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酒精简史 – 译学馆
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酒精简史

A brief history of alcohol - Rod Phillips

“除了健康 幸福与金钱 几乎所有东西都可以用酒精来保存”–玛丽·威尔逊·利特尔
This chimpanzee stumbles across a windfall of overripe plums.
这只黑猩猩偶然发现了一堆熟透的李子
Many of them have split open,
许多李子都裂开了
drawing him to their intoxicating fruity odor.
其醉人的果香吸引了这只猩猩
He gorges himself
它贪婪地吃着李子
and begins to experience some… strange effects.
并开始体验到一些奇妙的感觉
This unwitting ape has stumbled on a process
这只毫不知情的猩猩意外发现了此过程
that humans will eventually harness
人们最终会利用该过程
to create beer, wine, and other alcoholic drinks.
来制造啤酒 葡萄酒和其他酒精饮料
The sugars in overripe fruit
烂熟水果中的糖分
attract microscopic organisms known as yeasts.
会吸引一种名为酵母的微生物
As the yeasts feed on the fruit sugars,
当酵母以果糖为食时
they produce a compound called ethanol—
它们会产生一种名为乙醇的化合物
the type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages.
它也是酒精在酒精饮料中的存在形式
This process is called fermentation.
这个过程被称为发酵
Nobody knows exactly when humans
没人知道人类具体是在何时
began to create fermented beverages.
开始酿造发酵饮料的
The earliest known evidence
已知的最早证据
comes from 7,000 BCE in China,
来自公元前7000年的中国
where residue in clay pots has revealed that
陶罐里的残留物表明
people were making an alcoholic beverage
人们曾用发酵的大米 小米 葡萄和蜂蜜
from fermented rice, millet, grapes, and honey.
来制造酒精饮料
Within a few thousand years,
几千年之内
cultures all over the world
世界各地的文化群体
were fermenting their own drinks.
都在发酵属于自己的饮品
Ancient Mesopotamians and Egyptians
古美索不达米亚人和埃及人
made beer throughout the year from stored cereal grains.
全年都在用储存的谷物酿造啤酒
This beer was available to all social classes,
所有社会阶层的人都能喝到这种啤酒
and workers even received it in their daily rations.
工人们甚至将此啤酒作为日常口粮
They also made wine,
他们也酿造葡萄酒
but because the climate wasn’t ideal for growing grapes,
但因为此地的气候不是种葡萄的理想气候
it was a rare and expensive delicacy.
所以对他们来说 葡萄酒是种罕见的珍馐
By contrast, in Greece and Rome, where grapes grew more easily,
相比之下 在葡萄更易生长的希腊和罗马
wine was as readily available
葡萄酒方便易得
as beer was in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
正如啤酒在埃及和美索不达米亚般易得
Because yeasts will ferment basically any plant sugars,
因为酵母基本能发酵所有类型的植物糖分
ancient peoples made alcohol from
所以古人把他们居住地范围内的
whatever crops and plants grew where they lived.
所有农作物和植物都用来酿酒
In South America, people made chicha from grains,
在南美 人们用谷物制作吉开酒
sometimes adding hallucinogenic herbs.
有时 他们会在其中添加迷幻药
In what’s now Mexico,
如今 在墨西哥
pulque, made from cactus sap,
由仙人掌汁液制成的龙舌兰酒
was the drink of choice,
是人们的首选饮品
while East Africans made banana and palm beer.
而东非人则是用香蕉和棕榈来制啤酒
And in the area that’s now Japan, people made sake from rice.
在现属日本的地区 人们用大米酿制清酒
Almost every region of the globe had its own fermented drinks.
几乎世界上所有地区都有自己的发酵饮料
As alcohol consumption became part of everyday life,
随着饮酒成为日常生活的一部分
some authorities latched onto effects they perceived as positive—
一些当局也意识到了饮酒的益处
Greek physicians considered wine to be good for health,
希腊的医生认为葡萄酒有益健康
and poets testified to its creative qualities.
诗人们证明了饮酒有助于创作
Others were more concerned about alcohol’s potential for abuse.
而其他人则更担心酒精可能被滥用
Greek philosophers promoted temperance.
希腊的哲学家提倡节制饮酒
Early Jewish and Christian writers in Europe
欧洲早期的犹太和基督教的作家
integrated wine into rituals
将酒融入宗教仪式中
but considered excessive intoxication a sin.
但他们认为过度醉酒是种罪过
And in the middle east, Africa, and Spain,
在中东 非洲和西班牙
an Islamic rule against praying while drunk
一条伊斯兰教规从禁止酒后祈祷
gradually solidified into a general ban on alcohol.
逐渐固化为全面禁酒
Ancient fermented beverages had relatively low alcohol content.
古代发酵饮料中的酒精含量相对较低
At about 13% alcohol,
大约是13%
the by-products wild yeasts generate during fermentation
野生酵母发酵产生的副产物
become toxic and kill them.
会产生毒性并杀死酵母
When the yeasts die, fermentation stops
当酵母死去 发酵停止
and the alcohol content levels off.
酒精含量就会随之稳定下来
So for thousands of years, alcohol content was limited.
所以几千年来 酒精含量都是有限的
That changed with the invention of a process called distillation.
随着蒸馏的发明 这种情况发生了变化
9th century Arabic writings describe
九世纪的阿拉伯著作记载到
boiling fermented liquids to vaporize the alcohol in them.
煮沸发酵液是为了蒸发其中的酒精
Alcohol boils at a lower temperature than water,
酒精的沸点低于水的沸点
so it vaporizes first.
所以它会比水先蒸发
Capture this vapor, cool it down, and what’s left is liquid alcohol
收集酒精蒸汽 将它冷却 剩下液体酒精
much more concentrated than any fermented beverage.
它比其他所有发酵饮料的酒精浓度都要高
At first, these stronger spirits were used for medicinal purposes.
起初 这些较强的烈酒被用在医疗中
Then, spirits became an important trade commodity
后来 烈酒成了一种重要的贸易商品
because, unlike beer and wine,
因为烈酒不同于啤酒和葡萄酒
they didn’t spoil.
它不会变质
Rum made from sugar harvested
朗姆酒是由产自加勒比海的
in European colonies in the Caribbean
欧洲殖民地的糖制成的
became a staple for sailors
作为水手的主食
and was traded to North America.
它被贩卖到北美
Europeans brought brandy and gin to Africa
欧洲人把白兰地和杜松子酒带到非洲
and traded it for enslaved people, land,
用它来交换奴隶 土地
and goods like palm oil and rubber.
以及棕榈油和橡胶等商品
Spirits became a form of money in these regions.
在这些地区 烈酒成了一种货币
During the Age of Exploration,
在大航海时代
spirits played a crucial role in long distance sea voyages.
在长途航行中 烈酒是相当重要的
Sailing from Europe to east Asia and the Americas could take months,
从欧洲航行到东亚和美洲可能要花几个月
and keeping water fresh for the crews was a challenge.
保持水的新鲜对船员来说是个挑战
Adding a bucket of brandy to a water barrel
在水桶里加入一桶白兰地
kept water fresh longer
可以延长水的保鲜时间
because alcohol is a preservative that kills harmful microbes.
因为酒精是种能杀死有害微生物的防腐剂
So by the 1600s,
到十七世纪
alcohol had gone from simply giving animals a buzz
酒精已从只能让动物兴奋的阶段
to fueling global trade and exploration
发展到可以促进全球贸易和探险
— along with all their consequences.
使人们享有随之而来便利
As time went on,
随着时间的推移
its role in human society would only get more complicated.
它在人类社会中所起的作用只会更复杂
tracing the history of our industry and agriculture
回顾人类的工农业历史
gives us a fascinating look at
我们能新奇地认识到
what we value as a species
人类作为一个物种的价值所在
and how we’ve ended up where we are today
以及我们是如何走到今天这一步的
Check out these two lessons for a super specific and eye opening look
让我们从一个特别且新奇的角度 去思考这两个问题
and why we’re like this.
以及为何我们会变成如今这样

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视频概述

酒精是如何被发现、生产,以及投入生活应用的。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YXG-499c3

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y5XEwTDlriE

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