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最怪诞的鲨鱼! – 译学馆
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最怪诞的鲨鱼!

7 of the Most Uniquely Fierce Sharks

Sci show
《科学秀》
Sharks come out of a lot of different shapes and sizes,
鲨鱼的身形和大小各异
and not just big, bigger, and “God, help save me!”
并不只是大 更大和“惊为天人”
Worldwide, there are at least 500 different shark species,
纵观全球 至少有500种不同的鲨鱼
and most of them aren’t the bazillion-toothed,
而它们大多数并不是好莱坞电影中
seal and surfer-terrorizing nemeses
令海豹和冲浪者们惧怕的
of the deep that Hollywood tells us they are.
满口巨齿的深海杀手
The great white may have a bite force of more than one and a half metric tons
大白鲨的咬合力可能超过了1.5吨
and a top speed of 40 kilometers per hour,
最快速度可达每小时40公里
but that stuff is almost boring compared the other species out there.
但这和其他种类的鲨鱼相比 就很平庸无趣
Because slashing, shredding, and dismembering
因为对自然界那些怪诞的鲨鱼来说
with mere teeth and/or brute force is not interesting enough
仅仅用牙齿或蛮力撕咬和肢解猎物
for many of nature’s weirdest sharks.
不是什么新鲜事
No, these sharks went down evolutionary roads
这些鲨鱼一路进化出了
that produced adaptations like slingshot faces, chainsaw snouts,
诸如能弹射的面部 锯齿状的吻部
glow-in-the-dark skin, and lifespans that rival trees.
夜光皮肤和能与树相媲美的寿命
The Greenland shark looks like a poorly executed granite sculpture
格陵兰鲨鱼就像个迷人物种中的
of a much more attractive species,
冰冷又拙劣的雕塑
and that’s not even the weirdest thing about it.
这还不是它最怪异的特点
In 2016, researchers discovered that Greenland sharks
2016年研究者发现格陵兰鲨鱼
may be the world’s longest-living vertebrates.
可能是世界上最长寿的脊椎动物
The oldest one they tested was at least 272 years old,
经验证最年老的一只至少有272岁
although it could have been as old as 512.
它甚至可能已经512岁了
Even the low end of that range is way longer
即便是预测年龄的最低值
than the previous record-holding vertebrate,
也比先前脊椎动物寿命记录长得多
the bowhead whale, which lives about 200 years.
像北极露脊鲸的寿命为200年左右
Greenland sharks have such a long lifespan
格陵兰鲸鱼有如此长的寿命
that females probably don’t reach sexual maturity
以至于就算它们到了150岁
until they’re around 150 years old,
雌性鲸鱼也没有达到性成熟
which seems like a really long time to wait for that first date.
初恋来的也太慢了
Now, we don’t know a ton about these sharks.
我们对这种鲨鱼了解的不多
It hasn’t been that long since we discovered they live so long,
生物学家发现它们能如此长寿也是不久前的事
and biologists hadn’t studied them much before that.
在那之前没怎么研究过它们
But researchers think the secret to the Greenland shark’s long life
但是研究者认为格陵兰鲨鱼长寿的奥秘
might be the bone-crushingly cold water it lives in,
可能是由于它生活的水域寒冷刺骨
which is usually around 1 to 10 degrees Celsius.
水温通常在摄氏1-10度左右
The cold water probably lowers the shark’s growth rate,
寒冷的水环境可能降低了它们的
along with its metabolic rate, or how quickly it uses up energy.
代谢速度或耗能速度进而降低生长速度
The cold might even affect its genes.
寒冷也可能影响了它们的基因
Researchers studying nematode worms have found
研究者们在研究铁线虫时发现
that cold temperatures can activate anti-aging genes.
低温能激活抗衰老基因
Sharks are not worms, obviously,
鲨鱼当然不是线虫
but some scientists think that something similar might happen
但一些学者认为钟爱严寒的格陵兰鲨
for the cold-loving Greenland shark.
可能发生了类似的改变
The genes might help the shark’s body fold proteins, for example,
比如 这种基因可以帮助鲨鱼身体折叠蛋白质
keeping it healthy for longer.
使其长久保持健康
Misfolded proteins become more common as an organism ages,
随着有机体衰老 蛋白质折叠错误经常发生
and they can cause age-related diseases when they accumulate.
经年累积 会诱发老龄疾病
The cold could also activate genes that help the shark fight off infection
寒冷能激活鲨鱼免受感染的基因
or get rid of molecules that could damage its DNA.
或除去损坏DNA的分子
Either way, some of these sharks, the individual living sharks,
无论如何 这些现存的鲨鱼个体中有一部分
have probably been around since before the American Revolution.
在独立战争之前就存在于世了
And that is just weird to think about.
这听着就不可思议
The thresher shark might seem sort of average at first,
长尾鲨第一眼看去好像相貌平平
that is, until you see its tail.
不过那是你没看见它的尾巴
The top half of the shark’s tail fin is as long as the rest of its body,
它的尾鳍上部和剩余身体几乎一样长
which has inspired all kinds of wild speculation
于是产生了各种推测
about these sharks taking down their prey Indiana Jones-style.
说这种鲨鱼用印第安纳琼斯风格猎取猎物
Ridiculous.
荒谬
Until scientists found out it was true.
直到科学家发现事实如此
In 2010, sharks from one species of thresher shark,
2010年 长尾鲨的其中一种
called the pelagic thresher,
深海长尾鲨
were observed literally whipping shoals
被观测到用它们又长又大的尾鳍
of sardines with their big long tail fins.
抽打一群沙丁鱼
The whipping action of the tail fin has been clocked
水中尾鳍抽打速度可以达到
at 129 kilometers per hour, through water.
每小时129千米
And is so powerful that it doesn’t just kill the shark’s prey,
抽打力量之大 以至于不仅仅杀死了猎物
it dismembers it.
还直接肢解了它
You can see the advantage: Swiping at a bunch of prey at once
这样做的好处是 一次对一群猎物猛击
means they don’t have to bother chasing around individual fish.
意味着它不用费精力追逐个体的鱼
And they don’t have to bother with cutting their food up
也不用为把食物分成
into bite-sized portions, either,
能吃进嘴的大小而费心
since their whip-tail does that for them.
因为其鞭尾已经帮它们做了
I don’t think Indiana Jones ever tried that particular strategy,
我觉得印第安纳琼斯没试过这种策略
but maybe he should have.
也许他应该试试
The sawshark, meanwhile, uses a very different weapon
锯鲨使用的切割武器与长尾鲨鱼不同
for its slicing-and-dicing: its face.
它的武器是自己扁平的带锯齿的脸
It’s like the Leatherface of the deep, with a rostrum, or snout,
它就像深海中长着长鼻子的“人皮脸”
that looks kind of like a chainsaw, flat and elongated,
它的脸看起来像瘦长扁平的锯子
and lined with modified, teeth-like scales.
两旁排列着牙齿般的鳞片
But the saw is more than just a weapon.
但这锯齿不只是武器
Sharks have electroreceptors on their heads
鲨鱼头部有电感受器
called the ampullae of Lorenzini,
叫做洛伦齐尼壶状体
which they use to sense the electrical fields
鲨鱼在捕食猎物时用它
generated by prey animals.
探测猎物产生的电场
Sawsharks are bottom dwellers,
锯鲨是海床居民
and their ampullae of Lorenzini are located on the underside of the rostrum.
它们的电感受器位于嘴的下面
That along with the long, mustache-like nasal barbels
与位于鼻子中部的
located about midway down the rostrum,
像胡子一样的长触须一起
helps the sawshark locate buried prey.
帮锯鲨找到藏在沙底的猎物
Then once the shark finds it,
一旦发现猎物
it can use the saw to quickly dispatch it.
鲨鱼就用锯齿快速解决它
Goblin sharks are kind of the opposite
哥布林鲨的外形
of what you’d expect from a deadly predator:
和人们印象中的致命掠食者反差很大
They’re sort of flabby and poorly toned, with long snouts and skin
它们看起来有些臃肿无力 长着长鼻子
that’s a weird pinkish-gray color.
和怪异的灰粉色皮肤
But what the goblin shark lacks in good looks and athletic physique,
哥布林鲨没有好看的外表和健美的体型
it makes up for with its own bizarre built-in face weapon:
但它有位于面部内的神奇武器
an upper jaw that can be dropped and fired
一个可以向猎物弹射出去的上颌
at its prey, and then drawn back again.
然后再收回
Kind of like a certain alien that once tried to eat Sigourney Weaver.
有点像某个想吃西格尼韦弗的外星生物
The goblin shark’s jaw isn’t directly fused to its skull,
哥布林鲨的上颌不是直接附着在头骨上
it’s attached more indirectly, with ligaments and extra bits of cartilage.
而是通过韧带和软骨 间接连接在上面
That’s what makes it so freakishly mobile.
这也是使它能灵活移动的原因
The shark stretches the ligaments
鲨鱼收紧韧带
to draw the jaw back to the rest of its head,
让颌部缩进头里
then fires it forward by relaxing them.
然后通过放松韧带向前弹射
As an added bonus, researchers think the movement might create suction
作为额外的收获 研究者们认为这个运动
that draws the shark’s prey towards its mouth.
产生了吸力 使猎物进入鲨鱼嘴里
So the goblin shark doesn’t just look like a movie alien,
所以哥布林鲨不仅看起来像外星生物
it also hunts like one.
它捕猎的方式也像
But there’s a good reason for its strange appearance, too.
这里也有个能解释它奇怪外表的原因
The shark’s skin is basically see-through because it lives in the deep ocean,
由于生活在不需要产生色素的深海里
where pigmentation is totally unnecessary.
这种鲨鱼的皮肤近乎透明
And its flabby body is thought to be an adaptation
它松弛臃肿的躯体也是为了适应
to the energy-deficient environment down there.
深海资源匮乏的环境
By not having a lot of muscle, the sharks save the energy
肌肉量的减少使它们储存了
they’d otherwise use to maintain it.
原本要消耗的能量
Goblin sharks are also thought to spend more time hovering than swimming,
同样的因为要节省能量消耗
probably for similar energy-conserving reasons.
哥布林鲨更多是悬浮在水中而不是游动
Although it’s clearly also hovering
也可能它们悬浮在水中
because that’s just super creepy and it’s really good at that.
就是那样很吓人 它们很擅长吓唬人
The wobbegong is more of a stealth killer,
斑须鲨是更隐秘的杀手
with an arsenal of strategies for attracting, apprehending, and ambushing prey.
它们有大量引诱 逮捕 和伏击猎物的策略
The shark has wiggly lobes on its upper lip, which to prey,
这种鲨鱼的上唇长着能随水波摆动的皮瓣
look like yummy things to eat, or maybe a safe place to hide.
在猎物看来这是美味佳肴或理想的避难所
Except that really, the prey are the yummy things to eat,
只可惜事实上猎物是别人的盘中餐
and the lobes are the opposite of a safe place to hide.
而皮瓣也完全不是避难所
Scientists think the lobes also help the wobbegong
科学家们认为这些皮瓣也能
blend into the ocean floor, where it spends most of its time.
让斑须鲨隐身在它们经常栖息的海床
Because its prey often comes to it,
由于猎物往往会游到它周围
the wobbegong doesn’t have to waste a lot of time and energy hunting its food.
斑须鲨无需浪费时间和精力捕猎
It just hangs out and waits for its takeout order to arrive,
它只需要逗留着静等它的猎物送货上门
usually in the form of fish, cephalopods, and other small, doomed creatures.
通常是鱼 头足目动物 和其它倒霉的小型生物
Prey doesn’t even have to come very close,
猎物不需要离它非常近
because the wobbegongs can send their mouths
因为斑须鲨会伸出
out to meet their prey,
独立突出的嘴
independent of the rest of their bodies.
去捕捉猎物
One species, the spotted wobbegong, can extend its mouth
其中一种斑点斑须鲨的嘴
further than the length of its own head.
能伸的比自己的头还长
Like the goblin shark, the motion enlarges the shark’s mouth,
像剑吻鲨一样 这一运动扩大了鲨鱼的嘴
which also generates suction that traps prey as it passes by.
也对经过的猎物产生了吸力
And if that doesn’t work, they do have another option:
如果这样没用 它们会采取另一方法
some wobbegongs have been observed sneaking up on their prey.
一些斑须鲨被观测到 悄悄靠近它们的猎物
Extra super creepy.
极其毛骨悚然
The frilled shark, named for the frills on its gills,
皱鳃鲨因其鳃上的褶边得名
is sort of like an eel, sort of like a snake,
它有点像鳗鱼又有点像蛇
and sort of like a thing that tried to eat the Millenium Falcon
也有点像星战系列帝国反击战里
in The Empire Strikes Back.
想吃千年隼号的那东西
What it’s not very much like is a shark,
它并不像鲨鱼
at least not most sharks as we know and recognize them.
至少不像我们熟知的大多数鲨鱼
It really looks much more like an eel,
在看到它怪钩一样的牙齿前
until you see its bizarre, backward-facing teeth.
它就像一条鳗鱼
Scientists think these strange teeth might be used to lure prey.
科学家认为这奇怪的牙齿可能是用来引诱猎物的
They’re bright white and stand out against
它们鲜明洁白
the dark skin of the shark,
和深色的鲨皮形成明显对比
so curious fish might be tempted to come in for a better look.
这可能迷惑好奇的鱼游进来
Since the teeth face backward,
由于牙是反向生长的
they hook the prey and make it very hard to escape.
它们可以勾住猎物并使其很难逃脱
The frilled shark’s mouth is also long and flexible, like a snake’s.
皱鳃鲨的嘴像蛇一样狭长又灵活
That allows it to open its mouth really wide,
它能将嘴张的非常大
swallowing prey up to half its body length.
能吞下跟它身体一半等长的猎物
Frilled sharks live at depths of 120 to 1200 meters,
皱鳃鲨生活在水下120到1200米
and they aren’t seen very often,
它们并不常见
so we don’t know exactly what their feeding behavior looks like.
所以我们不知道他们到底是如何进食的
But scientists think the arrangement of the shark’s fins,
但科学家认为它们鱼鳍的排布
combined with its natural buoyancy,
结合了天然的浮力定律
suggests that it might, like, hover in the water,
说明它能盘旋在水中
and then strike at passing prey like a snake.
像蛇一样对经过的猎物发起突击
The catshark doesn’t have a whip for a tail,
猫鲨没有鞭子般的尾鳍
or a saw for a head, or hooks for teeth.
锯子一样的头部或钩状牙齿
It has a different type of clever adaptation that
却有一种不同的绝佳适应策略
helps it survive 500 to 600 meters below the surface,
帮它在海平面下500至600米中存活
where it lives: it glows in the dark.
它能在黑暗中发光
Catsharks are biofluorescent.
猫鲨自带生物荧光剂
They have special pigment in their skin that absorbs blue light,
它们皮肤中有能吸收蓝光的特殊色素
the only color that penetrates that far into the ocean,
蓝光是唯一能穿透海水到达这个深度的颜色
and then re-emits some of the energy as green light.
然后重新反射出绿光
This strategy isn’t as common as bioluminescence,
这种表现并不像生物体通过化学反应
where an organism produces its own light through a chemical reaction.
产生荧光一样普遍
But scientists are starting to realize that biofluorescence
但科学家开始意识到生物荧光
is more widespread among fish than we thought.
在鱼类中比我们想像的更普遍
It’s just been hard to detect it,
只是这种光对人来说太微弱
because the glow is often too dim for us humans
没有专业仪器
to see without special equipment.
很难察觉到
And in 2016, researchers discovered it in catsharks.
2016年 研究者们对猫鲨有新的发现
The shark’s eyes, which are shaped like a cat’s,
这种鲨鱼的眼睛形状就像猫眼
are much more sensitive to light.
对光线更敏感
They’re attuned to the blue and green part of the spectrum,
它们能看见光谱中的蓝绿光
and they have long rod cells
而且有更长的视杆细胞
that help them see better in low light.
让它们在弱光下看见更多
So they can probably see the biofluorescence pretty clearly.
所以它们能更清晰地看到生物荧光
We aren’t totally sure what they use it for,
我们并不确定这功能的用处
but the researchers think the green glow helps the sharks
但研究者认为绿光能帮助鲨鱼
see each other in the dark.
在黑暗中看到对方
More specifically, it could help them find mates,
更具体地说 能帮它们找到伴侣
an idea that’s backed up by the fact
事实证实了这个观点
that males and females have different glowing patterns.
雄性和雌性有不同的发光图案
In at least one species, the males’ claspers,
至少有一个品种 雄性用来交配的卷须
which they use to mate, are part of that pattern.
也是构成这种图案的一部分
There’s still a lot we don’t know
关于为何有些鲨鱼会发光
about why some sharks glow, or about most of
还有鲨鱼大多数不寻常的特质
the unusual qualities on this list.
我们了解的还不够多
But one thing’s for sure:
但可以确定的是
To find the truly awesome sharks out there,
想找到最了不起的鲨鱼
you have to look past those plain old boring Hollywood sharks
你需要忘掉无趣至极的好莱坞的鲨鱼
to their lesser-known but weirdly fascinating cousins.
去了解它们不为人知却怪异有趣的表亲
Happy swimming, everyone!
游泳愉快 各位
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
谢谢观看这一期《科学秀》
If you’re interested in learning more
如果你想了解更多
about some of the strangest animals out there,
世上最奇异的动物
along with all kinds of other fascinating science,
和各种迷人的科学
you can go on over to youtube.com/scishow to subscribe.
你可以在Youtub订阅我们的频道

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视频概述

鲨鱼不只是我们熟知的“大白鲨”形象,深海中还栖息着形态各异的鲨鱼,请跟随我们一起了解它们最隐秘的一面!

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翻译译者

WA

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审核员FW

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e1R81gTT0M8

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