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传染病如何统治世界

A Disease's Guide to World Domination

Hi, this is Kate from MinuteEarth.
嗨 我是《分钟地球》的Kate
Let’s say you’re an infectious disease
假设你是一种传染病
with dreams of spreading as far and wide as possible.
希望尽可能广泛传播
Your logical starting point might be to invade a host,
你的逻辑起点可能是入侵一个宿主
and make as many mini-yous as fast as you can
然后尽快尽多生成迷你版的你
to spread to as many other hosts as you can.
以便传播给尽可能多的宿主
However, that would be probably be counterproductive.
然而 这可能会适得其反
Because the more of yourself you make, the worse your host feels.
因为你自我复制越多 宿主感觉越不舒服
And the worse they feel, the less likely they are

他们感觉越不舒服 就越不可能
to go out and interact with other potential hosts.
外出并接触到其他的潜在宿主
That’s a problem if you’re like most pathogens
这会是一个难题 如果你和大多数病原体一样
and require close contact
需要通过亲密接触
like a hand shake, a shared drink
例如握手 分享饮品
or something more…intimate
或是更加亲密的举动
to move from host to host.
才能在宿主间传播
This reliance on close contact imposes a major constraint.
这种对亲密接触的依赖大大限制了你的传播
Most diseases have to limit the damage they inflict
大多数传染病必须对伤害的限度加以控制
in order to keep their hosts feeling well enough and alive enough
这样宿主才能感觉良好 有较充沛的精力
to drag themselves out of bed and into contact with other potential hosts.
外出接触潜在宿主 而不是躺在床上休息
That’s why most diseases even if they aren’t fun
这就是大多数传染病尽管不太乐意
usually only cause limited harm.
通常只对宿主造成有限伤害的原因
But there are pathogens that can get around much more freely,
但有些病原体可以更自由地传播
and they’re able to get really nasty, like cholera.
它们会变得非常难对付 例如霍乱
Some strains of this diarrhea-causing bacteria
导致腹泻的这一细菌
can kill their hosts in a matter of hours.
其某些菌株能在几小时内杀死宿主
Since the disease can move through water,
由于能通过水传播
hosts don’t have to be particularly mobile to transmit.
这类传染病不需要宿主有过多移动
In fact, sicker hosts poop more bacteria into the water supply,
实际上 重病患会向水源中排泄更多细菌
diarrheaching even more people
导致更多人腹泻
So cholera is free to replicate with abandon and inflict serious damage.
因此霍乱菌可以肆意复制 造成严重危害
The same is true for diseases transmitted by flies, mosquitoes,
由苍蝇 蚊子和其他爬虫
and other creepy-crawlies,
传播的疾病同理
which can access even super-sick hosts
它们可以感染危重患者
and easily spread the pathogen around,
轻易传播病原体
and for diseases that can linger in the environment
对于能在环境中存活数年等待新宿主的传染病
for years waiting for a new host.
道理也是如此
In general, pathogens that can be passed along at a distance
一般来说 经过远距离或长时间
or after long periods of time,
仍能传播的病原体
tend to be more lethal than those that require close contact.
比需要亲密接触才能传播的病原体更致命
Yet we may be able to tame these diseases
我们或许可以通过限制直接接触
by imposing the constraint of direct contact.
使这些传染病变得温和
For example, in the 1990’s,
例如 在20世纪90年代
a cholera epidemic in South America
南美洲爆发霍乱
spread from places where bacteria could move freely through the water supply
霍乱从细菌能通过水源自由传播的地区
to areas where better sanitation practices made water-borne transmission impossible.
蔓延到卫生条件更好 细菌无法通过水源传播的地区
There, since cholera had to rely on decent-feeling hosts to spread,
在那儿 由于霍乱要靠症状轻微的宿主传播
it evolved into a milder strain.
它进化成了一种温和的菌株
So interventions for deadly diseases
所以阻断致命传染病的手段
Like cleaning up water supplies,
比如 清洁水源
or say using bed nets regularly to keep insects away
定期使用蚊帐避开昆虫
can not only keep people from getting sick,
不仅可以防止人们患病
they can also turn deadly diseases into diseases that only make people moderately sick.
还能让传染病变得温和 不再致命
And that’s an exciting germ of an idea.
这真是个令人兴奋的想法!
Thanks to Curiosity Stream for sponsoring this video.
感谢《好奇流》对本视频的赞助
Created by the founder of Discovery Channel,
《好奇流》由《探索频道》的创始人建立
Curiosity Stream gives you access to over 1,700 documentaries and series
拥有超1700部纪录片和系列节目
on science and history from the world’s best filmmakers.
由世界顶尖的导演制作 涵盖科学 历史领域
We’re happy to help them announce their newest addition
我们很荣幸介绍他们的最新作品
“Stephen Hawking’s Favorite Places 2”
《斯蒂芬·霍金最爱之地2》
Following the Emmy-winning first episode,
继第一部获艾美奖后
in Favorite Places 2,
在第二部里
Hawking free-falls into Venus and travels through time
霍金自由下落到金星并穿越时空
in search of the theory of everything.
以寻找万物理论
Check it out at CuriosityStream.com/minute
请登录CuriosityStream.com/minute
where you can enter the code “minute” to get your first three weeks free
输入代码minute 前三周可免费观看
Again, that’s CuriosityStream.com/minute
再说一次 是CuriosityStream.com/minute

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视频概述

介绍传染病如何通过适应传播条件实现更大范围的扩散,以及人类如何应对。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

KJQWXYZC

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ch4d9qEKmHE

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