未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

这7个器官没有了你照样能活

7 Organs You Could Totally Live Without

[片头音乐]
[♪ INTRO]
人体是极其复杂的机器
The human body is an incredibly complex machine made
由相互协作的器官系统构成
up of systems of organs all working together
来保证人体正常运行
to keep things humming along smoothly.
所以你可以想一下
So you ’ d think
取走任何东西 会让整个系统崩溃
that taking anything out would make the whole thing break down.
但是没有某些器官很多人也能好好活着
But of course, lots of people live without some of their organs. Like,
比如 如果阑尾给你带来麻烦
you ’ re better off without an appendix
那没有它会更好
if it ’ s giving you a problem, for example.
而且就算失去一些更重要的器官
And you can afford to lose all kinds
你也能好好活着
of more important organs, too, like a giant chunk
比如肝脏的大部分 或者整个肺部
of your liver or even an entire lung.
因为你的身体是一个很好的调节器
Because yeah, your body is a finely tuned machine —
这只是个比喻
if you don ’ t mind me saying
也就是说 你身体里有很多多余部分
so — but it also has a bunch of redundancies
允许你适应一些更为极端的
that allow it to adapt to some pretty extremeredundancies
改变
changes.
以下是一些你没有也能活下去的器官
So here are just a few of the bits you can live without.
1 大脑
Number one, the brain.
你不敢相信我们会说到这个器官吧
You didn’t think we were gonna go there!
在所有人体可失去的器官中
Of all of the organs in the human body to lose,
你甚至会认为 即使是部分失去部分大脑
even partially, you would think that
也会是一件生死攸关的事情
the brain would be a total dealbreaker.
我的意思是大脑基本上控制和协调了人体的其它一切器官
I mean, it controls or coordinates basicallyeverything else.
但结果证明某些情况下
But it turns out that sometimes,
有一个脑半球能更好地生存
it ’ s better to live with just one hemisphere —
也就是说 有半个大脑
half a brain, in other words.
比如当人们的一边的大脑
Like when people have a kind of epilepsy where seizures stem
发作癫痫时
from one side of the brain.
这种情况还伴随着一些渐发性的脑失调
This can happen with some developmental brain disorders,
或者伴随着一些罕见的状况
or with rare conditions like when
比如大脑半球异常变大
one brain hemisphere is abnormally large.
单侧癫痫很难治疗
One-sided seizures are often difficult to treat,
病人会逐渐衰弱
and they can be debilitating.
所以医生有时候会建议大脑切除术:
So sometimes doctors recommend a hemispherectomy:
移除部分或者全部
the removal of some or all of the half of
受影响的大脑半球
the brain that’s affected.
很明显这是一种非常罕见且很极端的手术
It ’ s a very rare, extreme operation, obviously,
但是手术成功后
but when it ’ s successful, it can result
患者就会有一个相对正常的生活
in a relatively normal life.
做完大脑半球切除术这个手术
After a hemispherectomy, between 50-90%
有50-90%的病人的癫痫症状完全消失了
of patients become completely seizure free.
他们确实会出现偏瘫的症状
They do experience some paralysis in the half
因为这部分身体是由
of the body normally controlled by the missing
被切除的大脑半球控制的
brain hemisphere,
但是如果患者手术前能行走的话
but most are still able to walk
大部分人手术后仍然能够行走
if they could before the procedure.
该手术一般也不会导致认知障碍
And the surgery doesn’t usually result incognitive deficits, either.
年轻的癫痫患者往往有更小的术后副作用
Younger patients tend to have fewer side effects
因为他们未被切除的健康大脑半球仍然在发育中
because the remaining healthy hemisphere is
使其能弥补被切除的大脑半球的作用
still developing, allowing it to compensatefor what’s missing.
但是这个繁琐的手术有很多风险
Still, it ’ s a difficult procedure with major risks,
所以医生在没有仔细衡量各项指标的情况下
so doctors don ’ t just chop out half of somebody’s brain
不会轻易切掉患者的半个大脑
without carefully weighingother options.
但失去半个大脑后
But the idea that you can lose half
仍然能够好好活着这个想法
of your brain and still be alive at all is pretty
还是相当令人难以置信
incredible.
你甚至会说 这是异想天开吧
You might even say it’s … mind-blowing.
而呼吸是人类生命的
Breathing is another thing that ’ s kind
另一个本质要素
of essential for human life,
所以你认为失去肺会引起很多问题
so you would think that losing a lung would cause a lot of problems.
但你仅有一个肺也能活得好好的
But you can get by just fine with just one lung.
慢性阻塞性肺炎 肺癌
Lung diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer,
肺结核等肺病
or tuberculosis can wreck
会破坏患者的肺组织
someone’s lung tissues.
所以在某些病例里
So in some cases,
会通过手术移除部分或整个肺
part of a lung or even the entire lung will be removed in a surgery called
这就是肺切除术
a pneumonectomy.
当一个肺被摘除
When one lung is removed,
就能为其它器官的改变腾出额外的空间
the extra space allows other organs to shift a bit,
使留下来的那个肺有扩大的空间
giving the remaining lung some more room to expand.
研究证明 在狗和鼠之类的动物体内
Studies have shown that in some animals like dogs and rats,
被保留的那个肺确实可以长出新肺泡
the remaining lung can actually
肺泡是发生气体交换的小囊
grow new alveoli—the little sacs where gas exchange happens.
一般认为接受肺切除术的孩子
It ’ s thought that children who get
可以做到这一点
a pneumonectomy might also do this
因为他们的肺还在发育
since their lungs are still developing.
但对于成年人来说 更可能的是
But in adults, it ’ s more likely that the alveoli
他们的肺泡会稍稍张开或膨胀
just stretch and expand a little to
以交换更多的空气
move more air through.
基本上 一个肺能完成
Ultimately, one lung is able to do about 70-80 %
两个肺工作量的70-80%
of what two lungs can,
一般这个工作量就足够了
and that is usually enough.
由于年龄和其它健康因素的影响
Depending on age and other health factors,
术后想做一些剧烈运动的话可能更困难了
it might be a bit more difficult to do strenuous activities,
但有人做了肺切除以后
but some people who have had this surgery go
还去跑了马拉松
on to run marathons,
没办法 身体好呗
which is more than I can say for me.
你的胃必须足够结实
Your stomach has to be tough enough to
才能粉碎胃酸里的食物
mush around your meals in gastric acid before passing
并将之送往小肠
them along to the small intestine.
所以胃是相当有弹性的
So it’s fairly resilient.
但是胃仍然有可能受损或者产生疾病
But it can still become impaired or diseased to the point
这样病人就需要手术
that the patient needs surgery
来重新引导胃周围的消化道
to redirect the digestive tract around their stomach
或者切掉部分的胃
or to remove part of it.
在某些情况下
And in some cases,
外科医生会选择
surgeons perform a total gastrectomy to
将整个胃切除
take out the whole thing
然后直接把食管连到小肠上
and just connect the esophagus directly tothe small intestine.
非常奇怪的是
Oddly enough, this doesn ’ t really
这并没有影响到整个消化过程
affect the overall process of digestion since most
因为不管怎样 大部分消化过程都发生在小肠里
of it occurs in the small intestine anyway.
但是没有可以用来储存食物的胃
But since there is no stomach to store food in,
所以病人经常需要
patients often need to eat smaller,
少食多餐
more frequent meals.
有时候这种病人也需要额外的维生素补充
Sometimes they also need additional vitamin supplements
因为有些维生素不能很好地被小肠吸收
for things that aren ’ t absorbed
比如维生素B12和维生素D
well by the small intestine, like vitamin B12 or vitamin D.
有些病人会产生一种
And some patients might develop a side effect called
称为“倾倒综合症”的副作用
dumping syndrome, which,

no, does not
不是你现在想的那个“倾倒”
refer to the ‘ dumping ’ that you may be thinking of right now.
糖类和淀粉一般是由胃消化的
Sugars and starches are usually digested in the stomach,
但接受胃切除术以后
but after a gastrectomy,
糖类和淀粉会直接被“倾倒”进小肠
they“dump” straight into the small intestine.
由于不擅长消化糖类和淀粉
Since the intestine isn ’ t used to that,
小肠就会雇佣水来分解它们
it recruits water to help break those things down,
但人体血液大量失水后
and a lot of that water comes
会导致血压降低
from your blood, causing a drop in blood pressure.
所以患上倾倒综合症的病人
With dumping syndrome, that can cause all kinds
饭后会出现各种不愉快的症状:
of unpleasant symptoms after a meal:
绞痛 腹胀 恶心 虚弱 头晕
cramping and bloating, nausea, weakness, dizziness,
还有低血压
and low blood pressure.
但一般来说 改变饮食足以克服这些问题
But generally, dietary changes are enough to overcome these issues,
那些没有胃的人
and people without a stomach
他们的生命中将获得更多的卡路里
get enough calories to go back to their lives.
脾脏 位于胃的左边
The spleen, which sits to the left of the stomach,
也是一个相当有用的器官
is also a pretty useful organ.
脾脏参与血液的过滤
It ’ s involved in filtering blood,
包括消除和分解衰老的红细胞
including removing and breaking down old red blood cells, and it ’ s one of the
它是白细胞产生后对抗感染的地方之一
places where infection-fighting white blood cells are produced.
但是当人的腹腔出问题时
But when bad things happen to someone ’ s abdomen—
比如当他们的腹腔被射伤 刺中
like if they get shot or stabbed
或者像我岳父一样在摩托车事故中受伤
or get in a motorcycle accident like my father-in-law,
脾脏就可能会破裂
the spleen can rupture.
这种情况非常危险
That ’ s super dangerous because it can result
因为会导致致命的内出血
in internal bleeding that could be fatal.
受感染后导致的脾脏增生
The spleen can also cause problems if it becomes enlarged
也会引起问题
from an infection,
因为肿胀会限制和破坏健康的血细胞
because the swelling can trap and destroy healthy blood cells,
导致贫血
leading to anemia.
这种情况下 医生会进行脾切除术
In those cases, doctors will do a splenectomy,
即切除部分或全部脾脏
where they remove part or all of the spleen.
脾切除术手术过程非常安全
It ’ s typically considered a safe procedure,
但脾脏在免疫系统中占有一席之地
but because of its role in the immune system,
所以没有脾脏的人会更容易受到感染
people without a spleen are more prone to infections,
尤其是被某些细菌感染
especially from certain bacteria.
所以对那些没有脾脏的人来说
So for people without spleens,
通过服用预防抗生素和接种疫苗
it ’ s important for them to boost their immune system by taking
来提高免疫系统的能力是非常重要的
preventative antibiotics and staying vaccinated.
但是脾脏并不是人体的必需品
But the redundancy of the human body means
因此免疫系统没有完全被破坏
the immune system isn ’ t completely destroyed.
而在过滤血液方面 肝脏也起到一小部分作用
And the liver can pick up the slack when it comes to filtering blood.
说起肝脏…
Speaking of which…
你的肝脏确实作用不小
Your liver does a lot—
它处理营养物 为血液解毒
it processes nutrients, detoxifies your blood,
还能产生胆汁
and produces bile,
胆汁是一种帮助消化的液体
a fluid that helps digestion.
还有 虽然你不能摘除自己的整个肝脏
And yet, while you can ’ t have your whole liver removed,
但你可以捐赠自己的大半个肝脏
you can donate more than half of it
来帮助那些患有肝脏疾病的人
to help someone whose liver is diseased.
但是真正令人惊讶的是 肝脏和人体的其它器官不一样
What ’ s really amazing, though, is that unlike your other organs,
因为被切掉的肝脏会重新长回来
your liver will grow back.
肝脏由肝细胞组成
Your liver is made of hepatocytes,
这种分化细胞不会积极复制
specialized cells that don ’ t actively replicate…that is,
直到你的肝脏少了一部分
until some are missing.
当部分肝脏被摘除
When a piece of liver is removed,
肝细胞会再度活跃起来 重新开始复制
hepatocytes reactivate and start replicating again,
长出新的肝细胞
growing new liver cells.
肝细胞的再生功能非常有效率
Liver regeneration is so efficient that you can lose
以至于你失去了65%的肝脏后
up to 65 % of your liver and it ’ ll
它会在一年之内长回原样
grow back within a year.
只需1/4的肝脏
Just a quarter of a liver can become
接受移植者就能长出一个全新的肝脏
a completely new liver in a transplant recipient.
任何大手术
Like any major surgery,
都有风险和潜在的并发症
there are risks andpotential complications.
但如果你身体健康 有爱心
But if you ’ re in good health and feeling altruistic,
你就可以进行肝脏捐献
liver donation is a thing that
术后很可能会完全没问题
you can do and probably be totally fine afterwards.
位于你肝脏下方的是一个很小的梨形器官:
Tucked underneath your liver is a small,
胆囊
pear-shaped organ: the gallbladder.
胆囊的主要工作是储存肝脏产生的胆汁
Its main job is to store the bile
以备消化之需
that the liver produces until it ’ s needed for digestion.
但有时候 胆汁的成分会变硬
But sometimes, the components of bile harden
变成卵石状的小石头
into small pebble-like stones,
如果这些石头带来疼痛
and if those stones become a problem,
医生会把胆囊摘除
doctors just yank out the whole thing.
胆汁的主要成分是胆固醇 胆汁盐
Bile is mostly made up of cholesterol, bile salts,
还有一种叫胆红素的代谢产物
and a waste compound called bilirubin
它负责你的粪便的颜色
that’s responsible for the color of your poop.
在小肠中
In the small intestine,
胆汁的作用是帮助消化脂肪 分解脂溶性维生素
bile ’ s job is to help digest fats and break down fat-soluble
比如维生素A和维生素D
vitamins like vitamin A and vitamin D.
但出于某些并不明确的原因
But for reasons that actually aren ’ t well-understood,
胆汁里的胆固醇和胆红素会变硬
the cholesterol and bilirubin in bile can
成为胆结石
harden into gallstones,
这会导致胆管堵塞
which can cause blockages in the bile duct,
胆管是通往小肠的管道
the tube that leads to the small intestine.
出现问题的胆结石会非常疼
Problematic gallstones are super painful,
不治疗的情况下会进一步导致感染
and without treatment, they can lead to infections
发炎 甚至死亡
and inflammation and even be deadly.
和肾结石不同的是 肾结石会随尿液排出
Unlike kidney stones, which can often be peed out,
胆结石可不乐意移动
gallstones don ’ t exit willingly.
有时候胆结石可以通过药物溶解
Sometimes they can be dissolved with medication,
但一般情况下 一旦停止用药
but usually they return
它们会重新长出来
after the meds are stopped.
所以在大多数病例中
So in most cases,
胆结石的治疗就是通过胆囊切除术
the treatment for gallstones is to remove the gallbladder entirely
摘除整个胆囊
by performing a cholecystectomy.
第一起胆囊切除手术是在1882年
This surgery was first performed in 1882.
一位德国外科医生指出
A German surgeon noted that
其他哺乳类没有胆囊
other mammals don ’ t have a gallbladder,
所以他认为 人类的胆囊可能也不是太重要
so he figured ours probably wasn’t too important.
他的话有道理
And he was kind of right.
如果没有胆囊
The bile still gets to your small intestine
胆汁只是失去了暂时储存的地方
without it — it just doesn ’ t get temporarily
它仍然会流进你的小肠
stored along the way.
如果你的胆囊被摘除 而且手术也很顺利
If your gallbladder is removed and the surgery goes smoothly,
术后一般
usually all you have to show
只有一个小伤疤
for it is a tiny scar and
或许还会有点儿消化不良
maybe a little bit of extra indigestion.
每个肾脏都有百万多个
Each of your kidneys is made up of more
被称为肾源的过滤单位
than a million filtering units called nephrons,
它们负责过滤血液中的废物和额外液体
which remove waste and excess fluid from theblood.
如果你体会不到它们的重要性
If that doesn ’ t seem too important to you,
就想象一下如果你家几个月没倒垃圾
just imagine what would happen to your house
会是什么景象
if you couldn’t take out the trash for a couple months.
在人体内
In your body,
过量的废物会引起呕吐 腹泻
increased levels of waste can cause vomiting, diarrhea,
脱水…
dehydration…
整个身体会浮肿
The whole body can swell,
血压升高 呼吸紊乱
increasing blood pressure and imparing breathing.
而且不恰当的流体管理
And chemical imbalances
所导致的化学失衡会引起严重的问题
from improper fluid management can lead to serious issues like
比如骨骼和肌肉萎缩
bone and muscle loss.
肾功能衰竭基本上是致命的
Ultimately, kidney failure can be fatal.
但事实是 你只需要一个肾脏
Yet, you only really need one of your kidneys.
每天两个肾要过滤
Each day, a pair of kidneys filters
150公升的血液
about 150 liters of blood to produce about a liter
产生1.5公升的尿液
and a half of urine.
但这些工作一个健康的肾就能独立完成
But even one healthy kidney can do all that work
这就是肾脏捐献可行的原因
on its own, which is why live kidney donation is a thing.
当一个肾被摘除后
When one kidney is removed,
另一个肾的肾元会通过变大进行补偿作用
the other kidney ’ s nephrons compensate by getting bigger
这样肾元们就能做更多的过滤工作
so they can each do more filtering.
一个肾也能起到两个肾的作用
It becomes just as effective as two kidneys would be.
但奇怪的是
And weirdly, leaving a bad kidney or even two
在人体内保留一个甚至两个坏肾也不成问题
inside of you isn ’ t a problem, either.
虽然一个肾就能完成所有工作
Recipients don ’ t always get their faulty kidneys removed,
但有时候接受移植者
so they actually end up living
不会移除他们的有缺陷的肾
with a total of three kidneys,
所以他们最后总共带着三个肾生活
even though only one is doing all of the work.
很明显 当所有器官一个不少且功能正常时
Obviously, your body works best and is
人体就会运转良好
the healthiest when all of the parts are present
而且最健康
and functioning.
但是就算没有某些器官
But it is definitely possible to live a
人也肯定可能过上健康且相对正常的生活
healthy and relatively normal life without some organs,
因为人体非常善于适应变化
because the human body is incredibly goodat adapting to change.
摘除一两个器官对人体来说根本不是什么大事儿
Remove an organ or two, and it just
他会说:
takes it in stride, it ’ s like,
我现在只有一个肺 还活得好好的
“ I ’ m gon na be one big lung now, I’m fine!”
我是说少一两个器官其实没什么大不了的
I mean, it doesn ’ t look that impressive,
反正我不觉得奇怪
I don ’ t think,
但是人体确实是相当奇妙的
but it is pretty wonderful,
感谢造物者的恩宠吧
thank you body!
感谢观看本集科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow.
如果你喜欢这集“人体内各种可摘除的器官”
If you liked hearing about your various removable body parts,
那你很可能喜欢这个视频:
you might also enjoy this episode
“动物器官是如何取代人体器官的”
on how some people have bits replaced with animal parts.
[片尾曲]
[♪ OUTRO]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

很多人知道人没有阑尾也能活着,那还有什么器官对人的存活来说没有必要性呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员JC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EHQ4n980evI

相关推荐