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八种才智:你是万事皆通,还是独有所长? – 译学馆
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八种才智:你是万事皆通,还是独有所长?

8 Intelligences: Are You a Jack of All Trades or a Master of One? | Best of '16

目前我认为一定存在的智力有8种
Currently I think there are eight intelligences that I’m very confident about and a few
此外是否还有更多类型的智力 还有待进一步思考
more that I’ve been thinking about.
我将会与观众分享我的想法
I’ll share that with our audience.
前两种智力是智商测试和其他标准测试所评估的智力
The first two intelligences are the ones which IQ tests and other kind of standardized tests
只要我们知道这只是八种智力中的两种
valorize and as long as we know there are only two out of eight it’s perfectly fine
就行了
to look at them.
语言智力是你运用语言的能力
Linguistic intelligence is how well you’re able to use language.
诗人拥有这种能力 其他诸如作家 记者往往也都拥有语言智力
It’s a kind of skill that poets have, other kinds of writers, journalists tend to have
演说家也是
linguistic intelligence, orators.
第二种智力是逻辑数学智力
The second intelligence is logical mathematical intelligence.
顾名思义 是指运用逻辑和数学的能力 科学家们就有着这种智力
As the name implies logicians, mathematicians, scientists have that kind of intelligence.
他们能够完成数学证明
They’re able to do mathematical proofs.
他们能够做科学解释和实验
They’re able to do scientific reasoning and experimentation.
同时拥有语言和逻辑智力非常棒 因为大多数考试都注重于
And it’s great to have language and logical intelligence because most tests really focus
这二个方面
on that.
作为一个学生 如果能玩转这些测试 那么你就是一个很聪明的人
And if you do well in those tests as long as you stay in school you think you’re smart.
然而要是到了百老汇 走上公路 进入树林或农场
But if you ever walk out into Broadway or the highway or into the woods or into a farm
你就会发现其他智力也很重要
you then find out that other intelligences are at least this important.
第三种智力就是音乐智力 具有这种智力的人能够欣赏不同类型的音乐
So the third intelligence is musical intelligence and that’s the capacity to appreciate different
能演唱或演奏音乐 甚至能指挥音乐
kinds of musics, to produce the music by voice or by an instrument or to conduct music.
人们会说音乐是一种天赋
And people say well music is a talent.
而不是智力
It’s not an intelligence.
那我想说 为什么善用语言是一种智力 精通声调 节奏 音色
And I say well why if you’re good with words is that an intelligence but if you’re good
(就不是一种智力了呢?)这点从没有人给过我一个满意的答案
with tones and rhythms and timbres nobody’s ever given me a good answer which is why it
所以讨论音乐智力是合情合理的
makes sense to talk about musical intelligence.
而且在历史上的某些文化中 音乐智力扮演非常重要的角色
And at certain cultures over history musical intelligence has been very important.
第四种智力就是空间智力
The fourth intelligence is spatial intelligence.
拥有空间智力的人 能够很好地感知和把握周围的空间
That’s the intelligence which allows us to handle and work in space that’s close by.
国际象棋选手拥有空间智力
A chess player would have spatial intelligence.
外科手术医生也拥有空间智力
A surgeon would have spatial intelligence.
但是还有另一类空间智力 我们在航海 导航时会用到它
But there’s another variety of spatial intelligence which we use for a much broader navigation.
飞行员或者航海船长会拥有这种智力
That’s what an airplane pilot or a sea captain would have.
它能帮助你在大片空间里找到正确路线
How do you find your way around large territory and large space.
相类似地 第五种智力 肢体肌肉运动知觉智力 也有两种类型
Similarly with the fifth intelligence bodily kinesthetic intelligence it comes in two flavors.
第一类是指动用全身去解决问题或做东西
One flavor is the ability to use your whole body to solve problems or to make things.
运动员和舞者就有着这种智力
And athletes and dancers would have that kind of bodily kinesthetic intelligence.
另一类是指使用你的双手或身体其他部位去
But another variety is being able to use your hands or other parts of your body to solve
解决问题或做东西的能力
problems or make things.
手工艺者就拥有这种肢体肌肉运动知觉智力 即使他们不是
A craft person would have bodily kinesthetic intelligence even if they weren’t particularly
好的运动员和舞者
a good athlete or dancer.
第六和第七种智力是与人类本身有关的智力
The sixth intelligence and seventh intelligence have to do with human beings.
人际关系智力是指你理解他人 激励他人
Interpersonal intelligence is how you understand other people, how you motivate them, how you
领导他人 与他人共事 与他人合作的能力
lead them, how you work with them, how you cooperate with them.
任何人在任何工作场所和他人交往时都会用到人际交往智力
Anybody at any workplace with other people needs interpersonal intelligence.
通常领导者人际交往智力较高
Leaders hopefully have a lot of interpersonal intelligence.
但是任何智力能以一种损害别人的方式被使用出来,比如销售人员像你推销一些
But any intelligence can be used in a pernicious way so the salesman that sells you something
你并不想知道价格,也不想付钱的东西。他或她就掌握着人际沟通的智力。
you don’t want for a price you don’t want to pay, he or she has got interpersonal intelligence.
只是在大部分情况下 它没有被用在受欢迎的地方
It’s just not being used in a way that we might prefer.
第七种智力是一种很难评测但不可或缺的智力
The seventh kind of intelligence is difficult to assess but it’s very important.
那就是内省力
It’s intrapersonal intelligence.
即了解自己的能力
It’s the understanding yourself.
在历史和史前时期 了解你自己可能
If we go back a way in history and prehistory knowledge of yourself probably wasn’t that
不那么重要 因为人们常常子承父业 无论是猎人
important because people did what their parents or grandparents did whether they were hunters
渔民 还是手工艺者
or fisherman or craftspeople.
但是如今 特别是在发达国家 人们主宰着自己的生活
But nowadays especially in developed society people lead their own lives.
我们有自己的职业道路
We follow our own careers.
我们常常转行
We often switch careers.
年老后我们不一定要待在家里
We don’t necessarily live at home as we get older.
所以如果你不了解自己 你会陷入大麻烦之中
And if you don’t have a good understanding of yourself you are in big trouble.
所以内省力十分重要
So that’s intrapersonal intelligence.
第八种智力是我几年前加上去的 叫博物学智力
The eighth intelligence which I added some years ago is the naturalist intelligence.
这是一种在自然界中辨别事物的重要能力
And that’s the capacity to make important relevant discriminations in the world of nature
即分清不同的植物 不同的动物的能力
between one plant and another, between one animal and another.
这是一种博物学家拥有的能力 是一种查尔斯·达尔文拥有的智力
It’s the intelligence of the naturalist, the intelligence of Charles Darwin.
我第一次记录时 遗漏了这种智力 但是后来我把它
I missed it the first go around when I wrote about it but I tried to atone by adding it
加回我的列表里去了
to my list.
你可能会说 “但是自然不再那么重要了”
And by the way you might say well but nature isn’t so important anymore.
但是事实是 我们在商业社会中做的每一件事情都需要用到博物学智力
But in fact everything we do in the commercial world uses our naturalist intelligence.
为什么买这件夹克 而不是另一件?
Why do I buy this jacket rather than another one?
是这件毛衣而不是那件?
This sweater rather than another one?
这种发型而不是另一种?
One hair style rather than another?
作出这些判断都需要用到博物学智力 大脑是很有适应力的
Those all make just the naturalist intelligence because the brain is very adaptive.
如果大脑的某种能力在原领域逐渐被荒废 那么它很快会被运用在别的地方
And when an old use of a brain center no longer is relevant it gets hijacked for something new.
所以我们仍会用到博物学智力 即使我们从没有走进树林或者
So we’re all using our naturalist intelligence even if we never walk out into the woods or
东亚大草原
into the savannah of East Asia.
还有两种智力我很感兴趣 一种是教学智力
The two other intelligences which I’m interested in, one of them is called the teaching or
或者说教育智力
pedagogical intelligence.
这种智力使我们能够成功地教育他人
The intelligence which allows us to be able to teach successfully to other people.
想象有两个人 他们在工作领域有同水平的专业技术和知识
Now you could have two people who have exactly the same expertise and knowledge in the field
但是其中一个能成为非常好的老师 而另一个却不能
but one is a very good teacher and the other isn’t.
这可能不会让人们觉得惊讶
That probably doesn’t surprise individuals so much.
但我觉得很神奇的是两三岁的孩子都已经知道应该怎么教别人
But what got me fascinated was as young as two or three kids already know how to teach.
这意味着什么呢?
Now what does that mean?
你教一个三四岁的孩子如何做一件事情 然后你
You show a child how to do something let’s say a three or four year old and then you
叫这个孩子把学到的解释给年纪稍大的人或者更小的孩子听
ask the child to explain it to an older person or to a younger person.
连三四岁的孩子都懂得用非常不同的方法来教更小的孩子
And even the three or four year old will explain it very differently to a young person, will
会讲出细节 指出重点 并说得很慢
go through details, point things and speak slowly.
对一个年长些的人 他会更加简略 说你这样那样
And with an older person it would be much more elliptical and say well you do this and
就可以了
that and then you can figure it out.
这说明3岁这么小的孩子已经拥有教学智力
So that shows as young as three let’s say we already have teaching intelligence.
另一种智力可能比较难让怀疑论者接受
The other one is one which I think is going to be difficult to prove to a skeptic but
我把它称之为存在主义智力
I call it existential intelligence.
存在主义智力是思考大问题的智力
And existential intelligence is the intelligence of big questions.
思考哲学问题 艺术问题
Philosophical questions, artistic questions.
爱的意义是什么?
What does it mean to love?
为什么我们会死亡?
Why do we die?
未来将会怎么样?
What’s going to be in the future?
我的宠物鸟可能有比较高的音乐智力
My pet bird might have more musical intelligence.
老鼠在地板上急跑 它们可能会有更高的空间智力
The rats who are scurrying around the floor might have more spatial intelligence.
但是除人之外没有其他任何动物能拥有存在主义智力
But no other animals have existential intelligence.
人生意义的一部分就是思考存在性问题
Part of the human condition is to think about questions of existence.
我认为每个五岁小孩都有存在主义智力 因为五岁的孩童
And I like to say every five year old has existential intelligence because five year
总是会问为什么这样 为什么那样
old are always asking why this, why that.
但一个五岁孩子与哲学家的区别在于 五岁小孩不会
But the difference between a five year old and a philosopher is the five year old doesn’t
太关注答案 然而哲学家和其他拥有存在主义智力的人们
pay too much attention to the answer whereas philosophers and other people who develop
会真的对研究那样的问题很感兴趣
existential intelligence are really very interested in how we attack questions like that.
所以 到底有八种 十种 还是十二种智力对我来说不太重要
So again where there’s eight intelligences or ten or twelve is less important to me than
重要的是要打破单一智力的垄断 不要让单一智力成为你永远的标签
having broken the monopoly of a single intelligence which sort of labels you for all time.
我觉得如果我们长生不老的话 我们可以将每一种智力都发展到一个很高的程度
I think if we lived forever we could probably develop each intelligence to a very high degree.
但是生命很短暂 如果你花太多精力在一种智力的培养上
But life is very short and if you devote too much attention to one intelligence you’re
你就没有时间去培养其他智力
not going to have much time to work on other kinds of intelligences.
那么关键问题来了 你是应该发挥长处呢 还是应该提高你的短板?
And so the big question is should you play to strength or should you bolster weakness?
这是一个价值判断问题
And that’s a value judgment.
科学家们不能给你答案
Scientists cannot give you an answer to that.
如果你想要成为一个全才 那么可能
If, for example, you want to be a jack of all trades and be very well rounded then probably
你应该提高你偏弱的那些智力
you’re going to want to nurture the intelligences which aren’t that strong.
另一方面 如果你奋力要成为某个领域的高手
If on the other hand you’re dead set on really coming to the top of some particular
那么你可能该去培养你最高的那种智力
heap then you’re probably going to find the intelligences that you’re strongest
非常努力地去强化你的长处
at and really push those.
如果一个家长问我 应该全面发展还是应该
And, you know, if a parent came to me and said well should we supplement or should we
着重培养孩子某方面 我会说 告诉我你希望你的孩子干什么
accentuate I would say well tell me what you would like your child to do.
或者最好是让孩子告诉你 他或她想做什么 而不是盲信科学
Or better let the child tell you what he or she wants to do rather than say well science
科学让你做什么你就做什么
says you should do one or the other.
我认为这是一个价值观问题 不是科学问题
I think it’s a question of values, not of science.
一些人们认为有一种智力叫幽默智力
Some people think there’s such a thing as humor intelligence.
但是 实际上我不认同
But, in fact, I don’t.
我认为幽默智力只是逻辑智力的一部分
I think humor intelligence is simply the operation of a logical intelligence in some realm like
它被运用在人际交往 自然界或者是工作场所之中
human nature or physical nature or the workplace.
人们怀有某种期望 你反转他们的期望 就出现了幽默
And what happens is in humor there’s a certain expectation and you flip that expectation
这是用另一种方式呈现出来的逻辑
so it’s logic but it’s logic that’s played out in different kinds of ways.
人们还说应该有烹调智力 幽默智力
People had mentioned there’s such a thing as a cooking intelligence, a humor intelligence
和性爱智力
and a sexual intelligence.
我想抖个机灵 这些都不可能是智力 因为这些我都没有
And I quipped well that can’t be intelligences because I don’t have any of them.

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视频概述

人的智力不仅仅有语言智力和数学逻辑智力两种,人的智力可以分为八种甚至更多,它们分别是什么?我们应该全面发展,还是有所专攻呢?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

赖皮

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【MR】Metro

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xc5p-r4CmcI

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