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“紧急出口”标志的简明历史 – 译学馆
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“紧急出口”标志的简明历史

A Brief History of the Exit Sign | ARTiculations

大家伙应该都见过紧急出口标志
You’ve probably all seen an exit sign
并且很清楚它长什么样子吧
before and have a pretty good idea of what one looks like.
其实不同的地方标志的设计是有区别的
But how an exit sign looks differs depending on where you live. However,
不过 有一种设计
there is one design that most
被大部分设计师认可为最好且最高效的
designers agree is the best and most effective.
那就是国际标准化组织规定的紧急出口图标
That’s the ISO graphic symbol for emergency exits –
由日本平面设计师太田幸夫设计
designed by Japanese graphic designer Yukio Ota.
我其实应该说
Well,I should say,
是被美国之外的大部分地区认可的
most of us outside of the US agree that it’s the best.
如果你居住在美国 或者其他一些地方
If you live in the US, or maybe elsewhere,
你可能会对此表示怀疑
you may be skeptical. But,
没关系 我就是来说服你的
I’m here to try to convince you otherwise.
上个世纪七十年代
In the late 1970s,
日本消防协会举办了一场比赛
a Japanese fire safety association held a contest
主题是新的国家出口标志的设计
for a new national exit sign design.
参赛作品经过了大量的用户测试
Entries underwent extensive user testing to evaluate their effectiveness
以评估其在烟雾环境中的有效性
in smokey environments.
太田幸夫的设计于三千多份参赛作品中脱颖而出
The winner, among over 3000 entries was YukioOta’s design.
太田的主要设计理念
Ota’s primary design philosophy is to create
是设计出一种能越过语言障碍的通用符号
universal symbols that transcend language barriers.
至少就这一特定设计而言
That vision, at least for this particular design,
该设想于1985年实现
was realized in 1985 when ISO,
当时ISO(国际标准化组织)
the International Organization for Standardization,
采用日本设计的出口标志作为其安全标志标准的一部分
adopted the Japanese exit sign as a part of their standards for safety signs.
ISO创立于1947年 旨在制定国际统一标准
ISO was founded in 1947 to unify standardsacross nations
和更好地促进世界贸易
and better facilitate international trade.
大到集装箱的分类 小到泡茶
There are ISO standards for just about everything
ISO规定的标准几乎囊括了所有领域
from the classifications of shipping containers to standards for brewing tea.
太田的设计现在被世界各地采用
Ota’s design is now used all over the world.
部分地区可能采用其变体形式 但从本质上来看
Certain regions sometimes use a variation it, but essentially,
绿白相间的奔跑小人儿
the green and white running
无论是在中国 捷克共和国
figure can be found everywhere from China, to Czech Republic,
还是法国 加拿大都能看见
to France, and to Canada.
这个设计好在哪儿呢?
So why is this a good design?
首先 它不需要你认识标志上的文字
Well first, it’s doesn’t require you to know the language the sign happens to be in.
随着全球化的日益发展
Our world is becoming increasingly globalized.
城市里居住着很多移民 其中有些人对英语并不熟练
I live in a city with a pretty large immigrant population who aren’t all fluent in English.
你可能会觉得
But maybe you think,
如果有人搬到一个新的国度
if someone is moving to a new country
他们就应该学习”exit”之类的基础词汇
they should learn basic words like “exit.” Okay,
好吧 是有这个可能
yes probably.
但是游客呢 小孩子呢
But what about tourists, young children,
有阅读障碍的人怎么办呢?
and people with reading related disabilities?
象形图标往往更易于理解
Overall, a pictogram-based sign is just moreaccessible.
那这个设计又比其他同类象形图标好在哪呢?
But why is this particular design better than other pictogram based signs? Well,
好在它用简单的设计传递出了很多信息
because it’s a simple design, butit communicates a lot.
这个小人儿正从门口跑出去
The figure appears to be running out of a doorway,
步履稳健且从容镇定
but running steadily and calmly
而不是在做短跑或冲刺运动
as opposed to sprinting and rushing.
因为在紧急情况下 你希望人们能敏捷地逃生 又不至于惊慌失措
Because in an emergency you want people to move swiftly, but without panicking.
太田表示
According to Ota,
他们对这个设计反复进行了五十八次优化
they finessed the design back and forth 58 times
才得到满意的作品
before settling on the final design.
人们指责设计师们常常为看似微小的细节而争论不休
As designers, we’re often accused of squabblingover seemingly tiny details.
我承认有些设计师可能会吹毛求疵
Yeah I’ll admit some of us are probablya little crazy.
但主要还是因为这些细节至关重要
But it’s mostly because these details matter.
以最简单直接的方式
It’s our job
将设计意图传达给使用者
to communicate design intent to the end user
是我们的本职工作
in the most simple and direct way.
为紧急情况设计国际统一标志这样的特殊任务
And in this particular context of developing an international design for emergency situations,
更是不能忽视任何细枝末节
no small detail should be overlooked.
最后还有关于颜色的争执
Lastly there is the debate about colour.
想设计出好的作品 关键是要与用户的习惯一致
A key aspect of good design is providing users with consistent expectations.
美国和加拿大大部分的出口标志都是红色的
Most exit signs in the US and Canada are red. However,
可是 红色通常用来传达诸如“危险” ”禁止通行“
red is usually used to represent concepts like Danger, Stop,
和“禁止入内”的意思
and Do Not Enter.
所以如果也用红色表示“安全出口”会显得前后矛盾
So it’s kind of inconsistent to also use red to represent “ go that way,it’s safe. ”
我所在的加拿大
I live in Canada
传统的出口标志是红色的
where traditional exit signs are the red EXIT or SORTIE signs.
但在2010年 《国家建筑规范》最终采用了ISO的出口设计
But in 2010, the National Building Code finally adopted the ISO exit design.
现在新建的或大规模翻新的建筑
It is now mandatory in new buildings or
强制使用ISO规定的标志
buildings undergoing extensive renovation.
那么为什么美国不采用ISO标志呢?
So why doesn’t the US adopt the ISO sign?
很难解释得清楚
Well it’s hard to say.
也许是因为
Maybe it’s
美国的语言环境要比欧洲和亚洲国家单一得多
because the US is a lot more mono-lingual than countries in Europe and Asia?
也正因如此 有两种官方语言的加拿大
And maybe that’s why Canada eventually caught on,
才最终采用了ISO标志
since we have two official languages.
我也只是猜测
I don’t really know.
如果你住在美国 留言告诉我们吧
If you live in the US, leave a comment.
或者如果你所在的地方
And maybe you live in a place
安全标志和我展示的这几种都不一样
where the exit sign looks different than any of the one I’ve shown
我很有兴趣看看哦
I’d love to see them.
在下方评论里告诉我吧
Let me know in the comments below.
说到加拿大与紧急火情
Speaking of Canada and fire emergencies.
你知道加拿大政府在1958年故意烧毁了一个村庄吗?
Did you know the Canadian government deliberately burned down a village in 1958?
想知道更多细节
To learn more about that,
就去汤姆·斯科特的频道看看吧
why don’t we head on over to Tom Scott’s channel – Tom:
大家好!
Hi!
哈哈哈哈哈
D’Ahhhh! Betty:
他摔在哪儿啦
Hahahaha where he dies. Tom:

Ahem.
我没事
I’m fine.
有个运动相机
Just a Go Pro.
绊了我一下
Slippy down there.

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“紧急出口”标志对大家来说一定不陌生,但是你知道它的设计者是谁吗,你知道为什么它能成为世界各地通用的逃生标志吗,它的发展历史是怎样的呢?欢迎点击视频,了解更多有趣的知识!

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