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恶魔简史

A brief history of the devil - Brian A. Pavlac

“恶魔能使自己变成和蔼近人的样子” -威廉·莎士比亚 《哈姆雷特》
Satan, the beast crunching sinners’ bones in his subterranean lair.
撒旦 一个在地下洞穴啃食罪人骨头的怪物
Lucifer, the fallen angel raging against the established order.
路西法 一个激烈对抗既有制度的堕落天使
Mephistopheles, the trickster striking deals with unsuspecting humans.
梅菲斯特 一个和单纯的人类打交道的骗子
These three divergent devils are all based on Satan of the Old Testament,
这三个不同的恶魔形象都源于《圣经旧约》中的撒旦
an angelic member of God’s court
他是上帝天庭中天使的一员
who torments Job in the Book of Job.
在《约伯记》中折磨着约伯
But unlike any of these literary devils,
但是不同于任何这类文学作品中的恶魔
the Satan of the Bible was a relatively minor character,
《圣经》中的撒旦只是一个无关紧要的角色
with scant information about his deeds or appearance.
书中几乎没有关于撒旦的事迹和外貌的描写
So how did he become the ultimate antagonist,
那么 他是如何变成终极大反派
with so many different forms?
并拥有如此多的不同形象的呢?
In the New Testament, Satan saw a little more action:
在《新约》里 撒旦变得活跃了些:
tempting Jesus, using demons to possess people,
他怂恿耶稣 用恶魔去控制人类
and finally appearing as a giant dragon who is cast into hell.
最后在被抛入地狱时 以巨龙形态现身
This last image particularly inspired medieval artists and writers,
他最后的形象格外地启发了中世纪的艺术家和作家
who depicted a scaled,
他们描绘了一个有着鳞片
shaggy-furred creature with overgrown toenails.
全身毛茸茸 脚趾甲很长的生物的形象
In Michael Pacher’s painting of St. Augustine and the Devil,
在迈克尔·帕彻的画作《圣奥古斯丁与魔鬼》中
the devil appears as an upright lizard—
恶魔看起来像是一只直立的蜥蜴——
with a second miniature face glinting on his rear end.
臀部还长着另一张小脸 闪闪发光
The epitome of these monster Satans
这些怪物撒旦的典型代表
appeared in Italian poet Dante Alighieri’s “Inferno.”
出现在意大利诗人但丁·阿利吉耶里的诗集《地狱》中
Encased in the ninth circle of hell,
他被困在地狱第九层的撒旦
Dante’s Satan is a three-headed, bat-winged behemoth
在但丁笔下 成了一个有着三头 蝙蝠翅膀的庞然大物
But he’s also an object of pity:
但他也是一个令人同情的对象:
powerless as the panicked beating of his wings
他在惊慌失措中无力地挥动他的翅膀
only encases him further in ice.
却只会让自己在冰中越陷越深
The poem’s protagonist escapes from hell by clambering over Satan’s body,
诗中的主人公踏过撒旦的身体逃出了地狱
and feels both disgust and sympathy for the trapped beast—
他对这只被困住的怪兽感到既厌恶又同情——
prompting the reader to consider the pain of doing evil.
激起读者去思考做恶事的痛苦
By the Renaissance, the devil started to assume a more human form.
到文艺复兴时期 恶魔开始呈现出更人类化的形式
Artists painted him as a man with cloven hooves and curling horns
艺术家们受到了希腊荒野之神的启发
inspired by Pan, the Greek god of the wild.
将他描绘成了有着分裂蹄子和弯曲犄角的人
In his 1667 masterpiece “Paradise Lost,”
1667年 在史诗《失乐园》里
English poet John Milton depicted the devil as Lucifer,
英国诗人约翰·弥尔顿将恶魔描述成了路西法
an angel who started a rebellion on the grounds that God is too powerful.
一个以上帝权势过强为由发动叛乱的天使
Kicked out of heaven, this charismatic rebel becomes Satan,
这个魅力超凡的反派被驱逐出了天堂 成为了撒旦
and declares that he’d rather rule in hell than serve in heaven.
并宣布他宁愿当地狱的主宰也不愿在天堂服务上帝
Milton’s take inspired numerous depictions of Lucifer as an ambiguous figure,
弥尔顿的作品启发了大量对路西法亦正亦邪的描写
rather than a purely evil one.
而非一个纯粹的邪恶角色
Milton’s Lucifer later became an iconic character
弥尔顿创作的路西法后来成为了
for the Romantics of the 1800s,
19世纪浪漫主义时期的标志人物形象
who saw him as a hero who defied higher power in pursuit of essential truths,
路西法被视为不畏强权 追求真理
with tragic consequences.
但却结局悲惨的英雄
Meanwhile, in the German legend of Doctor Faust,
同时 追溯到十六世纪
which dates to the 16th century,
在浮士德博士的德国民间传说中
we get a look at what happens when the devil comes to Earth.
我们可以得知当恶魔降临时所发生的事情
Faust, a dissatisfied scholar,
浮士德 一个心怀不满的学者
pledges his soul to the devil in exchange for bottomless pleasure.
向恶魔发誓用自己的灵魂来换取无尽的快乐
With the help of the devil’s messenger Mephistopheles,
在恶魔信使梅菲斯特的帮助下
Faust quickly seizes women, power, and money—
浮士德立即拥有了女人 权力和金钱——
only to fall into the eternal fires of hell.
却让自己陷入了永恒的地狱之火中
Later versions of the story show Mephistopheles in different lights.
后世的版本以不同的角度展示了梅菲斯特
In Christopher Marlowe’s account,
在克里斯托弗·马洛的描述中
a cynical Doctor Faustus is happy to strike a deal with Mephistopheles.
愤世嫉俗的浮士德博士非常乐意与梅菲斯特做交易
In Johann Wolfgang van Goethe’s version,
在约翰·沃尔夫冈·范·歌德的版本中
Mephistopheles tricks Faust into a grisly deal.
梅菲斯特诱骗浮士德达成了一个可怕的交易
Today, a Faustian bargain refers to a trade
如今 浮士德式交易指的是
that sacrifices integrity for short-term gains.
为了短期交易而牺牲正直诚信精神的交易
In stagings of Goethe’s play,
在歌德撰写的诗剧中
Mephistopheles appeared in red tights and cape.
梅菲斯特以一席红色紧身衣和斗篷出场
This version of the devil was often played as a charming trickster—
这一版本的恶魔通常被演绎成一个迷人的骗子——
one that eventually paraded through comic books,
而后也以同样的形象出现在漫画书
advertising, and film in his red suit.
广告以及影视作品中
These three takes on the devil are just the tip of the iceberg:
这三个版本的恶魔形象只是冰山一角:
the devil continues to stalk the public imagination to this day,
如今 恶魔依旧悄悄激发着公众的想象力
tempting artists of all kinds
吸引了各种风格的艺术家
to render him according to new and fantastical visions.
从新颖 古怪的角度来解读他的形象

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视频概述

撒旦、路西法和梅菲斯特是三种不同的恶魔。而他们的共同源头——旧约中的撒旦原本是无足轻重的小角色。本视频将向你介绍恶魔形象的演变过程。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Pupu喵

审核员

审核员LG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_To7wO0Exo

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