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3分钟介绍权利法案 – 译学馆
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3分钟介绍权利法案

A 3-minute guide to the Bill of Rights - Belinda Stutzman

美国宪法的前十次修正
The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution —
– 也被称作权利法案 –
also known as the Bill of Rights —
在大约200年前批准通过
were ratified or passed over 200 years ago.
但即使它有些 额 老旧
But even though they’re a bit, well, old,
这十次修正在我们如今的体制中
these first 10 amendments are still the most debated and discussed section
仍旧是最具争议性的部分
of our Constitution today.
所以 你能记得这部分是什么吗
So, can you remember what they are?
让我们来看一看
Let’s take a look.
宪法第一修正案是针对言论自由,新闻,宗教
The First Amendment is the freedom of speech,
集会和请愿的
press, religion, assembly and petition.
这可能是这么多次修正中让人最感到敬畏的一次
This may be the most revered of the amendments.
第一修正案保障了我们说出和写下自己想法,
The First Amendment protects our rights to say and write our opinions,
拜我们喜欢的神,和平集会,
worship how we please, assemble together peacefully
如果我们觉得必要可以向政府请愿的权利
and petition our government, if we feel the need.
宪法第二修正案是关于战争的
The Second Amendment is the right to bear arms.
第二修正的原意是为了
The original intent of the Second Amendment
保护殖民地人民不受入侵的英国士兵的伤害
was to protect colonists from the invading British soldiers,
但如今它保证了你有权拥有枪支
but it now guarantees that you have the right
来保护你自己和你的财产
to own a gun to defend yourself and your property.
第三修正案又称作“四分法案”
The Third Amendment is called the ‘Quartering’ amendment.
这是为了对英国的侵占做出回应
It was written in response to the British occupation,
这也是美国独立战争期间
and as a result of the colonists having to house — or quarter —
殖民者把战士驻扎(quaeter)在平民家中的结果
soldiers in their homes during the American Revolution.
因为这次修正,
Because of this amendment,
政府绝不可以强迫我们让军人驻扎在家里
our government can never force us to house soldiers in our home.
第四修正案是对于搜查和逮捕权的修正
The Fourth Amendment is the right to search and seizure.
警察不可以在没有搜查令的情况下进入我们的房子
The police can’t come into our home without a search warrant
带走我们的私人财产
and take our personal property.
如今 许多人开始关心科技方面的隐私权问题
Today, many concerns have arisen about our rights to privacy in technology.
举个例子 政府能用你的智能手机
For example, can the government track your location with your smartphone,
或用社交软件 像脸书和推特
or can social media postings such as on Facebook and Twitter
在没有正当理由的情况下对你进行定位吗?
be used without a warrant?
第五修正案则都是关于正当程序的问题
On to the Fifth: It’s all about due process.
你也许在电影电视上听过这句话,
You’ve probably heard the phrase ‘I plead the Fifth’
“I plead the Fifth”(我拒绝录口供)
in movies or on TV.
在第五次修正声明
They’re talking about the Fifth Amendment,
如果你能洗清自己的嫌疑的话
which says that you don’t have to take the witness stand against yourself
你就可以不让证人在指征席上作证
if you may end up incriminating yourself.
好了,说了一半了
OK, we’re halfway done.
第六第七次修正案讨论的是司法系统的运行
The Sixth and Seventh Amendments are about how the legal system works.
如果你被指控
If you’re accused of a crime,
你拥有公开审理和要求一个公正陪审团的权利
you have the right to a speedy public trial and an impartial jury.
你也有权请个律师
You also have the right to a lawyer,
选择是否要证人的权利
and the right to take the stand if you choose.
这是很重要的,因为这样可以防止被告被判无期徒刑
This is important because it will prevent the accused from sitting in prison forever
或是防止原告不必要的控告延迟
and insists that the prosecution proceed with undue delay.
第七次修正案给了你拥有陪审团的权利
The Seventh says you have the right to a jury trial,
陪审团由十二个公正的人组成,由他们在法庭决定你是否有罪
where 12 impartial peers decide your innocence or guilt in the courtroom,
由此来防止法官一人独断专行
as opposed to a judge doing it all alone.
第八修正案禁止残忍和不寻常的刑罚
The Eight Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment.
死刑算不算残酷?算不算不寻常?
Is the death penalty cruel? Is it unusual?
对美帝人民来说,很难对残酷和不寻常形成共识
It’s hard for Americans to agree on the definitions of cruel and unusual.
第九第十次修正案被称作非权利法案
The Ninth and Tenth Amendments are called the non-rights amendments.
声明了各州人民所拥有的
They say that the rights not listed in the Bill of Rights
但不在权利法案之列的权利
are retained by the people in the states.
我们还有很多不在宪法之列的权利
We have other rights that are not listed in the Constitution,
各州有权利制定自己的政策
and the states have the right to make their own policies,
比方说制定自己的纳税方案
like instituting state taxes.
现在你了解了十次宪法修正案
So now you know all 10 amendments.
你能牢记他们吗?
Can you remember them all?
如果不能,请记住以下几点:
If not, remember this:
权利法案是美国历史重要组成部分
the Bill of Rights is a crucial piece of American history,
即使这几百年来
and though society has undergone many changes
社会经历了许多的改变
these past 200 and some years,
这些法案的解释和应用却仍和它们诞生之时一样,
the interpretation and application of these amendments are as vital today
在今天是至关重要的
as they were when they were written.

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