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古代雅典人的一天 – Robert Garland – 译学馆
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古代雅典人的一天 - Robert Garland

A day in the life of an ancient Athenian - Robert Garland

’众人统一的判断在很多事情上优于任何的个人判断‘ ——亚里士多德
这是公元前427年 古希腊王国历史上最严重的内战
It’s 427 BCE and the worst internalconflict ever to occur
持续到了第四年
in the ancient Greek worldis in its fourth year.
伯罗奔尼撒战争发生在
The Peloponnesian War is being fought
雅典城邦和斯巴达城邦 以及他们的同盟之间
between the city-states of Athens and Sparta, as well as their allies.
雅典人并不能在陆地上与他们强大的对手斯巴达人抗衡
The Athenians can’t match the formidableSpartan army on land.
所以他们抛弃了农村并转移到
So they ’ ve abandoned the countryside and moved
有城墙保护的城市和港口居住
inside the walls surrounding their city and port,
这些地区由强大的舰队和海上帝国所保护着
now provisioned by a superior fleetand extensive maritime empire.
狭窄的居住环境让雅典人付出了代价
The cramped conditions have taken a toll
近期的大瘟疫 导致了三分之一雅典人的死亡
and a recent plague wiped outa third of the population.
但是城墙里的生活还在继续
But city life goes on.
阿基亚斯和达斯雷娅住在雅典城的中心
Archias and Dexileia livein the center of Athens.
作为高档陶器的绘画师
As a painter of high-class pottery,
阿基亚斯家境比较殷实并对城里的事物非常感兴趣
Archias is relatively well-off and takes great interest in the city ’ s affairs. Dexileia,
但是达斯雷娅却不能参与任何政治事物 也不能拥有财产
on the other hand, can’t participate in politics or own property.
这对夫妻非常感谢上帝
The couple are grateful to the
因为他们的四个孩子中的三个
gods that three of their four children,
一儿两女平安度过婴儿期 存活了下来
a son and two daughters, have survived past infancy.
很多家长把女儿视为负担
Many parents see daughters as a liability
因为女儿需要嫁妆才能结婚
since they require dowriesto find husbands.
但是阿基亚斯相信自己殷实的家产
But Archias is confident that his wealth
能在不破产的前提下 帮女儿找到良婿
will allow him to make good matches for them without going bankrupt.
就像很多家庭一样阿基亚斯家也有奴隶
Like many Athenians,the family owns slaves.
这些奴隶来自色雷斯他们是在战争中被抓来的

Originally from Thrace,they were captured in war.
奴隶思莱塔承担了大部分的家务并帮助抚养孩子们
Thratta does most of the houseworkand helps raise the children.
奴隶法隆是家庭教师
Philon is a paidagôgos,
职责是监督阿基亚斯儿子的学习教他读书写字
who supervises the son ’ s education, teaching him reading and writing.
阿基亚斯起得很早 因为城里有市政会议
Archias is up early because there’sa meeting of the Ekklêsia,
会议从黎明开始
the assembly of citizens, taking place at dawn.
出门前 阿基亚斯作为整个家庭的代表
Before setting out, he burns incense
开始焚香
and pours a libation at the small shrinein the courtyard
并把奠酒倒入庭院上的小神龛中
on behalf of his entire household.
达斯雷娅一天都会在家教女儿传统技艺
Dexileia will remain at home all day, teaching her daughters domestic skills. Later,
之后她会到内庭院休息 呼吸新鲜空气
she’ll retire to the innercourtyard for some fresh air.
当阿基亚斯到达
When Archias arrives at the agora,
作为城里市政和商业中心的集会广场
the civic and commercial heartof the city,
他发现广场上聚集着他的公民同伴
he finds the square swarmingwith his fellow citizens,
这些市民都是本地出身并完成军队训练的成年男子
native-born adult males whohave completed military training.
中央纪念碑上有贴着会议议程的记事板
Attached to the central monument is a noticeboard with the meeting ’ s agenda.
今天只有一项议程要商议:
Today there’s only one itemof discussion:
该如何处理米蒂利尼人
what to do with the people of Mytilene,
米蒂利尼是莱斯博斯岛上的小城
a city on the island of Lesbos where a revolt
那里有一场反抗雅典法规的叛乱 刚被镇压
against Athenian rule has just been put down.
这场会议在卫城以西的山丘上
The meeting takes place on a hill west
被称为普尼克斯山的地方举行
of the acropolis known as the Pnyx.
普尼克斯在希腊语中的意思是‘紧凑的’
The word means “ tightly packed,
得名的原因是这里挤着5000人口
” and the crowd of 5,000 citizens makes it clear why.
传令官通过在普尼克斯山的边界喷撒猪血的方式
The heralds purify the hill
来净化普尼克斯山
by sprinkling its boundary with pig ’ s blood
并维持这里的秩序
and call for order.
当每个人坐在面向主席台的长椅上后
As everyone sits on benchesfacing the platform,
会议主席宣布会议开始并首先询问
the presiding officer opens the meetingwith the words:
“Tis agoreuein bouleutai?”
“Tis agoreuein bouleutai?”
‘谁想在集会上发言’
“Who wishes to address the assembly?”
市民一个接一个轮流发言有人建议要宽容对待米蒂利尼人
One by one, citizens speak, some advising mercy,
有人却一心想复仇
others bent on vengeance.
其中一个提议是处死所有米蒂利尼人
A motion is proposed to executeall the Mytileneans
并把他们的妇女和孩子强征为奴隶
and enslave their women and children
因为米蒂利尼人在战争期间背叛了他们的雅典同盟
because they betrayed their Athenian allies during a time of war.
大多数市民举起了他们的右手表示赞同
A majority raises their right handsin favor.
会议一结束
Once the meeting ’ s over,
阿基亚斯转头去了市场去买食物和酒
Archias heads back to the agora to buy food and wine.
数百人聚集在那里 讨论着会议的结果
Hundreds have gathered thereto discuss the results,
很多人对会议的结果表示不满
many unhappy with the decision.
当阿基亚斯回到家后他把人们的讨论告诉了达斯雷娅
When Archias returns home,he tells Dexileia about the debate.
达斯雷娅认为将无辜者和有罪者一并处死
She thinks that killing the innocentas well as the guilty
是非常残忍并且不能起到杀鸡儆猴效果的做法
is harsh and counterproductive,
达斯雷娅把自己的想法都告诉了阿基亚斯
and tells him as much.
黄昏时分 阿基亚斯去朋友的家参加酒会
Around dusk, Archias goes toa friend’s house for a symposium.
九个男子一边喝酒一边讨论会议的结果直到深夜
The nine men drink wine and discuss the meeting well into the night.
阿基亚斯分享了自己妻子的想法想借此说服大家宽容对待米蒂利尼人
Archias shares his wife ’ s opinion urging mercy,
他的朋友们最终同意了阿基亚斯的观点
and his friends eventually agree.
天亮之前一件前所未有的事情发生了
Before dawn, somethingunprecedented happens.
传令官穿梭在雅典城中间
Heralds circulate throughout Athens
宣布议会将组织重新召开会议
announcing the councilhas called another meeting.
第二次讨论也和第一次一样热烈
The second debate is equally heated,
但是结果和之前不同
but a new resolution,
只处死叛乱的领导者的这一结果
to execute only the leaders of the revolt,
以微弱的优势胜出
narrowly passes.
但是这里还有个问题
Yet there ’ s a problem – a ship
装有第一次决议的船
with orders to carry out the first resolution
已经在前一天驶出港口
was dispatched the previous day.
所以另一艘船很快驶出
And so another ship quickly sets
去取消第一次的决议
sail to countermand the order –
这也是一场民主对抗时间的比赛
a race of democracy against time.
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视频概述

这是一个以伯罗奔尼撒战争为背景展开的故事。讲述了古雅典人阿基亚斯一天的生活。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Emma

审核员

审核员 T

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ar8S6virCwM

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