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一场细雨可以将土壤里的细菌传播的又广又远 – 译学馆
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一场细雨可以将土壤里的细菌传播的又广又远

A light rain can spread soil bacteria far and wide

[背景音乐]
[MUSIC PLAYING]
雨水是绝大多数生态系统的重要组成部分
Rain is a vital part of most ecosystems.
水是生命必不可少的资源
Water is necessary for life.
然而 有时 在某些合适的条件下
But sometimes, under just the right conditions,
雨水也能成为传播细菌的一种方式
rain can also be a means of spreading bacteria.
很早之前 就已经有人从理论上论证了
It’s long been theorized that rainfall
雨水可以帮助细菌传播
contributes to the spread of bacteria
扩散至当地所有的土地上
throughout local lands.
但是要分析出其中的机理
But figuring out the mechanics of what is actually
即在土地表面到底发生了什么一直都是个谜团
happening at the surface has been much of a mystery
直到现在
until now.
麻省理工学院的研究人员 利用高分辨率成像技术
Using high resolution imaging, researchers from MIT
看到了雨滴落在
took a look at the effect of raindrops falling
布满细菌的土地上所产生的效果
on soil laden with bacteria.
当雨滴落到干燥的土地上
When raindrops fall and hit dry soil,
其表面形成气泡
bubbles form at the surface.
随着气泡升高 然后爆炸
As these bubbles rise up and burst,
它们向空气中释放出一阵气雾或悬浮颗粒
they release a spray of mist or aerosols into the air.
在这支队伍之前的工作中
In previous work by the same team,
他们通过解释潮土油——
they identified this mechanism by way
一种雨后产生的泥土的香味
of explaining petrichor, which is the earthy smell often
从而发现了这种机理
noticed after a rainstorm.
但是现在 他们发现 这些同样的气雾
But now, they found that the same aerosols
就是传播病原体的“罪魁祸首”
are specifically responsible for spreading pathogens.
研究发现每个悬浮颗粒能够携带
It turns out each aerosol can carry up
上百个细菌 而且这些细菌
to several thousand bacteria, and that bacteria can
可存活长达一小时
remain alive for up to an hour.
简单说来 如果土地受到细菌感染并且正好下雨
So simply put, if the soil is infected and it rains,
悬浮颗粒可以释放土地中的病原体
aerosols could launch the pathogens from the soil
到空气中
into the air.
如果还有风 那么
And if there’s wind, the potential
细菌大范围传播的可能性便急剧增加 然后
for the bacteria to travel is vast before settling back
在一个新地方开辟“传染地”
on the ground to colonize in a brand new location.
当然 其中的过程也并非如此简单
Of course, it’s not exactly that simple.
对干燥土地、黏土和沙地进行的多个实验测试表明
Through various lab tests involving dry soil, clay,
研究者发现上述过程发生的前提是
and sand, the researchers found in order for this to occur,
各种条件一定都符合才可以
the conditions have to be just right.
他们发现 只有土地温度维持在86华氏度左右
They found droplets produced the highest number of aerosols
雨滴才能释放最大数量的悬浮颗粒
in soils with temperatures around 86 degrees Fahrenheit,
这大约与热带土地温度相似
similar to soils found in tropical regions.
同时还发现滴在沙型黏土中的雨滴
They also found more aerosols were produced
释放的悬浮颗粒也很多
by droplets dispensed on sandy clay soil,
这些水滴的下降速度在1.4-1.7米/秒
falling at speeds between 1.4 and 1.7 meters per second,
大约是小雨的雨水强度
which is about the intensity of a light rain shower.
现在 麻省团队已经发现了
Now that the team has identified the mechanism
雨水可以细菌传播的机理 那么科学家
by which rain launches bacteria, scientists
可以开始研究应对方法
can begin to develop ways to prevent
阻止病原体传播 并预测
the spread of pathogens, as well as predict
雨水最有可能会传播细菌
the places and environmental conditions
的地点和环境条件
where rain is most likely to spread disease.
[背景音乐]
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视频概述

麻省理工学院的研究者发现了雨水传播细菌的机理。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

B11101001

审核员

与光同尘

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F14j8x6eMiQ

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