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一个更好的施肥方法 – 译学馆
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一个更好的施肥方法

A better way to fertilize

《盖茨笔记》
农业与气候变化
四分之一的温室气体排放
Agriculture is responsible for about one quarter
是由农业造成的
of all greenhouse gas emissions.
因此 为了阻止全球气候持续变暖
So, to stop the planet from getting substantiallywarmer,
我们需要在经济的很多分区上有所突破
we need breakthroughs in many sectors of oureconomy,
包括怎样种植粮食
including how we grow food.
Pivot Bio 有一种干净的替代品
Pivot Bio has a clean alternative
它可以代替化学肥料
to chemical fertilizer that could help
改变农耕 减少气候变化
transform farming and reduce climate change.
植物生长需要四样东西
It takes four things to grow a plant:
阳光 水 二氧化碳和氮
sun, water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen.
植物很容易得到前三样
A plant is really good at getting the first three of those.
但是 它不能自己制造氮
But it can’t make its own nitrogen.
肥料的主要成分是氮
Fertilizer is primarily nitrogen.
正是它为我们提供养料 使我们的食物系统得以存在
And it’s really what fuels and makes our food system possible.
因为从根本上来说 氮是生命的基石
It’s because nitrogen is ultimately a building block of life.
肥料起到了这么重要的作用
Fertilizer’s done all these great things,
但它也有许多副作用
but it also has a lot of negative side effects.
制作肥料的过程会造成许多污染
Making fertilizer creates a lot of pollution
使用肥料同样也会造成许多污染
and using fertilizer creates a lot of pollution as well.
其中的一种污染形式是一氧化二氮
One of those forms of pollution is nitrous oxide,
这种气体的温室效力是二氧化碳的300倍
a gas that’s 300 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.
如果明天我们停止使用肥料
If we stopped using fertilizer tomorrow,
就无法生产出世界粮食供应的一半
we wouldn’t be able to produce half of the world’s food supply.
但是可能有替代品
But there’s a possible replacement
它位于我们脚下的土壤中
and it lies in the soil beneath our feet.
土壤中的微生物也可以为庄稼制造氮
Microbes in the soil can also produce nitrogenfor the crop.
在我们使用肥料之前 微生物一直扮演着这个角色
Before we had fertilizer, microbes playedthat role.
因此 当我们开始培育植物
So, when we started breeding plants so
以提高每次收获的产量时
that every harvest would produce more yield,
我们需要的氮远远多于土壤中微生物所能提供的
we needed more nitrogen than the microbe in the soil could provide.
在这种情况下 我们发明了肥料
And so, we invented fertilizer
致使土壤中的微生物进入了冬眠状态
and we’ve caused those microbes in the soil to go into hibernation.
我们创建了Pivot Bio 其中包含一项使命
We founded Pivot Bio with one mission in mind:
我们如何重新发明可以为庄稼提供氮的东西
how do we reinvent what it means to provide nitrogen to our crops?
所以 如果你将幼苗拔起
So, if you pull a seedling out of the ground,
它的根部会附着成千上万的微生物
attached to the roots are thousands and thousandsof microbes.
我们可以从根部提取这些微生物
We can extract the microbes off the roots,
对它们的DNA进行测序
sequence their DNA and understand which ones
并弄清楚哪些已经在其基因组中融入了
have baked into their genome
这种可以为植物生产氮的能力
this ability to produce nitrogen for the plant.
我们知道怎样重新开启这些基因
We know how to turn those genes back on
这些微生物可以再次开始制造氮
and these microbes can start making nitrogenagain.
如果我们开始减少肥料的使用
If we can start drawing down fertilizer use,
一点一点地 总有一天我们可以完全远离肥料
little by little we’ll make an entire switch away from fertilizer.
这正是我们在面对气候变化时
And that’s just the kind of new solution we need
需要的那种新的解决方案
in the face of a changing climate.

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视频概述

在农耕过程中不可避免地要用到肥料,但它对环境的污染无法忽视,如何利用基因重组技术寻找更好的替代品成了急需解决的问题。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Cathy

审核员

审核员 GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PTQgyvqBCs8

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