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黄石公园简史 – 译学馆
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黄石公园简史

A Brief History of Yellowstone National Park | National Geographic

(light music)
黄石公园既浩大又奇特 而且具有标志性
– [Marielena] Yellowstone is epic, strange,
它理应得到保护
It is well-deserving ofits protected status.
但它是如何成为世界第一大国家公园的呢
But how did it come to be the worlds first National Park?
(light music)
考古学家在黄石公园发现了人类活动的证据
Archeologists have found evidence
这至少可以追溯到11000年前
that dates back at least 11,000 years.
萨利希印第安人的口述历史表明他们的祖先在3000年前就在这里
Oral histories of Salish Native Americans suggest their ancestors were here 3,000 years ago.
现今仍有26个印第安部落
Today there are still 26Native American tribes
与这片土地相连
that are connected to this land.
第一批来自欧洲的来访者包括
Some of the firstEuropean visitors included
18世纪末的毛皮商人和捕猎者
fur traders and trackersin the late 1700s.
但是对移民的第一个重大激励是1863年的黄金
But the first big incentive for settlers came in 1863, gold.
(water sloshing)
为了找到更多黄金 勘探者蜂拥到黄石公园
Prospectors flocked to Yellowstone in hopes of finding more.
北太平洋铁路公司听说了黄石公园的奇观
The Northern PacificRailroad Company heard of the wonders of Yellowstone.
这样一个大景区
A big attraction like this
对他们的西部铁路发展计划有帮助
could help their plans to expand their railroad west.
因此 他们赞助了1870年的沃什伯恩-兰福德-多恩探险队
So they sponsored theWashburn-Langford-Doane
Expedition of 1870.
作为黄石公园的第一支正式探险队
As the first formalexpedition of Yellowstone,
他们对公园的大片区域进行了探索
they explored vast regions of the park.
包括塔瀑 黄石湖
Including Tower Fall, Yellowstone Lake,
还有间歇泉盆地
and the geyser basins.
他们最显著的成就 就是为“老忠实”间歇泉取名
Their most memorable achievement, naming Old Faithful.
(light music)
画家托马斯·莫兰 一位摄影师和一位素描家
Painter Thomas Moran aswell as a photographer
也加入了探险队
were also on the expedition team.
他们的工作将黄石公园介绍给了世界
Their work introducedYellowstone to the world.
并引起了国会的注意
And captured the imagination of Congress. Then,
之后 在1872年3月1日
on March 1st, 1872,
格兰特总统签署了一项建立黄石国家公园的法案
establishing Yellowstone National Park.
美国第一个国家公园
The country’s very first National Park.
(light music)
该公园大约有两百万英亩
The Park is around two million acres.
它广阔的荒野即使在今天也很少有人见过
An expansive wilderness with places that even today few have seen.
里面满是野生动物 包括285种鸟类在内
Filled with wildlife including 285 species of birds.
还有多于65种的哺乳动物
And over 65 species of mammals.
(wolf howling)
但是 与地底下储存的大量岩浆相比
But what’s on top of this park is nothing
这个公园顶部的东西根本算不了什么
that lies below.
黄石公园的运作靠的是热力发电
Thermal power is whatmakes Yellowstone tick.
老忠实间歇泉依然如其名
Old Faithful remains true to its name.
直到今天 它大约每小时都会喷出数千加仑的热水
And to this day gushesup thousands of gallons
(light music)
它是黄石公园最著名的自然景观之一
It’s one of the most famous natural features in Yellowstone. But,
但它不是唯一一个
it’s not the only one.
黄石公园有10000多处地热特征
features in Yellowstone.
包括温泉 泥浆锅
Including hot springs, mud pots,
以及蒸汽喷口
and steam vents.
它们位于超级火山的一个巨大的破火山口里
They sit in one giantcaldera of a super volcano.
其最宽处约45英里
Some 45 miles across at its widest.
210万年前 黄石火山爆发
2.1 million years ago Yellowstone erupted
火山灰覆盖了5000多平方英里的土地
and covered over 5,000square miles with ash.
大约是1980年圣海伦斯火山喷出物质量的6000倍
ejected from Mount St. Helens in 1980.
这是人类已知的最大的火山爆发之一
known to man.
黄石火山仍然很活跃 可能会再次喷发
eruption is possible.
但它应该不会在一千年甚至一万年之内喷发
or even 10,000 years.
与此同时 黄石公园每年接待数以百万计的游客
In the meantime, Yellowstone hosts millionsof guests every year.
现在美国有59个国家公园
There are now 59 National Parks
但黄石公园将永远是世界上第一个
But Yellowstone will always be the world’s first.

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