex idea to think that mass itself is a measurement of energy
认为质量本身测量的是能量这一想法非常复杂
so that changes depending on how fast you’re going.
所以质量改变多少取决于你的运动速度
If you were to slow down on your spaceship,
如果你乘坐的太空飞船降速
you would not keep that mass.
你就不会仍然保持这个质量
You would go back to being the same mass you were
你会回到
before you started moving that quickly.
飞船加速之前的质量
So as you can see, it’s a complicated answer
所以如你所见 回答这个问题非常复杂
depending on how you define mass.
这取决于你对质量的定义
Because as you’re going very close to the speed of light
因为当你越来越趋近光速
and you have a huge speed,
自身的速度十分快
you need to take into account that energy because of the equation E equals MC squared.
根据E=MC² 你还要考虑能量

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为什么物体越趋近于光速,它的质量就会越趋近于无穷大呢?光速的定义到底是什么呢?让我们问下这位宇航员吧!

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