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来自保守派的呼吁:让我们共同努力

A conservative's plea: Let's work together | Arthur Brooks

我来自一个美国最自由、宽容和
I come from one of the most liberal,
最激进的城市之一
tolerant, progressive places in the United States,
华盛顿西雅图
Seattle, Washington.
我成长于很棒的西雅图家庭
And I grew up with a family of great Seattleites.
我的母亲是一位艺术家 父亲是一名大学教授
My mother was an artist, my father was a college professor,
对他们的养育我满怀感激
and I am truly grateful for my upbringing,
因为我完全可以自在地规划我的人生
because I always felt completely comfortable designing my life
按照自己觉得合适的方式
exactly as I saw fit.
事实上
And in point of fact,
我的选择和父母心中所想的不太一样
I took a route that was not exactly what my parents had in mind.
在我19岁的时候 我从大学退学了——
When I was 19, I dropped out of college —
辍学了 或者更准确点说 是被开除了
dropped out, kicked out, splitting hairs.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我踏上了成为一名专业法国号手的道路
And I went on the road as a professional French horn player,
那是我毕生的梦想
which was my lifelong dream.
我在全美各地和欧洲都表演过室内乐
I played chamber music all over the United States and Europe,
还和特别优秀的爵士吉他手查理·伯德
and I toured for a couple of years
一起巡演了几年
with a great jazz guitar player named Charlie Bird.
在我快到三十岁的时候
And by the end of my 20s,
我成为了西班牙巴塞罗那交响乐团的成员
I wound up as a member of the Barcelona Symphony Orchestra in Spain.
多么美好的人生啊!
What a great life.
而且我的父母从没抱怨过
And you know, my parents never complained.
他们从始至终支持着我
They supported me all the way through it.
即使那不是他们的梦想
It wasn’t their dream.
他们过去常跟邻居和朋友们讲
They used to tell their neighbors and friends,
“我们儿子要‘休整’十年”
“Our son, he’s taking a gap decade.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
以及
And —
有一段关于我生活的尴尬谈话
There was, however, one awkward conversation about my lifestyle
我想要分享给你们
that I want to tell you about.
那时候我27岁 我从巴塞罗那回到家
I was 27, and I was home from Barcelona,
那天是圣诞节 我回家看望父母
and I was visiting my parents for Christmas,
当时我在帮母亲做晚饭时 厨房里就我们两个人
and I was cooking dinner with my mother, and we were alone in the kitchen.
她当时沉默着 一言不发
And she was quiet, too quiet.
我觉得有些不对劲
Something was wrong.
我就问我母亲:“妈,你在想什么呢?”
And so I said, “Mom, what’s on your mind?”
她说:“我和你爸爸真的很担心你”
And she said, “Your dad and I are really worried about you.”
我很惊讶:“什么? 有什么好担心?”
And I said, “What?” I mean, what could it be, at this point?
她答道:“我希望你诚实地回答我的问题:
And she said, “I want you to be completely honest with me:
你是不是投票给共和党了?”
have you been voting for Republicans?”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
事实是
Now, the truth is,
我对政治没什么兴趣 我只是个法国小号吹奏者
I wasn’t really political, I was just a French horn player.
但我有点明白了
But I had a bit of an epiphany,
他们察觉到了一些 所以有些困惑
and they had detected it, and it was causing some confusion.
那时我已经成了一个资本主义的狂热者
You see, I had become an enthusiast for capitalism,
让我告诉你为何如此
and I want to tell you why that is.
它根源于我一直以来对贫穷的研究
It stems from a lifelong interest of mine
不管你信不信
in, believe it or not, poverty.
在西雅图当我还是个孩子的时候
See, when I was a kid growing up in Seattle,
记得那是我第一次看到真正的贫穷
I remember the first time I saw real poverty.
我的家庭属于中产阶级的下层 但那当然不是真正的贫穷
We were a lower middle class family, but that’s of course not real poverty.
一点都不是
That’s not even close.
我第一次看到贫穷的真面目
The first time I saw poverty, and poverty’s face,
是在20世纪70年代初 我还只有六、七岁
was when I was six or seven years old, early 1970s.
像我们中很多人一样 这个例子很平凡普通
And it was like a lot of you, kind of a prosaic example, kind of trite.
那是《国家地理》中的一幅画
It was a picture in the National Geographic Magazine
画中是东非一个国家的跟我差不多大的孩子
of a kid who was my age in East Africa,
苍蝇在他脸上飞 肚子膨胀着
and there were flies on his face and a distended belly.
我知道他挺不过去了 我知道的 而我却无能为力
And he wasn’t going to make it, and I knew that, and I was helpless.
你们当中或许有人记得那样一幅画
Some of you remember that picture,
不一定完全一样 但很相像的一幅画
not exactly that picture, one just like it.
它向西方世界展现了 世界其它地方令人难以忍受的贫穷
It introduced the West to grinding poverty around the world.
那幅画面在我脑海中挥之不去 伴随着我成长、上学、
Well, that vision kind of haunted me as I grew up and I went to school
退学、开始组建
and I dropped out and dropped in
我自己的家庭
and started my family.
我很想知道 那个孩子后来怎么样了?
And I wondered, what happened to that kid?
或者说世界其他地方的像他一样的人怎么样了?
Or to people just like him all over the world?
我开始研究这个问题 即便那时我已不在大学了
And so I started to study, even though I wasn’t in college,
我仍在寻找答案:
I was looking for the answer:
世界上最贫穷的人们身上都发生了什么?
what happened to the world’s poorest people?
是变糟了 还是变好了? 到底怎么样了?
Has it gotten worse? Has it gotten better? What?
我最终找到了答案 并改变了我的人生
And I found the answer, and it changed my life,
我想与你们分享
and I want to share it with you.
其实
See —
大多数美国人觉得贫困变得更严重了
most Americans believe that poverty has gotten worse
从孩童时代 从他们看到那景象至今
since we were children, since they saw that vision.
如果你问美国人:“世界贫困问题是更严重了还是有所好转?”
If you ask Americans, “Has poverty gotten worse or better around the world?”,
70%的人会说自20世纪70年代初饥饿问题更严重了
70 percent will say that hunger has gotten worse since the early 1970s.
然而事实是这样的
But here’s the truth.
这就是那使我改变想法的顿悟
Here’s the epiphany that I had that changed my thinking.
自1970年至今
From 1970 until today,
世界上处于饥饿状态
the percentage of the world’s population
每天不超过1美元生活水平的人口百分比
living in starvation levels,
显然这已经是因通货膨胀而调整后的花费
living on a dollar a day or less, obviously adjusted for inflation,
这个百分比其实已经下降了
that percentage has declined
80%
by 80 percent.
从我小时候开始到现在 世界最穷困的人数百分比
There’s been an 80 percent decline in the world’s worst poverty
减少了80%
since I was a kid.
而我却不清楚这一事实
And I didn’t even know about it.
我的朋友们 这是一个奇迹!
This, my friends, that’s a miracle.
这是我们应该庆贺的事情
That’s something we ought to celebrate.
这是人类史上反贫穷的最大成就
It’s the greatest antipoverty achievement in the history of mankind,
而且就发生在我们的有生之年
and it happened in our lifetimes.
(掌声)
(Applause)
当我知道这一事实时 我想 是什么使得脱贫变得可能呢?
So when I learned this, I asked, what did that? What made it possible?
这是因为 如果你不知道原因
Because if you don’t know why, you can’t do it again.
而你想再复制它
If you want to replicate it
让下一个2亿人民再摆脱贫穷的话 你就做不到了
and get the next two billion people out of poverty,
因为那就是我们一直在谈论的问题:从我还是个孩子的时候
because that’s what we’re talking about: since I was a kid,
至少20亿最贫穷的人 我们的兄弟姐妹们
two billion of the least of these, our brothers and sisters,
已经被帮助挣脱了贫穷
have been pulled out of poverty.
所以我必须知道原因才能帮助下一个20亿人
I want the next two billion, so I’ve got to know why.
我开始寻找答案
And I went in search of an answer.
而它并不是政治性的答案 因为我根本不在乎
And it wasn’t a political answer, because I didn’t care.
现在依然不在乎
You know what, I still don’t care.
我想从主流经济学家们那里得到最佳的答案
I wanted the best answer from mainstream economists
无论是左派 右派或中间派的经济学家们
left, right and center.
而这就是
And here it is.
原因就在这里:
Here are the reasons.
从我孩童时起到现在 有20亿的我们的兄弟姐妹
There are five reasons that two billion of our brothers and sisters
脱离了贫困 是因为五点原因
have been pulled out of poverty since I was a kid.
第一:全球化
Number one: globalization.
第二:自由贸易
Number two: free trade.
第三:产权
Number three: property rights.
第四:法治
Number four: rule of law.
第五:企业家精神
Number five: entrepreneurship.
这是1970年后 遍及全世界的自由企业制度
It was the free enterprise system spreading around the world
造成的
after 1970 that did that.
我并不幼稚
Now, I’m not naive.
我知道自由企业制度并不完美
I know that free enterprise isn’t perfect,
我也知道它不能满足我们
and I know that free enterprise isn’t everything we need
建设更美好世界的全部需求
to build a better world.
但它是伟大的
But that is great.
并且是超越政治的
And that’s beyond politics.
这是我学到并且顿悟的一点
Here’s what I learned. This is the epiphany.
资本主义不仅仅是资本的积累
Capitalism is not just about accumulation.
它的绝佳之处在于:它与抱负相关
At its best, it’s about aspiration,
这是这个台上的许多人都曾讲过的
which is what so many people on this stage talk about,
是由梦想而生的抱负
is the aspiration that comes from dreams
它与自由企业制度密不可分
that are embedded in the free enterprise system.
我们必须要让更多人明白这一点
And we’ve got to share it with more people.
现在 我要谈谈我的第二个顿悟
Now, I want to tell you about a second epiphany
它与第一个有关
that’s related to that first one
我相信它不仅仅会带动了全世界的发展
that I think can bring us progress, not just around the world,
也带动了我们这个国家的发展
but right here at home.
我听到过的最好的一句
The best quote I’ve ever heard
能概括我刚刚讲过的
to summarize the thoughts that I’ve just given you
关于使人们脱离贫穷的观点的名言
about pulling people out of poverty
就是:
is as follows:
“自由市场经济创造了史上最多的财富
“Free markets have created more wealth than any system in history.
它使数以亿计的人们得以摆脱贫困”
They have lifted billions out of poverty.”
谁的名言?
Who said it?
像是米尔顿·佛里德曼或者罗纳德·里根的
It sounds like Milton Friedman or Ronald Reagan.
错!
Wrong.
是奥巴马总统!
President Barack Obama said that.
为什么我记忆深刻?
Why do I know it by heart?
因为他是对我说的
Because he said it to me.
想不到吧
Crazy.
我当时说:”哈利路亚!”
And I said, “Hallelujah.”
不仅如此 我还说
But more than that, I said,
“多么绝佳的机会”
“What an opportunity.”
你们知道我当时在想什么嘛?
You know what I was thinking?
那是在2015年五月 乔治城大学 在一个
It was at an event that we were doing on the subject
有关我们这个课题的活动上
at Georgetown University in May of 2015.
那时我想到了这个能解决
And I thought, this is the solution
当今美国面临的最大问题的方案 那是什么呢?
to the biggest problem facing America today. What?
就是聚集到一起讨论这些想法
It’s coming together around these ideas,
无论是自由主义者还是保守主义者
liberals and conservatives,
帮助最需要我们帮助的那些人
to help people who need us the most.
不必我说 在场的每一位 都知道我们身处危机
Now, I don’t have to tell anybody in this room that we’re in a crisis,
在美国以及世界其它有政治分歧的国家中
in America and many countries around the world with political polarization.
这一问题已经迫在眉睫
It’s risen to critical, crisis levels.
这不免让人忧心重重
It’s unpleasant. It’s not right.
去年
There was an article last year
在西方最具影响力、最前沿的科学杂志之一的
in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,
国家科学院院刊上
which is one of the most prestigious scientific journals
有一篇文章
published in the West.
那是2014年的一篇
And it was an article in 2014
有关政治动机非对称的文章
on political motive asymmetry.
那是什么?心理学家将这种现象描述为
What’s that? That’s what psychologists call the phenomenon
假定你的思想观念建立在爱之上
of assuming that your ideology is based in love
而对方的思想观念却建立在恨之上
but your opponents’ ideology is based in hate.
这在世界争端中是很常见的
It’s common in world conflict.
比如巴勒斯坦和以色列人之间
You expect to see this between Palestinians and Israelis, for example.
这篇文章的作者发现的是
What the authors of this article found
在当今美国 很大一部分共和党人和民主党人
was that in America today, a majority of Republicans and Democrats
在政治动机上存在着分歧
suffer from political motive asymmetry.
如今我们国家政治上 活跃的大部分人认为
A majority of people in our country today who are politically active believe
他们是出于爱 而另一方是出于恨仇
that they are motivated by love but the other side is motivated by hate.
想想吧
Think about it. Think about it.
多数人总是说着:
Most people are walking around saying,
“我的思想基础是仁爱
“You know, my ideology is based on basic benevolence,
我想要帮助人们
I want to help people,
而另一部分人 他们是邪恶的 他们试图打倒我”
but the other guys, they’re evil and out to get me.”
存在这种不对称的社会是无法进步的
You can’t progress as a society when you have this kind of asymmetry.
这是不可能的
It’s impossible.
我们要怎么解决这一问题?
How do we solve it?
首先 让我们诚实面对吧:分歧是存在的
Well, first, let’s be honest: there are differences.
我们无法减小分歧 因为那是幼稚的行为
Let’s not minimize the differences. That would be really naïve.
对此有相当多深入的研究
There’s a lot of good research on this.
我的朋友乔纳森·海特是TED的常客了
A veteran of the TED stage is my friend Jonathan Haidt.
他是纽约大学的心理学教授
He’s a psychology professor at New York University.
他对不同人的思想、价值观和道德观进行研究
He does work on the ideology and values and morals of different people
研究他们有着怎样的不同
to see how they differ.
举个例子 他证明了保守派和自由派
And he’s shown, for example, that conservatives and liberals
对于他们认为什么是重要的事 有着很不同的见解
have a very different emphasis on what they think is important.
比如 乔纳森·海特说明了
For example, Jon Haidt has shown
自由主义者关心贫穷
that liberals care about poverty
比关心经济自由超出59%
59 percent more than they care about economic liberty.
而保守主义者关心经济自由
And conservatives care about economic liberty
比关心贫穷多28%
28 percent more than they care about poverty.
看上去是不可调和的分歧 对么?
Irreconcilable differences, right?
我们不可能走到一起?不!
We’ll never come together. Wrong.
我们的力量恰恰在于分歧之中
That is diversity in which lies our strength.
牢记是什么帮助了穷人:
Remember what pulled up the poor.
是对贫穷问题的痴迷和关注
It was the obsession with poverty,
和自由经济的方法
accompanied by the method of economic freedom
在全世界范围内的广泛传播
spreading around the world.
我们彼此需要 换句话说
We need each other, in other words,
如果我们想要帮助人们 想要帮助另外2亿人民脱离贫困
if we want to help people and get the next two billion people out of poverty.
别无他法
There’s no other way.

Hmm.
我们要怎么做呢?
How are we going to get that?
这是很微妙的事情 不是么?
It’s a tricky thing, isn’t it.
我们要创新思维
We need innovative thinking.
很多的创新思想就在这个舞台
A lot of it’s on this stage.
是的!那些非凡的社会的企业家精神
Social entrepreneurship. Yeah. Absolutely. Phenomenal.
我们要海外投资
We need investment overseas
以可持续的、负责的、符合伦理道德的方式投资
in a sustainable, responsible, ethical and moral way. Yes. Yes.
但你们知道我们真正需要的是什么吗?
But you know what we really need?
我们需要打开灵活思维的新天地
We need a new day in flexible ideology.
我们需要少一些“可以预见”
We need to be less predictable.
对吗?
Don’t we?
你们是否曾感到自己的思想开始变得是可预见的?
Do you ever feel like your own ideology is starting to get predictable?
开始循规蹈矩?
Kinda conventional?
你们是否感到自己 总是听信与自己意见一致的人的话?
Do you ever feel like you’re always listening to people who agree with you?
为什么那样是危险的?
Why is that dangerous?
因为当我们在这个国家谈论经济的时候
Because when we talk in this country about economics,
一边是保守主义者
on the right, conservatives,
谈论的总是税、规则和大政府统治
you’re always talking about taxes and regulations and big government.
而另一边是自由主义者 谈到经济
And on the left, liberals, you’re talking about economics,
总是关于收入不平等
it’s always about income inequality.
是吧?那些确实都很重要
Right? Now those are important things,
对我很重要 对你们也很重要
really important to me, really important to you.
但谈到帮助那些正在挨饿
But when it comes to lifting people up
需要我们的人时 这些都只是让人分心的问题
who are starving and need us today, those are distractions.
我们应当团结起来 用我们
We need to come together around the best ways
可支配的最好的工具 以最佳的方式尽可能地减少贫困
to mitigate poverty using the best tools at our disposal,
只有当保守派意识到他们需要自由主义者
and that comes only when conservatives recognize that they need liberals
对贫穷的忧虑
and their obsession with poverty,
并且自由主义者也需要保守派对自由市场的痴迷时
and liberals need conservatives and their obsession with free markets.
这种多样性才会孕育未来国家强大的力量
That’s the diversity in which lies the future strength of this country,
只有我们选择这条路
if we choose to take it.
我们要怎样去做呢?怎样才能共同达成呢?
So how are we going to do it? How are we going to do it together?
我有一些行动上的建议 对你们 也是对我自己
I’ve got to have some action items, not just for you but for me.
行动准则第一条:
Number one. Action item number one:
切记 仅仅容忍有不同意见的人是不够的
remember, it’s not good enough just to tolerate people who disagree.
这还不够好
It’s not good enough.
我们要铭记我们需要这些与我们意见不合的人
We have to remember that we need people who disagree with us,
因为有一群人需要我们所有人的帮助
because there are people who need all of us
他们仍在等待
who are still waiting for these tools.
你们要做什么呢?怎样去表达呢?
Now, what are you going to do? How are you going to express that?
从哪里开始呢?就从这里!
Where does this start? It starts here.
在座的所有人 我们都是被保佑的
You know, all of us in this room, we’re blessed.
我们被保佑着拥有这些聆听我们的人
We’re blessed with people who listen to us.
我们被保佑着拥有繁荣我们被保佑着拥有领导能力
We’re blessed with prosperity. We’re blessed with leadership.
当人们带着某种未知的思想意识听到了我们
When people hear us, with the kind of unpredictable ideology,
或许他们才会接受
then maybe people will listen.
也许这就是进步的起点
Maybe progress will start at that point.
这是第一点
That’s number one. Number two.
第二点:我请求你们 也请求我自己
Number two: I’m asking you and I’m asking me
成为一个界限模糊的人
to be the person specifically who blurs the lines,
一个含糊的 难以界定的人
who is ambiguous, who is hard to classify.
如果你是保守派
If you’re a conservative,
那就做一个把贫困问题常常挂在嘴边的保守派
be the conservative who is always going on about poverty
和坚持遵守为穷人而战的道德义务的战士
and the moral obligation to be a warrior for the poor.
如果你是自由派
And if you’re a liberal, be a liberal who is always talking
就做一个常常赞扬在我们负责任地运行下的
about the beauty of free markets to solve our problems
自由市场的魅力的自由派
when we use them responsibly.
如果我们那样做了 两个目标指日可待
If we do that, we get two things.
第一:我们开始致力于帮助接下来的20亿人
Number one: we get to start to work on the next two billion
像以前解决那么多问题那样帮助他们解决问题
and be the solution that we’ve seen so much of in the past
未来我们还会解决更多 这就是我们可以得到的
and we need to see more of in the future. That’s what we get.
第二是我们或许能够
And the second is that we might just be able
战胜这场令我们遭受苦难的可怕的意识形态的战争
to take the ghastly holy war of ideology that we’re suffering under in this country
将它转变成基于团结一致和互相尊重
and turn it into a competition of ideas
的思想观念的竞争
based on solidarity and mutual respect.
也许到时候 只是也许
And then maybe, just maybe,
我们会发现我们所谓的分歧
we’ll all realize that our big differences
并不是那么不可调和
aren’t really that big after all.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

听从保守派的意见,让我们共同努力,关注世界贫困问题

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

半颗心broken

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87AEeLpodnE

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