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7个值得学习的论证技巧

7 ways to have a better argument

世界由许许多多人组成
The world comprises of a lot of people.
几十亿人
Billions.
每个人都有自己的观念 经验 信念 和动力
Each with their own individual set of thoughts, experiences, beliefs and motivations.
随着全世界一半以上的人口进入互联网
And with over half of the world’s population now connected to the Internet,
我们与他人沟通的能力得以大规模提升
our ability to communicate with others has been extended on a revolutionary scale.
这反过来增加了我们与
This in turn has increased our exposure
想法 信念 做法异于我们的那些人之间的接触
to those who think, believe and act differently,
在这期间有时会发生意见分歧
during which disagreement sometimes occurs.
尽管只是有的时候
… only sometimes though.
你可曾发现自己置身于一个看上去
But have you ever found yourself in a discussion where
不会带来任何建设性成果的讨论中
nothing constructive seems to be coming out of it?
双方都在防御
Both sides get defensive?
情绪和热情越来越成为主导?
Emotion and passion becomes increasingly dominant?
或者你开始忘掉
Or you start losing sight of
举行讨论的最初原因?
why the discussion was held in the first place?
这种情况很普遍 这背后也有很多原因
It seems quite common and there are manyreasons why.
原因之一 肢体语言及语调在我们
For one, body language and tone of voice account for
向其他人传达信息的能力中占了主要部分
the majority of our ability to communicate a message to someone else
然而很多人试图在社交媒体辩论复杂观点
and yet many try to debate complexed ideas on social media platforms
这使肢体语言和语调无法发挥作用
which cuts these elements out.
线上谈话经常发生在
Online discourse often occurs
彼此不谋面的陌生人之间
between strangers who can not see or hear each other,
这容易形成共情隔阂
allowing for an empathy gap to form.
如果你觉得你并不是在与真人对话
If you remove the feeling that you are speaking to an actual person
这会导致有些人采取与面对面对话时
it can lead to some behaving in ways they would not have done
不同的方式来行事
if the conversation occurred face to face.
但即使我们真的面对面讲话
But even when we do speak in person,
许多人认为讨论的关健
many of us believe that the whole point of discussion
是在辩论中“获胜”
is to “win” an argument.
不仅如此
Not only that,
他们还认为认错就意味着软弱或失败
but being wrong is a showing of weakness and failure,
而不是获得考验和启示
not of testing and enlightenment.
所以下一次当你跟某人讨论时
So next time you have a discussion with someone,
为什么不遵循以下7条建议
why not try the following ‘ 7’suggestions
以便改善分享及挑战观点的环境呢
to help improve the environment for sharingand challenging ideas…
第一 从与人建立联系开始
Number 1: Start with a human connection.
你很容易把别人看作对手
It’s very easy to treat the other person
去攻击 击败 并在智力上碾压
as an opponent you want to attack, annihilate, intellectually destroy
或假设他们怀有恶意
or to assume they have bad intent.
所以 为什么不先试着去了解彼此的背景呢
So why not try getting to know each other’s backgrounds first?
是什么把你们双方带到
What is it that brought you both to
你们今天讨论的情景中的?
where you are today in the context of that discussion?
你可能很会开心地惊异于你们的共同之处
You may be pleasantly surprised by what youhave in common.
第二 找到三个你们一致认同的事情
Number 2: Identify three things you agree on.
哪怕对于讨论来讲 是琐碎或是不相关的东西
No matter how trivial or irrelevant to the discussion it may be,
试着讨论一下你们喜欢的电影
try talking about movies you like,
或你们希望看到改变的社会上的事情
or things in society you wish to see fixed?
以共同的立场开始辨论有助于引起共情
Starting a debate with common ground can help massage those empathy muscles.
第三 明白可以说 “我不知道”
Number 3: Make clear that it’s okay to say, “ I don’t know ”.
这句话通常被看作软弱
This phrase is normally seen as a weakness
而且会鼓励人们将对话导向其它方向
and it encourages people to steer the conversation elsewhere
或者仅仅为了避免尴尬而胡编乱造
or even make stuff up just to avoid embarrassment.
这样没什么帮助
This is not helpful
所以 要从一开始就明确
and so it should be made clear from the offset
说“我不知道”并不是无能的措词
that saying,”I don’t know” is not a disqualifying phrase.
第四 鼓励自我批判
Number 4: Encourage self-critiques.
当人们因担心“输了辩论”而不愿意
It’s frustrating when people are unwilling to concede obvious points
承认很明显的论点 这很让人沮丧
out of fear of ‘losing the debate’.
这会滋生学术不端的环境土壤
This can create an environment of intellectual dishonesty to thrive.
为什么不为参与双方提供机会
So why not make an opportunity
来公开批判他们自己的立场呢
for both participants to disclose criticisms of their own positions,
毕竟没有哪个观念是绝对完美的
because after all no concept is perfect.
第五 提问
Number 5: Ask questions.
讨论很容易陷入
It’s very easy for discussions
只是向对方宣传观点的境地
to be about just making points at each other
在讨论中人们倾听似乎只是
where it seems people only listen to
为了确定什么时候该他们发言
work out when it’s their turn to speak.
提问给其它人信号 表明他们正在被倾听
Asking questions signals to the other person that they’re being listened to.
提问也有助于我们阐明
It also helps us clarify positions
很可能被他人误解的立场
that may have otherwise been misconstrued.
没有什么 比在误解的基础上对话更糟糕的了
As there is nothing worse than having a conversation built upon misunderstandings.
第六 尽可能避免使用标签
Number 6: Avoid using labels wherever possible.
标签对于不同人有不同含义
They can mean different things to different people
无论某一特定标签有什么官方定义
regardless of what the official definition may be for a particular one.
标签会导致普遍印象 形成既定假设
They can lead to generalizations and thus assumptions,
所以保持清晰 但如果碰巧要用到标签
So stay clear, but if a label happens to get used,
花一点儿时间去解释它
take a moment to unpack it.
即使这需要花费更多时间来解释你的观点
Even though this will require spending a bit more time explaining your point,
从长远角度来讲 这会很有帮助
it will be more helpful in the long-run.
第七 找到共同基础
Number 7: Find common ground.
临近讨论的尾声
Towards the end of your discussion,
就你们正在争论的事件找到一致的地方
identify areas of agreement around the issues you have been debating.
这并不意味着不能有根本的意见分歧
Now this is not to say there cannot be fundamental disagreement,
或者你们最终必须在同一阵营里
Or that you must be on the same page at the very end.
这七条秘诀不能保证
These 7 tips don’t guarantee
所有未来的讨论都进展顺利
that all future discussions will go smoothly
每个人能相处融洽
with everyone getting along,
但他们有助于将讨论引向更有建设性的方向
but they will help steer them in a more constructive direction.
在一个许多人有许多话想说的时代
At a time when there are so many people with so many things to say,
这一点很重要
it’s important that
我们尽最大努力帮助打开对话的大门
we do all we can to help open these conversations up,
而不是截然相反将它们关闭
as opposed to shutting them down.

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视频概述

在互联网发达的今天,很多人选择在网上辩论复杂论题,这带来了一系列问题,怎样克服这些问题成为辩论达人呢,七个论证技巧等你来一一验证,点击视频开启你的辩论之旅!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-2YoMEA0Hc

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