未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

塑料简史

A brief history of plastic

在找有趣的方法解决塑料垃圾难题?
观看视频后参与我们的挑战
Today, plastics are everywhere.
如今 塑料无处不在
All of this plastic originated from one small object—
所有的塑料皆起源于一个小东西
that isn’t even made of plastic.
它甚至不是由塑料制成的
For centuries, billiard balls were made of ivory from elephant tusks.
几个世纪以来 台球都是由象牙制成
But when excessive hunting caused elephant populations to decline in the 19th century,
但到19世纪 过度捕杀导致大象数量减少
billiard balls makers began to look for alternatives, offering huge rewards.
台球制造商开始寻找替代品 并承诺提供丰厚报酬
So in 1863 an American named John Wesley Hyatt took up the challenge.
于是在1863年 一个叫John Wesley Hyatt的美国人接受了挑战
Over the next five years, he invented a new material called celluloid,
之后5年 他发明了一种叫赛璐珞的新材料
made from cellulose, a compound found in wood and straw.
它由木头和稻草中所含的纤维素制成
Hyatt soon discovered celluloid couldn’t solve the billiard ball problem––
Hyatt很快发现赛璐珞无法解决台球问题
the material wasn’t heavy enough and didn’t bounce quite right.
这种材料不够重 而且没什么弹性
But it could be tinted and patterned
但它上面可以染色 纹图案
to mimic more expensive materials
做成一些贵重材料
like coral, tortoiseshell, amber, and mother-of-pearl.
比如珊瑚 龟壳 琥珀和珍珠母的样子
He had created what became known as the first plastic.
他创造的这种材料便成为最早的塑料
The word ‘plastic’ can describe any material made of polymers,
“塑料”这个词表示任一由聚合物组成的材料
which are just the large molecules consisting of the same repeating subunit.
它是由多个相同单体所组成的高分子材料
This includes all human-made plastics,
包括所有的人造塑料
as well as many of the materials found in living things.
还有许多生物中发现的材料
But in general, when people refer to plastics,
但总的来说 人们口中的塑料
they’re referring to synthetic materials.
一般指的是合成塑料
The unifying feature of these is that they start out soft and malleable
这些塑料的相同点在于 开始时柔软且可塑
and can be molded into a particular shape.
能够形成特定的形状
Despite taking the prize as the first official plastic,
尽管被评为第一个官方认证的塑料
celluloid was highly flammable, which made production risky.
但由于它的易燃性 生产过程非常危险
So inventors began to hunt for alternatives.
于是发明家们开始寻找替代品
In 1907 a chemist combined phenol—
在1907年 一位化学家将苯酚—
a waste product of coal tar—and formaldehyde,
煤焦油的无用副产物—和甲醛混合
creating a hardy new polymer called bakelite.
创造了一种坚硬的新型聚合物 称作酚醛塑料
Bakelite was much less flammable than celluloid
酚醛塑料相比赛璐珞更难燃烧
and the raw materials used to make it were more readily available.
而且生产酚醛塑料的原料更广泛
Bakelite was only the beginning.
酚醛塑料只是刚刚开始
In the 1920s, researchers first commercially developed polystyrene,
20世纪20年代 研究人员首次将聚苯乙烯——
a spongy plastic used in insulation.
一种用于绝热的多孔材料商业化
Soon after came polyvinyl chloride, or vinyl, which was flexible yet hardy.
不久 出现了聚氯乙烯(乙烯基) 既柔韧又耐用
Acrylics created transparent, shatter-proof panels that mimicked glass.
丙烯酸酯能做成类似玻璃的透明防碎面板
And in the 1930s nylon took centre stage—
到三十年代 尼龙——
a polymer designed to mimic silk, but with many times its strength.
一种仿丝却韧几倍的聚合物占据了主流
Starting in 1933, polyethylene became one of the most versatile plastics,
1933年开始 聚乙烯成为用途最广泛的塑料
still used today to make everything from grocery bags, to shampoo bottles,
直到今天 聚乙烯仍被用于制造从购物袋到洗发精瓶
to bulletproof vests.
再到防弹背心等各种产品
New manufacturing technologies accompanied this explosion of materials.
新兴制造科技见证了物质材料的爆发
The invention of a technique called injection-moulding
“注射成型”这一新技术的产生
made it possible to insert melted plastics into molds of any shape,
将熔化的塑料注入各种造型的模具成为可能
where they would rapidly harden.
在模具中 塑料可以很快硬化
This created possibilities for products in new varieties and shapes—
这也为大规模 迅速且低价生产
and a way to inexpensively and rapidly produce plastics at scale.
各种各样的产品提供了可能性
Scientists hoped this economical new material
科学家希望这种经济型新材料
would make items that once had been unaffordable accessible to more people.
能让曾经昂贵的东西惠及更多人
Instead, plastics were pushed into service in World War Two.
然而 二战期间 塑料却服务于战争
During the war, plastic production in the United States quadrupled.
战争期间 美国塑料生产的速度以四倍增长
Soldiers wore new plastic helmet liners and water-resistant vinyl raincoats.
士兵穿戴新式塑料头盔 衬里和防水乙烯基雨衣
Pilots sat in cockpits made of plexiglass, a shatterproof plastic,
飞行员坐在有机玻璃(防碎塑料)制成的驾驶舱里
and relied on parachutes made of resilient nylon.
依靠弹性尼龙制成的降落伞
Afterwards, plastic manufacturing companies
之后 战争期间出现的塑料制造企业
that had sprung up during wartime turned their attention to consumer products.
将注意力转向消费产品
Plastics began to replace other materials like wood, glass, and fabric
塑料开始替代木头 玻璃和纤维这些在
in furniture, clothing, shoes, televisions, and radios.
家具 服装 鞋 电视和收音机中使用的材料
Versatile plastics opened up possibilities for packaging—
多功能的塑料打开包装的新世界
mainly designed to keep food and other products fresh for longer.
主要用来让食物和其他产品持久保鲜
Suddenly, there were plastic garbage bags, stretchy plastic wrap,
一夜之间 到处都是塑料垃圾袋 弹性塑料包装
squeezable plastic bottles, takeaway cartons,
可压缩塑料瓶 外卖纸盒
and plastic containers for fruit, vegetables, and meat.
以及放水果 蔬菜和肉的塑料容器
Within just a few decades, this multifaceted material
几十年间 这个多面材料
ushered in what became known as the “plastics century.”
开创了一个被称为“塑料世纪”的时代
While the plastics century brought convenience and cost-effectiveness,
塑料世纪在带来便利和成本效益的同时
it also created staggering environmental problems.
也产生了骇人的环境问题
Many plastics are made of nonrenewable resources.
大多塑料是由不可再生资源所制
And plastic packaging was designed to be single-use,
塑料包装也被设计成单一用途
but some plastics take centuries to decompose,
但一些塑料要花几个世纪来降解
creating a huge build up of waste.
造成大量垃圾
This century we’ll have to concentrate our innovations on addressing those problems—
这个世纪 我们必须集中创新于这些问题的解决
by reducing plastic use, developing biodegradable plastics,
通过减少塑料使用 发展生物降解塑料
and finding new ways to recycle existing plastic.
和寻找新方法再利用现存的塑料
So let’s get started
所以 让我们开始
Visit ED.TED.COM/ENDWASTE
访问ED.TED.COM/ENDWASTE网站
Not only can it educated yourself on the challenge of plastic waste
它不仅能让你了解塑料垃圾的挑战
but you can sign up for a very special mission
而且你可以报名参加一个特别的任务
together with the ALLIANCE TO END PLASTIC WASTE.
与终结塑料垃圾联盟一起
TED is gathering a global community of volunteers
TED正在召集一个全球性的志愿者团体
to see just how much plastic waste we can clean up.
来看我们可以清理多少塑料垃圾
And we will use a pretty cool tool to check out our efforts.
我们将会用一个非常酷的工具来检查工作成果
Click through to learn more.
点击了解详情

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

简单介绍塑料发展历史以及现在产生的塑料垃圾问题

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

鹤顶红红红红红~~~

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9GMbRG9CZJw

相关推荐