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7 Science Illustrators You Should Know

Modern technology has given scientists some incredible tools to study the universe and
share their knowledge.
例如摄像技术 我们可以收集一切事物的图片
With photography, for instance, we’ve been able to collect images of everything from
microbes to galaxies.
但在我们拥有相机之前 我们有科学绘画作品
But before we had cameras, we had scientific illustration.
过往岁月中 成百上千的科学绘画作品用2D或3D表现了
And throughout the years, hundreds of science illustrators have made 2D and 3D representations
许多领域的观念 从生物到物理
of concepts in lots of fields, from biology to physics.
你可能认出了一些大名 像是Leonardo Da Vinci(达芬奇)的解剖素描
You might recognize some big names, like Leonardo Da Vinci’s anatomical sketches and James
James Audubon(詹姆斯·奥杜邦)的鸟类绘画
Audubon’s bird paintings.
But there are a lot of people you’ve probably never heard of, even though their work has
had a huge impact on our understanding of the natural world.
The 1500s were a pretty horrible time to get sick.
Medicine was kind of a mess.
在那个时代 医生相信我们由被称为humors(体液)的四种元素组成
At the time, doctors believed that we were all made of four elements called humors: black
黑胆汁 黄胆汁 血液和痰
bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm.
据称 当体液“不平衡”时 我们会生病
Supposedly, when these humors were “imbalanced,” we got sick.
Most of what we knew about human anatomy was from the work of Galen, a renowned Greek philosopher
and physician.
But Greek and Roman societies prohibited dissection of the human body.
所有盖伦的知识大多数来源于解剖猪和猴子 并且用它们的解剖结构
So Galen’s knowledge mostly came from dissecting pigs and monkeys, and using their anatomy
来猜测我们身体内部的结构 从肌肉到循环系统
to guess at the structures inside our bodies, from the muscles to the circulatory system.
直到Andreas Vesalius(安德雷亚斯•维萨里)的到来 我们才能好好看看人体内部
It wasn’t until Andreas Vesalius came along that we actually took a good look inside human bodies
Vesalius taught medicine and surgery in Italy.
And instead of just reading from Galen’s texts, he dissected cadavers for his students,
usually the corpses of executed felons.
通过这些亲自实践的研究 他发现了盖伦的教导是多么错误
Through those hands-on studies, he discovered just how wrong Galen’s teachings were, and
clarified topics ranging from how the circulatory system and nerves worked to bone structure.
例如 盖伦相信人类下巴由中间连接的两块骨组成
For example, Galen believed that the human jaw was made of two bones connected in the
middle, from his dissections of dogs.
But Vesalius discovered that it’s just one solid bone.
多年研究后 维萨里在1543年出版了叫《人体构造》的一套共七本书
After years of research, Vesalius published a set of seven books called De humani corporis
fabrica in 1543, which was likely the first complete representation of the human body
in the Western world.
和其他艺术家们密切合作 维萨里列入了超过200张插图
Working closely with other artists, Vesalius included over 200 illustrations, from detailed
skeletons to networks of blood vessels.
另外有一个有点恐怖的小细节 他的书中至少有一本被人皮束缚着
As a kinda creepy cherry-on-top, at least one of his books was bound in human skin!
Lots of people consider Vesalius to be the father of modern anatomy.
至少 他的作品改变了我们对于人体的理解
At the very least, his work changed our understanding of the human body, and helped usher Europe
并且帮助引领欧洲进入一个新的 更明智的医学时代
into a new, better-informed era of medicine.
Maria Sibylla Merian(玛丽亚·西比拉·梅里安)在1647年于德国一个由艺术家和出版者组成的家庭中
Born into a family of German artists and publishers in 1647, Maria Sibylla Merian started illustrating
梅里安年轻时开始绘画 和她继父的男学生一起画装饰花
young, painting decorative flowers alongside her stepfather’s male students.
同时 她被昆虫迷住
At the same time, though, she found herself captivated by insects, especially the life
cycle of the silkworm.
所以梅里安开始收集毛虫 研究并绘制它们的生命历程
So Merian started to collect caterpillars, studying and painting their lifecycle as they
metamorphosed into moths and butterflies – along with the plants they ate.
事实上 梅里安是第一个记录昆虫与它们所生活的植物间关系的科学插画师
In fact, Merian was the first science illustrator to record the relationships between insects
and the plants they lived on, which is critical for understanding food chains, as ecologists
realized later on.
还有 她证明了毛虫从卵中孵化出来
Plus, she proved that caterpillars hatch from eggs, instead of a common belief that insects
randomly appeared from rotting plants and meats.
The idea of spontaneous generation dates back to our old friend Aristotle.
他从没观察过昆虫下蛋 所以他认为幼虫出现在随机的地方
He never observed insects laying eggs, so he figured larvae just appeared from random
places, from old wax to books to horse carcasses.
(exasperated) Aristotle
Later in life, Merian spent two years traveling with one of her daughters in the Dutch colony
of Suriname.
Her written accounts were some of the earliest descriptions of the climate, the jungle wildlife,
气候 野生动物的最早描述
and society in the colony.
在1705年 她出版的书《苏里南昆虫变态图谱》
And in 1705, she published a book called Insects of Suriname, earning her an international
reputation as an illustrator.
即使在今天 当博物学者学习和分类昆虫时 也会用到她的作品
Even today, naturalists use her work as they study and classify insects.
It’s easy to find science illustrators who studied biology, observing plants, animals,
他们观察植物 动物 人体以期理解宇宙
and the human body to understand our universe.
但Moses Harris(摩西哈里斯)也被光和颜色所吸引
But Moses Harris was also fascinated by light and color.
哈里斯是一位有技巧的艺术家和昆虫学家 他花了一些时间学习昆虫
Harris was a skilled artist and entomologist, and spent some time studying insects.
事实上 他甚至出版了一本叫《Aurelian》的书
In fact, he even published a book called The Aurelian in 1766, filled with illustrations
of moths and butterflies.
当他不素描小虫时 哈里斯会学习Isaac Newton(艾萨克 牛顿)先生
When he wasn’t sketching bugs, though, Harris was studying Sir Isaac Newton’s relatively
new theories on light.
Newton’s work with light and prisms showed that white light could be split into three
白光可以被分成三种基本色彩:红 蓝 绿
primary colors: red, blue, and green.
可以看出 光是叠加形成的
See, light is additive.
所以 你眼中的细胞查明不同颜色光对应的量
So cells in your eyes detect different amounts of different colors of light, and blur them
然后把它们混合到一起来产生新颜色 甚至是明亮的白色
together to perceive new colors, even a bright white.
That’s how you’re able to watch this video in color!
就在这一秒 你的屏幕上的像素发出
Right this very second, the pixels on your screen are emitting different combinations
红 绿 蓝光的不同组合
of red, green, and blue light.
Harris expanded on color theory to play around with pigments, and demonstrated that yellow,
并且论证了黄 红 蓝是三种基本的颜料颜色
red, and blue are the three primary pigment colors.
He also showed that pigments are subtractive color.
基本上 他们利用了表面是如何吸收和反射不同波长的光
Basically, they take advantage of how surfaces absorb and reflect different wavelengths of light.
例如 一个白色的表面 反射所有颜色的光
A white surface, for instance, reflects all colors of light, while a red surface reflects
而一个红色的表面 反射红光 吸收剩余的光
red wavelengths, and absorbs the rest.
在他的实验之后 哈里斯创造了一个不可思议的颜色轮
After his experimentation, Harris created an incredible color wheel.
Still used by artists today, it shows how mixing any two of the primary pigment colors
次级颜色-橙色 紫色 绿色
together generates the secondary colors – orange, purple, and green.
While all three together makes black.
Helena and Harriet Scott(海伦娜和哈里特 斯科特)于十九世纪三十年代出生在悉尼
Helena and Harriet Scott were born in Sydney in the 1830s, when Australia was still a pretty
当时的澳大利亚依然是一个落后之地 女性在大学中不被允许学科学
rough place to be, and women weren’t allowed to study science at university.
幸运的是 两位女孩的父母支持她们早期对自然的兴趣
Luckily, the girls’ early interest in nature was encouraged by their parents.
当她们成为青少年时 她们的家庭搬到了灰岛
And when they were teenagers, their family moved to Ash Island, where their dad studied
moths and butterflies.
两姐妹帮助父亲研究 如编目标本 养毛毛虫
The sisters helped their father with his research, cataloging specimens, raising caterpillars
以便观察它们的行为和食物喜好 最后绘制昆虫
to observe their behavior and food preferences, and eventually painting the insects.
像玛丽亚·西比拉·梅里安一样 斯科特姐妹描绘了她们研究的
Like Maria Sibylla Merian, the Scott sisters depicted the full life cycle of the caterpillars
and butterflies they studied.
They even included landscape backgrounds of areas in and around Sydney in many of their paintings.
Their dad’s book, Australian Lepidoptera and their Transformations, was published in 1864.
它是如此有名 以至于姐妹俩成为了新南威尔士州昆虫学会的名誉会员
And it was so renowned that the sisters were awarded honorary membership in the Entomological
Society of New South Wales, and were commissioned to paint for many of the science publications
in Sydney.
Their skilled work helped document Australian natural history throughout the 19th century,
and they were possibly the first female science illustrators in Australia.
Drawings and paintings can be an awesome way to communicate research, but sometimes a 2D
illustration just won’t cut it.
So some scientific artists branched out into 3D work.
Leopold Blaschka(利奥波德 布拉施考)出生在1822年 是著名玻璃工匠中的一员
Born in 1822, Leopold Blaschka came from a long line of celebrated glass workers.
His day job was creating trinkets and glass eyes for the family business, and training
his son Rudolf as his apprentice.
在他的业余时间 他学习植物和花 并且制精细的玻璃模型
In his spare time, he studied plants and flowers, and made delicate glass models which were
displayed in museums and botanical gardens around Europe.
在一次前往美国的航海中 他迷上了海洋无脊椎动物
During an ocean voyage to the United States, he became fascinated with ocean invertebrates,
admiring their glass-like colors and shapes.
在1863年 布拉施考被德雷斯顿自然历史博物馆的主管雇佣
And in 1863, Blaschka was commissioned by the director of the natural history museum
of Dresden to create glass models of sea anemones.
From then on, Blaschka and his son turned all their time and energy to making scientific models.
And their work was groundbreaking, artistically and scientifically.
While vertebrates like mammals and birds could be taxidermied to resemble living animals,
invertebrates could only be preserved in jars.
那有一点作用 但这些粘糊糊的东西最终失去了色彩 变成了不成形的一团
That kinda worked, but these squishy creatures eventually lost their color and became shapeless blobs.
布拉施考和他的儿子开始从绘图 后来从保存在盐水缸中的生物制作作品
Working first from drawings and later from live specimens kept in saltwater tanks, Blaschka
and his son built hundreds of accurate, ethereal glass models of invertebrate sea creatures.
因为玻璃不需要水就可以存活 所以这些模型可以在博物馆内展览
Because glass doesn’t need water to survive, these models could be displayed in museums
and universities all over the place.
现在 也许他们被收藏作品中最有名的是在
Now, perhaps the most famous collection of their work is the Glass Flowers in the Harvard
Museum of Natural History.
80个植物物种的超过4000个模型被展出 从完整的秸秆到
Over 4,000 models of over 800 species of plants are on display, from entire stalks to magnified
pollen grains.
And glass flowers are always in bloom!
你可能听说过彼得兔—那只穿着蓝外套 在花园中偷胡萝卜的
You’ve probably heard of Peter Rabbit – the cute little bunny in a blue coat who stole
carrots from the garden.
但在Beatrix Potter(毕翠克丝·波特)成名前很长一段时间 她是一个野生动物绘画师
But long before Beatrix Potter became famous for her stories, she was a wildlife illustrator.
作为富裕家庭中的女儿 波特接受了私立教育
As the daughter of a wealthy family, Potter was privately educated, and her scientific
除了天文学 她的科学方面的兴趣涵盖了许多领域
interests covered pretty much every field except astronomy.
她收集并研究过化石 昆虫 甚至是考古文物
She collected and studied fossils, insects, and even archeological artifacts before finding
her true passion: fungi.
博物学家Charles McIntosh(查尔斯 麦金托什)送给她样品并且教她如何使用显微镜
The naturalist Charles McIntosh sent her specimens and taught her how to use a microscope, and
her scientific skills grew.
她被真菌的繁殖迷住了 画了超过350幅真菌绘画作品
She was fascinated by fungal reproduction, drawing and painting over 350 illustrations
of fungi, down to the details like the gills of mushrooms and their tiny spores.
Potter successfully germinated mushroom spores in her home.
She mounted them on glass slides and tracked their growth, trying to understand how different
environments influenced their development.
Believing that she was breaking new ground in fungi research, she even wrote a paper
called On the Germination of the Spores of the Agaricineae in 1897.
Whether or not she really contributed to advancing the field, her illustrations withstand the
test of time.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal(圣地亚哥·拉蒙-卡哈尔)于1852年在西班牙出生 梦想着成为一名艺术家
Born in Spain in 1852, Santiago Ramón y Cajal dreamed of being an artist.
但是 就像到处都是的专横的父母一样 他的父亲强迫他学医
But, like overbearing parents everywhere, his father pushed him to study medicine instead.
他研究解剖学和病理学 并且写了关于使用显微镜检查组织样本的
He studied anatomy and pathology, and wrote books and articles about using microscopes
to examine tissue samples.
But he was struck with passion in 1887, when he learned about a neuroscience lab technique
called the Golgi method.
即使在今天 我们也不知道这项技术是如何工作的
Even today, we don’t know exactly how the technique works.
But Golgi staining uses potassium dichromate and silver nitrate to fill random neurons
with a dark blackish-brown color.
And it leaves the tissue around them completely transparent.
有了这项技术 卡哈尔可以研究单个的神经元
With this technique, Cajal was able to study individual neurons, which are normally too
dense to see under a microscope.
在这里 他找到了自己的使命 绘制和描述脑细胞的结构
Here, he found his calling: illustrating and describing the structure of brain cells.
He made major contributions to the field of neuroanatomy, and helped figure out the basic
structure of the brain – a subject of major scientific debate at the time.
His sketches proved that neurons aren’t just one long, continuous strand.
相反 他表明大脑是由许多单独的、分支的细胞组成的
Instead, he showed the brain was made up of lots of individual, branched cells connecting
and communicating with one another.
And he discovered microscopic structures that scientists still study today: like the axonal
比如轴突生长锥 神经元用来引导它们的生长的结构和树突小棘
growth cone, the structure neurons use to guide their growth, and dendritic spines,
the little bumps on neurons where they form connections with other cells.
卡哈尔和创造了这种技术的科学家Camillo Golgi(卡米洛·高尔吉)一起
Along with the scientist Camillo Golgi, who created the technique, Cajal was awarded the
因为他们在神经解剖学领域的贡献 获得了1906年的诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906 for his contributions to the field of neuroanatomy.
Many consider him to be the father of modern neuroscience.
And neuroscientists today still discuss his drawings of different cells and theories about
how they connect and communicate.
没有那些科学绘画师 我们不会有今天这样详实的记录
Without all these science illustrators, we wouldn’t have the detailed records and models
of the natural world that we do today.
So no matter how separately they may be taught in schools, science and art are complementary tools to
explore and talk about our universe!
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