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广泛性焦虑障碍的表现 – 译学馆
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广泛性焦虑障碍的表现

A Declassified Guide to Anxiety

来吧心理学
Psych2Go
持续的紧张或过度的忧虑 是广泛性焦虑障碍(GAD)患者的典型症状
People with generalized anxiety disorder or GAD are characterized by constant stress or excessive anxiety.
当面对有压力的事情时
when something stressful happens
大脑就会释放皮质醇和肾上腺素
the brain releases cortisol and adrenaline
让肌肉做好反抗压力或逃避压力的准备
causing the muscles to prepare to fight off stressor or run away from it
这被称为交感神经系统反应
this is otherwise known as sympathetic nervous system response
又叫战逃反应
or the fight or flight reflex.
广泛性焦虑症患者会出现战逃反应从而影响其正常生活功能
People with GAD have fight-or-flight constantly running on the back burner.
以下每一点都是该反应的结果
Each of the following points is a result of that reflex
躁动不安
Restlessness and fidgeting.
这更是逃避反应而非反抗
This is more the flight than the fight response,
肌肉和大脑都已经准备好逃跑
the muscles and brain are ready to go,
但没有可逃避的东西
but there’s nothing to run from.
这就是医生说定期运动能减轻焦虑症的原因
This is why doctors say that regular exercise alleviates symptoms of anxiety.
因为“逃跑激素”真的用来跑了
Because people are using all their pent up go hormones in their bodies to actually go.
有人觉得在手里拿着小物体会有所帮助
Some people find it helpful to have a small object to occupy their hands,
例如折叠或撕碎一张纸
like a scrap of paper to fold and tear.
这样一来 手上有事 就免去了遭受躁动习惯的荼毒
This way the hands are kept busy and prevented from harmful fidgeting habits,
例如咬或抓自己的手指
like chewing or picking at their fingers.
缺乏活力或易疲劳
Lack of energy or rapid fatigue.
你身体的另一面总是准备着逃跑或反抗
The flipside of your body constantly being ready to run or fight
这真的让人筋疲力尽
is that it’s truly exhausting.
例如
For example,
你现在要绷紧你身体的每一块肌肉
you were to tense every muscle possible in your body right now
然后这样保持下去
and hold it for the rest of forever,
很快你就会浑身酸痛
you would get exhausted pretty quick.
当你所有的能量都用在应付
When all your energy is going towards something
一切可能需要应激的事上
that could require an immediate response.
像起床关灯这样的日常事务
Then everyday tasks like getting up to turn off the lights
感觉起来就更累人
seem much more tiring.
肠易激 胃酸反流 恶心或其他胃病
Irritable bowels acid reflux nausea or other stomach ailments.
首先想到的可能是你
The first thought is probably you,
但如果你想一想 这就很合乎道理了
but if you think about it this makes a lot of sense.
人们不能饱腹进行
People can’t run long distances
长距离跑步或做繁重的锻炼
or perform heavy workouts with a full stomach
否则会导致胃痉挛
or that leads to cramps.
所以这是你的身体正试图加速消化
So this is your body attempting to rush the job of digestion
以便为战斗做准备
so that it can allow for a fight,
并让你的身体更轻盈灵动
and make your body lighter and more aerodynamic
这使得逃离更容易
which makes fleeing easier.
入睡困难或干脆失眠
Trouble falling asleep or staying asleep.
这一条很简单
This one is pretty simple.
如果在一个地方待太久 危险就会逼近
If you’re in one place for too long, the danger could catch up to you
而你的身体却没意识到其实没有任何危险
your body however doesn’t realize that there isn’t actually any danger.
所以如果你保持清醒 或只睡很短的时间 就比较安全了
So if you stay awake or only sleep short periods of time it’s safer.
不幸的是 这种系统是个恶性循环
Unfortunately this system is a nasty cycle.
你焦虑不安 以至于无法入睡
You get anxious so you can’t sleep
这会给你的大脑和身体带来更大压力
which leads to even more stress on your mind and body
使你更难入睡 以此类推
which makes it even harder to sleep and so on.
换气过度
Hyperventilation.
肌肉处理更多的能量
Muscles processing more energy
需要更多氧气来维持体力
require more oxygen to keep up the exertion.
因此快速呼吸有助于最大限度地吸收氧气
So breathing quickly would help to maximize oxygen intake.
当我们过度施加这种反应时 问题就出现了
The challenge occurs when we overexert this response.
在我们呼气前 肺部没有时间从空气中
And the lungs don’t have time to pull the oxygen out of the air we breathe
吸取氧气
before we exhale.
这就是当氧气摄入量减少时
That’s when oxygen intake decreases
导致许多人在恐慌发作时感到眩晕
and results in that dizzy sensation many people experience during a panic attack.
心悸
Heart palpitations.
与换气过度的症状相似
Similar to the hyperventilation symptom,
心悸发生是因为身体用血液将氧气输送到肌肉
heart palpitations happen because the body uses blood to carry oxygen to the muscles.
为了把氧气最快地输送到努力工作的肌肉上
In order to carry the most oxygen fastest to hard working muscles,
心脏必须加快跳动
the heart has to pump it faster
从而导致心悸
resulting in palpitations.
咬紧牙关或磨牙
Clenched jaw or teeth grinding.
你的身体已经准备好要行动了
Your body is ready for action,
可是 焦虑症的难题是不知道行动是什么
however, the challenge with anxiety disorders is not knowing what action.
所以你的身体以绷紧肌肉来作出反应 如紧咬牙关和磨牙
So your body responds with tense muscles like a clenched jaw and teeth grinding.
其他常见的肌肉紧张反应还有紧握拳头
Other common muscle tension responses could be clenched fists,
卷曲脚趾 紧张性头痛 慢性偏头痛和颈肩痛
curled toes, tension headache or chronic migraines and neck and shoulder pain
手抖
Shaking hands.
这是当你不想去某地方时 肾上腺素给你的身体
This is another sign that adrenaline is sending your body’s signals to go
发出信号的另一种迹象
a situation when you don’t want to go anywhere.
还可能因为肌肉过度用力
This can also be a byproduct of tension
而处于紧绷状态
due to over exertion of the muscles.
出汗
Sweating.
当能量剧烈消耗时 出汗是让
Sweat is our body’s way of cooling off
我们的身体冷却的方式
during intense energy exertion.
肌肉释放能量 变得紧张 然后准备进行
Musles are bringing enery being tensed and ready to go to work
正在产热的工作
which is generating heat.
所以即便你感觉冷 身体也会通过出汗
So the body moderates its temperature by sweating
来调节体温
even when you feel cold.
冷热交感
Hot and cold sensations.
战逃反应的反馈刺激身体
The fight-or-flight response excites the body
使体内能量流动增加 并产生热量
which causes increased energy flows and creates heat.
如果产生的热量足够强烈
If the heat generated is intense enough,
身体的副交感神经系统就会被触发
the body’s parasympathetic nervous system is triggered
从而产生放松反应
which creates a relaxation response.
然而当热量产生时 身体也会通过出汗来降温
However the body also sweats to cool itself when heat is generated.
再加上副交感神经系统的突然放松
Coupled with the sudden relaxation courtesy of the parasympathetic system,
身体会感到寒冷
the body can experience chills.
因为温度降得太快
Because it cools too fast
从而不适应那么低的体核温度
and is not used to the lower core temperature.
焦虑是身体处于压力下产生持续恐惧情绪的一种状态
Anxiety is a state of constant fear due to stressors from your body.
这种恐惧对于在远古时期活在危险中需要
This fear was a logical response for a prehistoric human
躲避或吓跑食肉动物的人来说是合理反应
who needed to run or scare away predators when in danger.
但在当今的快节奏世界里这可很闹心
But it can be distracting in today’s fast-paced world.
这也不是没有好处的
The silver lining though is that
至少在僵尸爆发的时候 焦虑症患者跑得最快
people with anxiety are the ones most prepared for surviving the zombie apocalypse.
你和你身边的人是否有这些焦虑症状
Do you or someone around you suffer from these symptoms of anxiety?
如果有的话 你有何应对的建议
If so, do you have any helpful tips on how to deal with them?
请在下方的评论栏中告诉我们
Be sure to let us know in the comments section below.
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Thank you for watching and have a wonderful day.
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视频概述

你有焦虑症吗?你知道广泛性焦虑症的症状是什么样的吗?欢迎来到“这说的就是我”系列

听录译者

洛洛

翻译译者

云の山の彼端

审核员

审核团HL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYAF36BykdM

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