When I was 13, I lost my grandfather to a silent heart attack.
What happened to be moreshocking was that at 75,
grandpa was really normal,healthy and energetic,
but he was diabetic.
Learning all of this was so painful
that I decided to go out
on a war against this deadly killer
and see what could be done.
It was shocking to discoverthe results of recent studies
that have shown an estimateof nearly eight million people
who die from heart attacks every year.
Heart attacks occur for many reasons,
but most often, they occurwhen arteries get clogged,
blood flow is cut off
and oxygen-starved cells in the heart muscles start to die.
You may know the commonsymptoms of a heart attack:
胸痛 胳膊痛 呼吸短促 疲劳等…
chest pain, arm pain, shortnessof breath, fatigue, et cetera…
but there is a type
of heart attack that is quite common,
同样致命 但更难检测 因为症状是隐性的
just as deadly, but harder to detect because the symptoms are silent.
People having silent heart attacksjust don’t realize what’s happening,
so they’re not seeking medical attention,
which means they’re less likely to
receive the treatment that they need
at the critical moment.
And even if they doget to the hospital by chance,
either before or afterthey are struck by a heart attack,
they might have to go
through one or more of these time-consuming, expensive tests
and treatments, which are currently consideredthe gold standards
of heart-attack diagnosis.
The greater concern, however,
is that these silent heart attacks account for nearly 45 percent
of all heart attacks.
Patients with diabetes and similardisorders suffer from nerve damage
that prevents them from feelingthe sort of pain
that usually signals to someone
that he or she may be havinga heart attack.
Which means they sufferthe damage of a heart attack
without even knowing or feeling anything.
These already at-risk patientssuffer from nerve damage,
and they do not getimmediate medical care.
They do not know anything before an unlikely event is about to occur.
My grandfatherwas an at-risk patient, too.
I probed this issue further —
read as much as I couldto understand the heart,
met researchersand worked across labs in India.
And finally, after three long yearsof persistent research,
what I have to share with the world today is a promising solution.
A noninvasive device that is inexpensive, portable,
wearable by at-riskpatients at all times.
It greatly reducesthe need for a blood test
and works 24/7, collectingand analyzing data at preset intervals.
And all this data is collectedfor a single purpose:
detecting heart attacks as they occur.
This is a very promising solution that might help us in the future.
You may not know how intelligentyour heart really is.
It tries to communicate to your bodymultiple times before failing,
by indicating symptoms like chest pain.
These symptoms are triggeredwhen the heart loses out
on oxygen-rich blood flow.
But remember I told youabout the nerve damage.
It silences these symptomsbefore a silent heart attack,
which makes it even deadlier.
And you may not even knowthe common symptoms. Meanwhile,
the heart also sends outcertain biomarkers —
cardiac biomarkers or proteinsthat are SOS messages —
in the form of SOS messages —
into your bloodstream, indicating that the heart is at risk.
As it gets riskier and riskier,
the concentrationsof these cardiac biomarker proteins
keep increasing abysmally.
My device solely relies on this data.
The key is that these cardiacbiomarkers are found
in one of the earlieststages of a heart attack,
when someone is almost sure to survive
if he or she gets prompt care.
And my device is solely basedon that basis.
And here’s how my device works.
A silicon patch is worn around your wrist or placed near your chest.
Without having to prick your skinfor a biomarker blood test,
this patch can spot, isolate and tracka heart-attack specific biomarker
and alerts you if and when it reaches a critical level in your bloodstream —
a process that’s much simpler, easier and cheaper
than conventional methods of heart-attack diagnosis.
By checking on biomarkerconcentration data,
a system like this,with advanced research in the future,
could significantly reduce the need
for an at-risk patient to go to a doctor
for a biomarker blood test,
because the device could be worn at all times,
sensing biomarker elevations in real time. Thus,
if the device senses
the biomarker levels going beyond the critical point,
the at-risk patient could be warnedof an impending cardiac arrest
and that he or she needsimmediate medical attention.
Although the device may not be ableto provide the patient
with the complete analysisof the cardiac injury,
it might be of immense help
in actually indicatingthat the patient is in danger,
so that the patient can be alarmed
and know that immediate care is crucial.
Every at-risk patient will now receivemore time to survive
and reach out for medical help.
Consequently, they don’t have to go
for expensive and invasivemedical treatments
that would otherwise be necessaryafter a heart attack.
When I got my device testedon at-risk patients under observation,
results from the clinical validation tests
certified close to a 96 percentaccuracy and sensitivity.
I intend to make my device available to people in two variants:
one which gives digital analysisof the biomarker levels
and a simpler versionfor the people in rural areas
which simply vibrates when the biomarker levels go beyond the critical point.
When we look at our progressin cardiac health care today,
it is more of sick care than preventativeself-care and technology.
We literally waitfor the heart attack to occur
and put our vast majority of resourcesinto post-care treatment.
But by then, irreversible damagewill already be done.
I firmly believe it’s timefor us to rethink medicine.
We must establish proactivehealth-care technologies.
A change must be brought outnot 10 years from now,
not five years from now, but today.
And so, hopefully, one day,
with the help of these devices,
someone else won’t lose his or her grandfather just like I did.
Thank you so much.