未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

巴黎圣母院修复工作

A look inside the restoration of Notre Dame cathedral

On April 15th 2019,
2019年4月15日
firefighters charged into the Notre Dame cathedral to quell a blazing fire.
消防员们冲进巴黎圣母院扑灭熊熊大火
They took careful precautions
面对有850年历史的巴黎古迹
while spraying down the 850-year-old Parisian monument,
他们喷水灭火时谨小慎微地采取了预防措施
like using lower water pressure,
比如使用低压水枪
and avoiding stained glass vulnerable to shattering.
避开易碎的彩色玻璃
They also followed a plan to save priceless relics and works of art.
他们有条不紊地保护珍贵文物及艺术品
In the days following
之后的几天
firefighters gave way to a new team on the front line:
消防员把前线交给一支新队伍:
restoration scientists from the Laboratory for Historical Monuments.
历史古迹实验室的修复科学家
These researchers were tasked with evaluating
这些研究人员的任务是
the condition of the damaged, stone, mortar and metal,
评估石头 灰浆以及金属的受损状况
and guiding engineers on the best way to restore the cathedral.
并指导工程师以最佳方式修复圣母院
Even as they try to reclaim what was lost,
实验室的研究人员一边尝试修复受损古物
the lab researchers and others are also analyzing samples of wood and stone
一边分析木材和石头的样本
for clues to the cathedral medieval past.
以还原中世纪大教堂的雏形
Their first order of business: stabilizing the cathedral.
他们的首要任务是 加固大教堂
The lead roof and the wooden timbers that supported it were mostly gone,
铅制屋顶和木制支架几乎都被烧坏了
and there were holes in the vaulted stone ceiling.
连拱形石顶上也都是洞
That threatened a delicate balance of forces between the vaults,
这威胁到拱顶之间力量的微妙平衡
which push outward on the cathedral walls,
承受力推到了大教堂的外墙
and the flying buttresses which provide an inward stabilizing force.
也落到了提供向内稳定力的飞拱上面
In order to steady the structure,
为了稳定结构
temporary wood supports were installed
他们临时安装了木质结构
to prevent the buttresses from toppling the walls.
以防止飞拱倒塌
To restore the balance of forces,
为了恢复拱顶力量的微妙平衡
researchers also need to understand
研究员们还需要了解
how the stone in the walls and vault were altered by the fire.
大火对墙壁和拱顶的石头造成了怎样的改变
Most of Notre Dame was constructed with limestone,
巴黎圣母院大部分由石灰石构成
an iconic stone used all over Paris,
这是当时巴黎建筑的标志性材料
including at the Louvre.
卢浮宫也是用这种石材
At 800°C,
在800℃时
limestone can turn to a soft white powder known as lime.
石灰石会变成软白粉末 就是石灰
Even before this point, at 300°C,
甚至在低于这个温度 如300℃时
fire can begin to reduce its strength.
大火就开始削弱石灰石的硬度
One way to estimate these changes is by looking at the color of the stone.
我们可以通过观察石头的颜色来判断其变化
Beige indicates a sturdy structure,
米色表示结构坚固
while a red or black surface means
而表面呈红色或黑色意味着
the fire has damaged its internal structure.
大火已经破坏石头的内部结构
The high porosity of limestone presents another complication.
石灰石的高孔隙率也带来了问题
As firefighters hosed down the Cathedral,
消防队员用水扑灭大火
some stones gained almost a third of their weight in water.
石头过水后增重近三分之一
further changing the balance of forces between the vaults and walls.
这进一步改变了拱顶和墙之间的力量平衡
The laboratory researchers are also grappling with what happened to the lead roof.
实验室研究员也在努力解决铅制屋顶的问题
Parts of it reached the melting point of 300°C,
部分铅制屋顶达到了300℃的熔点
dripping into the vaults and gutters,
铅液滴落在拱顶上和檐槽里
but some of the lead became airborne.
还有些铅液在滴落的过程中凝固垂挂
Yellow smoke billowed from the Cathedral as a result.
大教堂冒出滚滚黄烟
The lead powder that settled after the fire is toxic to humans,
火灾残留下来的铅粉对人类是有毒的
making researchers take careful precautions when working in the cathedral.
所以研究者在教堂做复原工作时要做好周密的防护
Before restoration even begins,
甚至在修复工作开始之前
much of cathedral must be decontaminated,
大教堂的许多地方都得清场
and the mangled scaffolding put in place for renovations prior to the fire must be removed.
火灾前因装修而放置的脚手架遭到损毁 也必须拆除
Meanwhile, the exposed interior and fallen fragments of the cathedral
不过 教堂裸露的内部和掉落的碎片
have provided new opportunities for research.
为研究提供了一线生机
One researcher is using stone samples collected from the cathedral
一个研究员正通过从教堂收集的石头样本
to learn about the quarries they came from.
来研究这些石材的来源
Other materials, like the wood from the attic beams,
至于其它材料 如阁楼横梁上的木头
tell the climatic history of the 12th and 13th century.
则从十二十三世纪开始就历经风风雨雨
The long and narrow shape of the beams also indicate
从外观看狭长的横梁
that these 100-year-old trees were grown alongside many other tree,
它属于批量生产的百年大树
and maybe were even farmed with the intention of using the wood to build the Cathedral.
甚至可能是为建造大教堂专门种下的
These finds provide glimpses into the detailed construction of Notre Dame.
这些发现让我们一窥巴黎圣母院的细部构造
It took a 182 years to complete,
它花了182年才建好
with signature pieces like the spire added well after in the 19th century.
其标志性的尖顶都是在19世纪之后才加上去
Centuries from now,
几个世纪后
this fire will be just another chapter in the story of Notre Dame.
这场大火只是巴黎圣母院的另一个篇章
But the collaborative research to understand its past,
但为了解其过去而进行的合作研究
and the careful plans to reconstruct the cathedral
以及重建大教堂的精心计划
will allow future generations to continue to be inspired by the iconic structure.
将使后人继续受到这一标志性建筑的启发

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

巴黎圣母院大火之后,修复专家们通过各种方法,对巴黎圣母院的结构以及建筑材料进行研究,并对巴黎圣母院的修复工作做出指导。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YfW7SCBbxUk

相关推荐