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一种能检测隐形心脏病发作的救生装置

A life-saving device that detects silent heart attacks | Akash Manoj

当我13岁时 我的祖父由于隐性心脏病突然去世
When I was 13, I lost my grandfather to a silent heart attack.
令人更加感叹的是那天他75岁
What happened to be moreshocking was that at 75,
我的祖父非常正常、健康、
grandpa was really normal,healthy and energetic,
充满活力但他患有糖尿病
but he was diabetic.
理解这一切对我来说很痛苦
Learning all of this was so painful
于是我决心和这个
that I decided to go out
致命的疾病一战
on a war against this deadly killer
看看能做到什么
and see what could be done.
最近的研究揭露一个惊人的数据
It was shocking to discoverthe results of recent studies
即将近800万人
that have shown an estimateof nearly eight million people
每年死于心脏病
who die from heart attacks every year.
心脏病发病原因很多
Heart attacks occur for many reasons,
但在通常情况下 大部分原因是动脉堵塞
but most often, they occurwhen arteries get clogged,
血流受阻
blood flow is cut off
心肌缺氧的细胞开始死亡
and oxygen-starved cells in the heart muscles start to die.
你或许知道心脏病的几个常见症状:
You may know the commonsymptoms of a heart attack:
胸痛 胳膊痛 呼吸短促 疲劳等…
chest pain, arm pain, shortnessof breath, fatigue, et cetera…
但有一种
but there is a type
心脏病非常常见
of heart attack that is quite common,
同样致命 但更难检测 因为症状是隐性的
just as deadly, but harder to detect because the symptoms are silent.
患有隐形心脏病的人意识不到正在发生什么
People having silent heart attacksjust don’t realize what’s happening,
所以他们不会要求医疗看护
so they’re not seeking medical attention,
这就意味着在
which means they’re less likely to
关键的时刻
receive the treatment that they need
他们不大可能得到所需的治疗
at the critical moment.
即使他们刚好去了医院
And even if they doget to the hospital by chance,
不管是犯病之前还是之后
either before or afterthey are struck by a heart attack,
他们也许要经历
they might have to go
不止一次的测验和治疗
through one or more of these time-consuming, expensive tests
费时且昂贵 而这样的做法被看作是
and treatments, which are currently consideredthe gold standards
心脏病诊断的黄金标准然而
of heart-attack diagnosis.
更令人担忧的是
The greater concern, however,
所有心脏病中
is that these silent heart attacks account for nearly 45 percent
45%是隐性心脏病
of all heart attacks.
患有糖尿病和相似失调疾病的患者
Patients with diabetes and similardisorders suffer from nerve damage
神经严重受损 导致痛觉不灵敏
that prevents them from feelingthe sort of pain
而这些痛觉是信号
that usually signals to someone
提醒人们可能性的心脏病发作
that he or she may be havinga heart attack.
这意味着当心脏病发作时
Which means they sufferthe damage of a heart attack
他们甚至无法察觉
without even knowing or feeling anything.
这些高危病人神经受损
These already at-risk patientssuffer from nerve damage,
不能得到及时的医疗护理
and they do not getimmediate medical care.
在这样的小概率事件发生前 他们一无所知
They do not know anything before an unlikely event is about to occur.
我的祖父也是高危病人
My grandfatherwas an at-risk patient, too.
我进一步研究这个问题——
I probed this issue further —
阅读大量资料了解心脏
read as much as I couldto understand the heart,
与研究者会面并在印度各地实验室工作最后
met researchersand worked across labs in India.
持续研究三年后
And finally, after three long yearsof persistent research,
我要在今天分享一个有前途的解决方案
what I have to share with the world today is a promising solution.
一个无创设备 不贵
A noninvasive device that is inexpensive, portable,
易携带 高危病人可以一直佩戴
wearable by at-riskpatients at all times.
它大大减少了验血的需要
It greatly reducesthe need for a blood test
全天候工作 在预设间隔时段收集分析数据
and works 24/7, collectingand analyzing data at preset intervals.
收集这些数据只有一个目的:
And all this data is collectedfor a single purpose:
在心脏病发作时及时检测
detecting heart attacks as they occur.
这个设备大有希望 可以在未来帮助我们
This is a very promising solution that might help us in the future.
你也许不知道心脏有多聪明
You may not know how intelligentyour heart really is.
它在停止工作前会和身体多次交流
It tries to communicate to your bodymultiple times before failing,
比如显示胸痛等的症状
by indicating symptoms like chest pain.
这些症状的诱因是
These symptoms are triggeredwhen the heart loses out
心脏得不到氧气充足的血流
on oxygen-rich blood flow.
但还记得我说过的神经受损吗
But remember I told youabout the nerve damage.
它会使隐性心脏病的症状不被察觉
It silences these symptomsbefore a silent heart attack,
从而使心脏病更加致命
which makes it even deadlier.
你或许甚至都不知道这些典型症状.同时
And you may not even knowthe common symptoms. Meanwhile,
心脏也会发送一些生物标记——
the heart also sends outcertain biomarkers —
心脏生物标记或者蛋白质是求救信号——
cardiac biomarkers or proteinsthat are SOS messages —
以求救信号的形式——
in the form of SOS messages —
进入血液 提醒心脏处于危险之中.
into your bloodstream, indicating that the heart is at risk.
随着风险上升
As it gets riskier and riskier,
这些心血管标记物蛋白的浓度
the concentrationsof these cardiac biomarker proteins
会保持不正常的增长
keep increasing abysmally.
我的设备单纯依靠数据
My device solely relies on this data.
关键是在心脏病初期
The key is that these cardiacbiomarkers are found
发现这些心血管标记物
in one of the earlieststages of a heart attack,
在这个阶段如果病人得到及时治疗
when someone is almost sure to survive
非常有可能存活
if he or she gets prompt care.
我的设备仅以此为基础
And my device is solely basedon that basis.
下面介绍设备如何工作
And here’s how my device works.
硅片穿戴在手腕附近或者放在胸部附近
A silicon patch is worn around your wrist or placed near your chest.
不用刺穿皮肤进行标记物血检
Without having to prick your skinfor a biomarker blood test,
这个硅片可以发现、
this patch can spot, isolate and tracka heart-attack specific biomarker
分离并追踪心脏病特有的标记物 即H-FABP
called H-FABP,
并会当标记物在血液中达到临界水平时警告——
and alerts you if and when it reaches a critical level in your bloodstream —
这个过程比心脏病传统诊断方法
a process that’s much simpler, easier and cheaper
更简单、简便 低成本
than conventional methods of heart-attack diagnosis.
通过检查标记物浓度数据
By checking on biomarkerconcentration data,
辅以进一步的研究这样的系统
a system like this,with advanced research in the future,
可以大幅减少
could significantly reduce the need
高危病人进行
for an at-risk patient to go to a doctor
标记物血检的需求
for a biomarker blood test,
因为该设备可以一直穿戴
because the device could be worn at all times,
实时检测标记物升高因此
sensing biomarker elevations in real time. Thus,
如果设备检测到
if the device senses
标记物水平接近临界
the biomarker levels going beyond the critical point,
高危病人会收到心脏停搏预警
the at-risk patient could be warnedof an impending cardiac arrest
并需要及时的医疗措施
and that he or she needsimmediate medical attention.
尽管该措施也许不能为病人提供
Although the device may not be ableto provide the patient
心脏损伤的完整分析
with the complete analysisof the cardiac injury,
它或许可以极大帮助
it might be of immense help
判断病人是否于处危险
in actually indicatingthat the patient is in danger,
这样病人可以得到警示
so that the patient can be alarmed
知道必须立即采取措施
and know that immediate care is crucial.
每一个高危病人将会得到更多时间保住生命
Every at-risk patient will now receivemore time to survive
并得到医疗帮助
and reach out for medical help.
最终他们不需要
Consequently, they don’t have to go
接受昂贵且激进的疗法
for expensive and invasivemedical treatments
而这样的治疗在心脏病发作后有必要进行
that would otherwise be necessaryafter a heart attack.
我观察了设备在高危病人身上的测试
When I got my device testedon at-risk patients under observation,
临床验证结果
results from the clinical validation tests
证明了近96%的准确性和灵敏度
certified close to a 96 percentaccuracy and sensitivity.
我想让人们获得两种版本的设备:
I intend to make my device available to people in two variants:
一种能够提供标记物水平的数字分析
one which gives digital analysisof the biomarker levels
另一种是针对农村居民的简易版
and a simpler versionfor the people in rural areas
当水平超过临界点时设备就会震动当今
which simply vibrates when the biomarker levels go beyond the critical point.
我们观察心脏医疗方面的进步时
When we look at our progressin cardiac health care today,
较多的是疾病护理而非预防性的自我护理和技术
it is more of sick care than preventativeself-care and technology.
我们实际上在等心脏病发作
We literally waitfor the heart attack to occur
并把大量资源放在护理后的治疗上
and put our vast majority of resourcesinto post-care treatment.
但到那时 不可逆的伤害已经造成
But by then, irreversible damagewill already be done.
我坚信是时候重新思考药物了
I firmly believe it’s timefor us to rethink medicine.
我们必须建立积极主动的医疗技术
We must establish proactivehealth-care technologies.
改变必须发生
A change must be brought outnot 10 years from now,
不是十年内不是五年内 而是今天
not five years from now, but today.
所以希望有一天
And so, hopefully, one day,
有了这些设备的帮助
with the help of these devices,
别人不会像我这样失去祖父
someone else won’t lose his or her grandfather just like I did.
非常感谢
Thank you so much.
(掌声)谢谢
(Applause)
(掌声)
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)
谢谢大家
Thank you.

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