未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

为什么视野开阔的街道更容易出事故

A Flaw In Street Design May Be Costing Lives - Cheddar Explains

2015年 阿肯色州的一位城市规划师制作了这样一张图片
In 2015, an urban planner in Arkansas created this meme,
哪条街道更加安全?
Which street is safer?
这两条街道都位于住宅区 限速为每小时20英里
They’re both residential streets with a 20 mile per hour speed limit.
但是尽管这条街道设计得
But while this street was designed
对司机来说更开阔
to be more forgiving to drivers,
实际上这条才是更安全的街道
this is actually the safer street.
那么为什么在过去的五十年间
so why have we been building so many streets like this one
我们修建了那么多像这样的街道呢?
over the past 50 years?
2017年 交通死亡人数达到了25年间的最高值
In 2017, traffic deaths hit a 25-year-high,
——4万起死亡事故
a forty thousand fatalities.
那些死亡的人当中有6000人是行人
six thousands of those killed were pedestrians.
全国各地的城市都在努力
Cities across the country are trying
通过安全运动来减少交通事故
to reduce traffic fatalities with safety campaigns.
整个问题的关键之一
And one of the keys to the whole problem
可能是一个上世纪中叶传下来的错误设计理念
might be a flawed mid century design philosophy.
在20世纪60年代 有一场大型的交通安全运动
There was a big transportation safety movement in the 1960s.
这时也正是汽车安全气囊和碰撞试验发展的时期
This is when we saw the development of airbags and crash tests.
在1965年 拉尔夫·纳德出版了一本
In 1965, Ralph Nader published a book
关于汽车和道路在设计上的危险的书
about the designed-in dangers of cars and roads.
他谴责汽车公司为了降低成本
He accused car companies of resisting safety improvements.
而放弃提高汽车的安全性能
in order to cut costs
这本书的销量非常高
The book was a best seller.
参议院因此召开了听证会
It led to Senate hearings
接着交通部也由此创建
which then led to the creation of the Department of Transportation,
最终促成了国家公路交通安全管理局的建立
which eventually led to the creation of the National Highway Safety Administration.
1966年 国会安全听证会上准备了两个
There were two key testimonies during congressional safety hearings in1966
街道设计缺陷的关键性证据
that paved the way for a flawed approach to street design
其中之一就是拉尔夫·纳德所提出的
One was Ralph Nader.
我们的安全法此前要求
Where our safety laws had previously been about
强制遵守安全驾驶行为准则 比如限速
enforcing safe driving behaviors like following the speed limit,
但纳德的证据改变了人们的想法
Nader’s testimony led to a shift in thinking.
他说:“即使有人发生了交通事故
He said,”Even if people have accidents,
即使有人犯了错误
even if they make mistakes,
即使有人把头探出窗外看
even if they are looking out the window
或者醉酒驾驶
or they are drunk,
我们都应该为这些人设计第二道安全防线
we should have a second line of defense for these people.
这一系列事件引发的安全事故
The sequence of events that leads to an accident injury
在对因果关系有完整的了解之前
can be broken by engineering measures,
就能通过工程措施解决
even before there is a complete understanding of the causal chain.”
另一个关键证据来自于通用汽车公司的一位高级工程师
The other key testimony came from a senior engineer at General Motors.
Ken Stonex帮助通用汽车公司的设计部建立了
Ken Stonex helped GM Design a so-called crash proof
一个名为“试验场”的公路防撞测试场地
highway test site called” The Proving Ground”.
“当以每小时90英里的速度行驶时 前胎爆胎后会发生什么?
What happens when a front tire blows at 90 miles an hour?
让我们找出答案
Let’s find out.
完美的控制 基本的内置稳定性”
Perfect control, basic built-in stability.
这个试验场的间距很宽
The proving ground had wide clearances,
道路两边与路中央各相距100英尺
100 feet on either side of the roadway,
保证了驾驶员们的安全
as a safety measure for drivers.
试验场的碰撞数据表明
Crash data from the proving ground showed that
大多数跑离道路的汽车在30英尺之内就能停下来
most cars that ran off the road came to a stop within 30 feet.
听证委员会认同了这些数据
The committee at the hearing seized on this data.
当时交通死亡的主要原因之一是
One of the main sources of traffic fatalities at the time
车跑离路面
was single vehicles running off the road
然后与类似树木或者灯杆的固定物体碰撞
and colliding with a fixed object like a tree or light post.
Stonex证实出 我们应该运营90%
Stonex testified that we should operate 90 percent
或者更多的地面街道
or more of our surface streets
就像运营高速公路一样
just as we do our freeways,
我们应该把街道改造成
and that we should convert streets
和试验场一样的道路和路侧环境
to proving ground road and road-side conditions
到1967年 30英尺净区被
By 1967, the 30-foot clear zone was
纳入道路设计官方标准
adopted into the official standard for road design.
Nader和Stonex的观点反映出一个更大的想法 即“容错设计”
The Nader and stonex testimonies reflect a bigger idea called” Forgiving Design”.
其基本观点是:没有一个驾驶员是绝对可靠的
The thinking goes,”No driver is infallible,
是人都会犯错
mistakes will be made.
因此让我们在设计道路和街道时记住
So let’s design our roads and streets with that in mind
要尽可能宽阔
to be as forgiving as possible
当驾驶员真正犯下不可避免的错误时
when a driver does make inevasible errors,
他们才有足够的空间去重新控制车辆
they’ve got plenty of room to regain control.”
这个想法的一个最大缺陷是
The critical flaw in this thinking,
这个设计没有估计出在这样宽阔的环境中
this design doesn’t account for how drivers would adjust
驾驶者会如何调整他们的行为
their behavior in a forgiving environment.
一个宽阔的环境有敞亮的路肩
A forgiving environment has wide clear shoulders,
宽广笔直的道路 一望无际的视野
wide straight travel ways, high visibility.
但当你在这样的街道上开车时
But when you drive on a street like this,
一些事情就会发生
something happens
你的大脑认为这是一个安全的环境
Your brain perceives this as a safe environment.
所以即使限速是每小时20英里
so even if the posted speed limit is 20 miles an hour,
潜意识中的安全感会使你的速度慢慢提高
that subconscious feeling of safety means your speed tends to creep up and up.
如果你记得驾驶员道路测试
If you remember Driver’s Ed,
其中写着 高速导致死亡
you remember, speed kills.
“造成事故的原因就是他总是开得那么快”
He always draw too fast and that’s what caused the accident.
当你被一辆时速20英里的车撞击时
When you’re hit by a car going 20 miles an hour,
你有90%的可能性存活
nine out of 10 times you’ll survive.
但是随着速度的增加
But as speed increases,
你存活下来的几率会越来越小
the numbers get pretty grim.
因此城市规划者和安全倡导者
so urbanists and safety advocates
在试图让我们思考
are trying to get us to think about
当司机不在高速公路上时 我们怎样才能减缓他们的速度
how we can slow drivers down when we’re not on highways.
像这样有树木遮盖和狭窄小巷的街道
Streets like this one with its tree canopy and narrow lanes
实际上在容错设计中是不合理的
were actually outlawed when The Forgiving Design Movement took hold.
这条街道看起来似乎对驾驶员更危险
This street looks and feels more hazardous to a driver.
你没有很好的视野
You don’t have great visibility,
在窄道上时 你需要绕开那些停在路边的车子
you have to weave around parked cars in a narrow lane,
你一直能感受到环境中存在的危险
sensing the inherent risk in the environment,
你会更倾向于减慢一点速度
you tend to take things a little slower,
无论这条街道标示的限速是多少
no matter what the posted speed limit says.
这就意味着Stonex的试验场数据是完全错误的吗?
Does this mean that Stonex’s proving ground data was totally wrong?
也不尽然
Not at all.
但是他和其他交通工程师忘记了一个重要的区别
But he and other transportation engineers collapsed an important distinction.
道路和街道之间是有不同的
There’s a difference between roads and streets.
道路仅仅是将两个地点连接起来
Roads are simply about connecting to places.
它们被设计得简便高速 具有很高的运送能力
They’re designed to facilitate speedy, efficient movement.
但街道是和建造地以及经济价值有关的
Streets are about building place and economic value.
所以在过去的十年里
Ana so over the last decade,
城市规划者开始反思老旧的容错设计理念
urbanists have begun to call into question the old forgiving design philosophy.
容错设计让驾驶员
Forgiving design is forgiving to drivers
在高速公路和主干道上放心地高速行驶
at high speeds on highways and arterial roads,
但它对于城市街道来说不是最安全的设计
but it’s not the safest design for urban streets
你还必须得考虑行人和骑自行车的人
where you’ve also got to think about pedestrians and cyclists.
这是一个设计与使用不相匹配的设计案例
It’s a case of the design not matching up with the use.
但是现在城市规划者已经认识到这个问题
But now that Urbanists have pointed out the problem,
我们开始看到设计元素的回归
we’re starting to see a return to design elements
即下意识地鼓励驾驶员放慢行车速度
that subconsciously encourage drivers to take it slow.
非常感谢您的观看
Thanks so much for watching.
如果你有任何绝佳的例子
Hit the comments to let us know
或是你住的地方道路设计不合理
if you had any examples of excellent
发表评论告诉我们
or a terrible road design where you live
点击铃声图标 下次发布视频时我们会通知您
and hit the bell icon to be notified next time we post a video.
我们下次再见
See you next time.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

在过去的道路设计方法中,设计者通常倾向于宽阔的街道设计,但这样仅对驾驶员比较友好,而对街道上的行人和骑自行车的人不利,因为驾驶员潜意识中的安全会使行车速度越来越快,导致行人的死亡率大大提高。我们应该认识到道路设计和城市街道设计的区别,重新考虑街道设计要求,使驾驶员放慢行车速度。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

玄玄

审核员

审核员_MC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yyWYvovLvMQ

相关推荐