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奶酪简史 – 译学馆
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奶酪简史

A brie(f) history of cheese - Paul Kindstedt

奶酪是牛奶去向长生不老的飞跃—克利夫顿•费迪曼
早于帝国与王室
Before empires and royalty,
早于陶器和书写
before pottery and writing,
早于金属工具及武器的
before metal tools and weapons –
那就是奶酪
there was cheese.
早在公元前8000年
As early as 8000 BCE,
生活在肥沃月湾 新石器时代最早的农民
the earliest Neolithic farmersliving in the Fertile Crescent
就开始了做奶酪的传统
began a legacy of cheesemaking
几乎与其文明一样悠久
almost as old as civilization itself.
农业的兴起使人们开始驯养绵羊和山羊
The rise of agriculture led todomesticated sheep and goats,
这样古代的农民就可以挤羊奶
which ancient farmers harvested for milk.
但把羊奶存放在温暖的环境中几个小时
But when left in warm conditionsfor several hours,
新鲜的羊奶就会变酸
that fresh milk began to sour.
其乳酸会使蛋白质凝结
Its lactic acids caused proteins tocoagulate,
形成一些软乎乎的块状物
binding into soft clumps.
发现这一神奇的变化后
Upon discovering thisstrange transformation,
农民沥干剩余的
the farmers drained the remaining liquid –
后被称为乳清的液体
later named whey –
发现了这种可作为柔软的 可涂抹的食物
and found the yellowish globs could be eaten fresh
新鲜食用的淡黄色的小球
as a soft, spreadable meal.
这些块状物或是凝乳 就是奶酪的基本构成了
These clumps, or curds, becamethe building blocks of cheese,
最终会发酵 压缩 变得成熟 并迅速地
which would eventually be aged, pressed,ripened, and whizzed
变成各种各样的乳制品
into a diverse cornucopiaof dairy delights.
奶酪的发现使新石器时代的人们
The discovery of cheese gave Neolithic people
获得了很大的生存优势
an enormous survival advantage.
奶中富含人体必需的蛋白质 脂肪和矿物质
Milk was rich with essential proteins,fats, and minerals.
但其中也含有大量乳糖
But it also contained highquantities of lactose –
一种不论过去还是现在都难以被消化的糖
a sugar which is difficult to process for many ancient and modern stomachs.
然而 奶酪
Cheese however,
有奶类几乎所有的益处 却只含有少量乳糖
could provide all of milk’s advantages with much less lactose.
由于它可以存放和保存
And since it could be preservedand stockpiled,
人们可从中摄取必需的营养物质
these essential nutrients could be eaten
以熬过饥荒和长冬
throughout scarce faminesand long winters.
一些在土耳其发现的 公元前七千年的陶片上
Some 7th millennium BCE pottery fragmentsfound in Turkey
仍有奶酪和黄油的残留痕迹
still contain telltale residues ofthe cheese and butter they held.
青铜器时代末期
By the end of the Bronze Age,
奶酪是整个地中海东海岸
cheese was a standard commodity in maritime trade
海上贸易的标配
throughout the eastern Mediterranean.
在美索不达米亚人口密集的城镇
In the densely populated city-states ofMesopotamia,
奶酪成为烹调和宗教生活的主要食物
cheese became a stapleof culinary and religious life.
在一些早期的文字记载中
Some of the earliest known writing
就有关于奶酪配额的管理记录
includes administrative records of cheese quotas,
记录了美索不达米亚地区
listing a variety of cheeses
根据宗教仪式和人口数量的不同而
for different rituals and populations
分配的不同种的奶酪
across Mesopotamia.
一些土耳其邻近的文明也有关于凝乳的记录
Records from nearby civilizationsin Turkey also reference rennet.
这种产于特定哺乳动物胃中的副产品
This animal byproduct, produced in thestomachs of certain mammals,
可以加速并控制凝结
can accelerate and control coagulation.
最终这一成熟的制作奶酪的工具传遍了世界
Eventually this sophisticated cheesemakingtool spread around the globe,
使得全新的 更硬的奶酪出现了
giving way to a wide variety of new,harder cheeses.
尽管一些保守的饮食文化
And though some conservative foodcultures
拒绝这美味的乳制品
rejected the dairy delicacy,
更多的则接受奶酪 并很快加进了当地的风味
many more embraced cheese, and quicklyadded their own local flavors.
游牧的蒙古人用牦牛奶制作了
Nomadic Mongolians used yaks’milk
硬的 晒干的比亚斯拉格楔形奶酪
to create hard, sundried wedges of Byaslag.
埃及人则喜欢山羊奶做的松软奶酪
Egyptians enjoyed goats’milk cottage cheese,
他们会用芦苇垫滤掉乳清
straining the whey with reed mats.
在南亚
In South Asia,
牛奶是因不同食物中的酸而凝固的
milk was coagulated with a variety of food acids,
例如柠檬汁 醋 或是酸奶
such as lemon juice, vinegar, or yogurt
然后晾干 做成条状的印度奶酪
and then hung to dry into loafs of paneer.
这种口感温和的软奶酪可以加在咖喱和酱汁中
This soft mild cheese could be added tocurries and sauces,
或者简单煎一煎 也是便捷素食的一餐
or simply fried as aquick vegetarian dish.
希腊人制作出了盐渍的咸费塔奶酪砖
The Greeks produced bricks of salty brinedfeta cheese,
还有一个更硬的品种 类似现在的佩科里诺 罗马诺干酪
alongside a harder variety similar totoday’s pecorino romano.
这种磨碎的奶酪产于西西里岛
This grating cheese was produced in Sicily
在地中海区域的菜肴中被广泛使用
and used in dishes all across theMediterranean.
在罗马的统治下 “干酪”或“阿里杜斯干酪”
Under Roman rule, “dry cheese”or “caseus aridus,”
成为驻守在罗马帝国
became an essential ration
辽阔边境近50万士兵的基本配给
for the nearly 500,000 soldiers guarding the vast borders of the Roman Empire.
当西罗马帝国瓦解时
And when the Western RomanEmpire collapsed,
奶酪制作仍在中世纪欧洲
cheesemaking continued to evolve
遍布庄园的乡村里不断发展
in the manors that dotted the medievalEuropean countryside.
在分布于欧洲各地的数百座本笃会修道院中
In the hundreds of Benedictine monasteriesscattered across Europe,
中世纪的僧侣不断试验不同品种的牛奶
medieval monks experimented endlesslywith different types of milk,
奶酪制作方法以及发酵过程 从而形成了如今流行的奶酪
cheesemaking practices, and aging processes that led to many of today’s popular cheeses.
帕尔马干酪 羊乳干酪 蒙斯特干酪和几种瑞士干酪
Parmesan,Roquefort, Munsterand several Swiss types
都是由这些制作奶酪的牧师精炼和完善的
were all refined and perfectedby these cheesemaking clergymen.
阿尔卑斯山地区 瑞士的奶酪制作非常成功
In the Alps, Swiss cheesemaking wasparticularly successful –
生产了大量的牛奶奶酪
producing a myriad of cow’s milk cheeses.
14世纪末
By the end of the 14th century,
来自瑞士格鲁耶尔地区的
Alpine cheese from the Gruyere region
阿尔卑斯奶酪利润丰厚
of Switzerland had become so profitable
以至于邻国入侵格鲁耶尔高地
that a neighboring state invaded theGruyere highlands
就是为了控制不断增长的奶酪贸易
to take control of the growingcheese trade.
在文艺复兴时期 奶酪依然流行
Cheese remained popular throughthe Renaissance,
随后的工业革命把奶酪的生产 从修道院带上生产线
and the Industrial Revolution tookproduction out of the monastery and into machinery.
如今 全球每年奶酪产量
Today, world produces roughly
约为220亿公斤
22 billion kilograms of cheese a year,
在全球范围内贩卖
shipped and consumed around the globe.
在奶酪发明的10000年后
But 10,000 years after its invention,
当地的农场仍追随着他们
local farms are still following in the footsteps
新石器时代祖先的脚步
of their Neolithic ancestors,
手工制作这一最古老的人类最喜爱的食物
hand crafting one of humanity’soldest and favorite foods.

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奶酪这一美味,究竟是何时出现的呢?

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