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公共教育的演进 – 译学馆
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公共教育的演进

A different way of thinking

环球学者基金会 奖学金 志愿者 认证
UNIVERSAL SCHOLAR FOUNDATIONSCHOLARSHIPS. VOLUNTEER. RECOGNITION
当前 世界上每个国家都在改革公共教育
Every country on earth at the moment is reforming public education.
改革基于两点原因——
There are two reasons for it–
第一是经济原因
The first of them is economic–
人们正试着弄明白
people’re trying to work out
该如何教育我们的下一代
how do we educate our children
为让他们在21世纪 改善经济状况
to take their place in the economies of the 21st century.
我们该如何做呢
How do we do that?
考虑到我们无法预测下周的经济状况
Given that we can’t anticipate what the economy will look like at the end of next week
正如无法预料最近的混乱状况一样
as the recent turmoil is demonstrating.
我们该如何做呢
How do we do that?
第二是文化原因
The second is cultural.
世界上每个国家都想知道
Every country on earth is trying to figure out
我们应该怎样教育自己的孩子
how do we educate our children
培养他们的文化认同感
so they have a sense of cultural identity,
这样 作为全球化进程中的一份子
and so that we can pass on the cultural genes of our communities,
我们就可以传承我们的社会文化基因
while being part of the process of globalization.
我们如何与其保持一致呢
How do we square that circle?
问题就在于 穿新鞋走老路
The problem is that trying to meet the future by doing what they did in the past.
这一过程中 他们冷落了数百万的孩子
And on the way they’re alienating millions of kids
这些孩子认为 上学毫无意义
who don’t see any purpose in going to school.
上学期间
When we went to school,
我们被圈在学校里 是因为听说 只要努力学习 成绩好
we were kept there with a story, which was if you worked hard and did well,
就能有大学文凭 就会找到好工作
and got a college degree, you would have a job.
孩子们不相信这种说法
Our kids don’t believe that.
当然了 他们是对的
And they’re right not to, by the way.
因为有文凭总比没文凭得好
You’re better having a degree than not.
只不过 文凭再也不是铁饭碗了
But it is not a guarantee any more,
尤其是在团体忽略那些
and particularly not if the group to it
你自己很看重的东西的情况下
marginalises most of things that you think are important about yourself.
有人说 作为突破 我们必须得提高标准
Some people say we have to raise standards as if this is a breakthrough.
你知道 好像 我们真的就该这么做
You know, like, really, yes, we should.
为什么要降低标准呢
Why would you lower them?
你懂的 [笑声] 我的意思是……
You know…[laugh] I mean, I…
我从来就没遇到过一次讨论是劝我降低标准的
I haven’t come across an argument that persuades me of lowering them.
提高标准 我们确实就该这么做
But raising them and of course we should raise them
问题在于 当代的教育机制
The problem is that the current system of education
是为不同的时代设计 构想以及构筑的
was designed and conceived and structured for a different age.
它是在启蒙运动的知识文化
It was conceived in the intellectual culture of the enlightenment,
和工业革命的经济环境中 孕育出来的
and in the economic circumstance of the industrial revolution.
在十九世纪中叶之前
Before the middle of 19th century,
没有公共教育体系
there were no systems of public education.
并非完地不存在 我是说 你可以接受耶稣会的教育
Not really, I mean you can get educated by Jesuits.
你懂得 只要你有钱
You know, if you had the money.
而公共教育的资金来源是税收
But public education paid for from taxation,
对所有人强制征税 让大家免费接受教育——
compulsory to everybody, and free at the point of delivery–
这是一个革命性的想法
that was a revolutionary idea.
但有不少人对此持反对意见
And many people objected to it.
反对者认为 让街头小混混 工薪阶层的孩子们都受益于公共教育是不可能的
They said it’s not possible for many street kids, working class children benefit from public education.
他们是学不会读书写字的
They’re incapable of learning to read and write.
那为什么还要在公共教育上浪费时间呢
So why are we spending time on this?
公共教育是以一系列关于社会结构和能力假设建立的
So there is also built into the whole series of um…assumptions about social structure and capacity.
这些观念是由那个时代的经济需求所驱动的 然而 贯穿其中的是思维的智力模式 即本质上就是启蒙运动时期的才智观
It was driven by an economic imperative of the time,
但是透过公共教育 嗯……
But running right through it umm…
它是一种智慧的典范
was an intellectual model of the mind,
其本质就是 启蒙时代的智力观
which was essentially the Enlightenment view of intelligence.
真正的智慧是拥有演绎推理能力
The real intelligence consists in this capacity of a certain type of deductive reasoning
对经典著作有所了解——
and a knowledge of the classics originally–
即我们所说的学术能力
what we come to think of as academic ability.
是公共教育所要培养的最根本的能力
And this is deep in the gene pool of public education.
世界上有两种人 学术型和非学术型
There are really two types of people: academic and non academic;
聪明人以及一般人
smart people and non smart people.
但公共教育让很多聪明人认为自己并不聪明
And the consequence of that is that many brilliant people think they’re not,
因为他们的个性想法是被排除在现行的评价标准之外的
because they have been judged against this particular view of the mind.
所以公共教育有了一对支柱: 经济以及智力
So we have twin pillars: economic and intellectual.
我个人认为这种模式
And my view is that this model
把很多人的生活搞得一团糟
has caused chaos in many people’s lives.
对部分人来说 公共教育是相当不错的
It’s been great for some,
因为人们从中获益很多
there being people have benefited wonderfully from it
但多数人并未受益 反之因一种病而痛苦不堪——
But most people have not, instead they suffer this–
这是一种现代的流行病
this is a modern epidemic.
这种病是不合情理的 虚构的
And it’s as misplaced, and it’s as fictitious.
这是小儿多动症的瘟疫
This is the plague of ADHD.
这是一张显示美国多动症患者分布的地图
Now this is a map of the instance of ADHD in America
或者说是多动症的处方
or prescriptions for ADHD.
别误会 我不是说
Don’t mistake me. I don’t mean to say
没有注意力缺陷障碍之类的东西
there is no such thing as Attention Deficit Disorder.
我没有资格去说是否存在这样的东西
I am not qualified to say if there is such a thing.
我知道绝大多数心理学家以及儿科医生
I know that a great majority of psychologists and pediatricians
都认为有这么一种病
think there is such a thing.
但争议仍然存在
But it’s still a matter of debate.
我所知道的多动症 事实上并非传染病
What I do know for a fact is it’s not an epidemic.
这些孩子正在接收药物治疗
These kids are being medicated,
正如我们取出我们扁桃体一样正常
as routinely as we had our tonsils taken out.
在同样异想天开的基础上
And on the same whimsical basis,
由于同样的原因:医疗方式
and for the same reason: medical fashion.
我们的孩子生活在有史以来
Our children are living in the most intensely stimulating period
外界刺激最强烈地时期
in the history of the earth.
他们被各种信息包围着
They’re being besieged with information,
所有的信息平台 都会吸引他们的注意力:
and pause their attention from every platform:
电脑 手机 广告牌
computers, from iPhones, from advertising hoardings,
来自 成百上千的电视频道
from hundreds of television channels…
现在 我们会因孩子注意力的转移而惩罚他们
And we’re penalizing them now for getting distracted
从什么事情上转移呢
From what?
你懂得的……都是些无聊的事
You know…boring stuff,
多数时候都是在学校分神
at school, for the most part.
在我看来 这并不是巧合
It seems to me not a coincidence totally.
小儿多动症的发病率与标准化测试
but the incidence of ADHD has written in parallel with
与标准化测试的增长成正比
the growth of standardized testing.
现在这些孩子服用了利他能
Now these kids are being given Ritalin
和阿德拉以及各种各样的药
and Adderall and all manner of things,
通常都是让孩子集中注意力并冷静下来的
often quick dangerous drugs,
危害很大的速效药
to get them focused and calm them down.
但根据这张地图
But according to this,
往东穿越美国时
Attention Deficit Disorder increases
多动症患者呈增长趋势
as you travel east across the country.
人们开始对俄克拉荷马丧失兴趣
People start losing interest in Oklahoma,
在阿肯色州 他们几乎不能正常地思考
They can hardly think straight in Arkansas.
直到他们到了华盛顿
And by the time, they get to Washington.
他们完全失去了思考能力
They’ve lost it completely.
我相信 对这种事 有很多不同的原因
And there are separate reasons for that, I believe.
这是一种虚构学术
It’s a fictitious academic.
如果你认为是——艺术
If you think of it– the arts.
并且我认为这并不是艺术的排他性导致
And I don’t think this is exclusive of the arts.
而且我认为这与科学 数学也有关联
I think it’s also true of science and of math.
但我觉得……尤其和艺术有关
But let me…I say the arts, particularly.
因为多动症患者 更是这种心智的受害者
Because they are the victims of this mentality currently, particularly.
艺术 特别是说话的艺术
The arts, especially address,
这一审美体验的观点
the idea of aesthetic experience.
就是你的感觉
An aesthetic experience is one in which your senses
达到顶峰时的感觉
are operating at their peak.
当你立足当下
When you’re present in the current moment,
和一桩激动人心的事产生共鸣时
When you’re resonating with the excitement of this thing,
你能感觉到自己确实是活着的
that you’re experiencing when you’re fully alive.
麻醉就是 你的所有感觉都消失了
And anaesthetic is when you shut your senses off
你对发生的事情毫无反应
and deaden yourself to what’s happening.
我们就是用这些药物
And a lot of these drugs are that
来麻醉学生
we are getting our children through education
让他们接受教育的
by anaesthetising them.
我觉得我们应该反其道而行之
And I think we should do exact opposite,
不该让他们沉睡
we shouldn’t be putting them asleep;
应该唤醒他们
we should be waking them up;
走进他们的内心深处
to what’s they have inside of themselves.
但我们现在的模式就是——
But the model we have is this–
我相信我们现在的教育体系
It’s I believe we have a system of education
是建立在工业利益之上的
that is modeled on the interests of industrialisation.
在这一情境当中
And in the image of it,
我给你举几个例子
I’ll give you a couple of examples.
在很大程度上 学校的管理依然是工厂流水线作业
Schools are still pretty much organised on factory lines,
铃声 专门针对不同学科的
ringing bells, separate facilities…
独立的教学设施
are specialized into separate subjects.
我们仍然是分批教育我们的孩子
We still educate children by batches,
你知道 我们按年龄将他们分组
you know, we put them through the system by age group.
为什么这样做呢
Why do we do that?
你知道 “为什么”是基于一个设想
You know, why is that there is an assumption
即 孩子们拥有的 最重要的共同点 他们多大了
that the most important thing kids have in common is how old they are?
你知道 对他们来说最重要的
You know, it’s like the most important about them
是自己的“生产”日期
is their date of manufacture.
好吧 我知道一些孩子比其他的孩子更优秀
Well I know kids who’re much better than other kids,
同样的年龄 不同的纪律
at the same age in different disciplines,
你知道 或者在一天的不同时候
you know, or at different times of the day,
或在一个小组里面比在一个大组中表现更好
or better in smaller groups than in large groups,
有时他们想一个人待着
or sometimes they want to be on their own.
如果你对学习的方式感兴趣
If you are interested in the model of learning,
就不会以“生产线”这样的思维开始
you don’t start from this production line mentality.
这……一致性很重要
This…it’s essentially about conformity,
越来越重要
increasingly about that,
正如你看到标准化测试的增长
as you look at the growth of standardized testing
标准化课程仍在增长
and standardized curricula.
这与标准化相关
And it’s about standardization.
我相信我们的方向是完全相反的
I believe we got to go in the exact opposite direction.
这就是我要说的 改变模式
That’s what I mean about changing the paradigm.
最近有一项 两年前发表的关于发散思维的研究
There was a great study done recently of divergent thinking, published a couple of years ago.
发散思维不同于创造性
Divergent thinking isn’t the same thing as creativity.
我将创造力定义为
I define creativity as
有价值的原创思想的产生过程
the process of having original ideas that have value;
发散思维可不是创造力的一个同义词
Divergent thinking isn’t a synonym,
但它是创造力的一个重要能力
but it’s an essential capacity for creativity.
这是一种 对同一问题发现多种答案的能力
It’s the ability to see lots of possible answers to a question,
有很多种方法来诠释一个问题
lots of possible ways of interpreting a question,
呃……去想想 爱德华•德•波诺 可能会说些什么
Uh…to think whatever Ed De Bono probably call “laterally”.
呃……不要只限于线性思考 或取趋同方法思考
uh…to think not just in linear or convergent ways,
想出多种答案 不仅是一个
to see multiple answers, not one.
所以我将对此进行测试
So I’m gonna do the test for it.
举一个货到付款的例子
So I mean one kind of COD example would be
人们会被问到 你觉得回形针能有多少种用途
people might be asked to say how many uses can you think of for a paper clip?
所有那些常规问题
All those routine questions.
大部分人可能想出十至十五种(用途)
most people might come up with 10 or 15.
精于此道的人有可能会想出两百种
People who are good at this might come up with 200.
他们会这样说:
And they do that by saying:
“这些回形针可能有两百英尺高 由泡沫乳胶做成吗”
” Well, could the paper clip be 200 foot tall and be made out of foam rubber? “
你懂的 像…… “一定是我们平时看到的那种回形针吗 吉姆”
You know, like– ” Does it have to be a paper clip as we know it, Jim? “
嗯……现在是测试人员
Um…Now the testers.
他们把这些放在一本[转折点及超越]的书里
They gave them to 1500 people,
发给1500个人
in a book called Break Point And Beyond.
依据测试协议
and on the protocol of the test,
如果你超过某一特定水平
if you’re scored above a certain level,
将会被认为是发散思维的天才
you would be considered to a genius of divergent thinking.
好 所以我的问题是
Ok, so my question to you is
这1500名测试者 有多大比例
what percentage of the people tested of the 1500
会达到发散思维天才的等级呢
scored a genius level for divergent thinking?
对他们 我需要知道一件事情
I need to know one more thing about them.
这些都是幼儿园的孩子
These were kindergarten children.
你们觉得呢
So what do you think?
达到天才水平的有多少
What percentage of genius level?
80吗 觉得80可以吗 98%
80? Think 80 ok? 98%
有关于此的思维 是一项纵向研究
Now the think about this was, it was a longitudinal study.
五年之后 他们重新测试这群8到10岁的孩子
So they retested the same children five years later,
你觉得怎么样呢 50?
age of 8-10, what do you think? 50?
五年之后 他们又重新测试了一次
They retested them again five years latter
年龄在13到15岁之间的这群孩子
ages 13 to 15
你可以看到一种趋势 不是吗
You can see a trend here, can’t you?
它告诉我们一件非常有趣的事
Now this tells an interesting story
因为你很难想象 事情会朝着不同的方向发展 不是吗
Because you could’ve imagined it going the other way, could you?
开始很难做好 但随着年龄的增长 你会越做越好
You start off not being very good but you get better as you get older.
但这表明两件事情
But this shows two things.
第一 我们有这个能力
One is we all have this capacity,
第二 大部分都在衰退
and two, it mostly deteriorates.
在孩子们成长的过程中 会有很多事发生在他们身上 很多
Now a lot of things have happened to these kids as they’ve grown up, a lot.
但其中最重要的
But one of the most important things out and
我到现在才确信的一件事 他们是受了教育的
I’m convinced is that by now, they have become educated.
他们知道自己花了十年去上学 然后被告知
They know they’ve spent ten years at school being told
答案就在身后
there is one answer, it’s at the back,
不要张望 不要抄袭 因为那是作弊
and don’t look, and don’t copy, because that’s cheating!
我是说 在校外那叫合作 但你知道 在学校里面……
I mean outside schools that’s called collaboration, you know but inside schools…
现在不同了 因为老师希望这样
Now this isn’t because teachers want it this way.
只是因为 它就那样发生了
It’s just because it happens that way.
嗯……因为它就在教育基因库里
Um…it’s because it’s in the gene pool of education.
我们必须以不同地方式思考人类的能力
We have to think differently about human capacity.
必须克服这个过时的 学术的 非学术的
We have to get over this old conception of academic, non-academic,
抽象的 理论的 职业的观念
abstract, theoretical, vocational,
然后将它看做……嗯……一个神话
and see it for what it is…um…a myth.
嗯……第二点 我们必须意识到伟大的学问来自于集体的智慧
Uh…second we have to recognize that most great learning happens in groups.
协作是我们成长过程中的必然产物
The collaboration is the stuff of growth.
如果我们把人们分离开来 并分别判断
If we atomize people and separate them and judge them separately,
就会在他们及其自然的学习环境中造成分裂
we form a kind of disjunction between them and their natural learning environment.
第三 这对我们社会文化至关重要:
And thirdly it’s crucially about the culture of our institutions:
制度文化和所占有的栖息地
the habits of institutions and the habitats that they occupy.
环球学者基金会
Universal Scholar Foundation. org.Join the Movement

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视频概述

人生而平等,理应平等的接受教育,只是由于肉食者有失公允的决策,才出现凡此种种。还好,社会在进步,教育也在不断的发展。

听录译者

凛安

翻译译者

我乐意

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q2vBuZv_Af0

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