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高效的思想者的7个习惯

7 Habits of Highly Effective Thinkers

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嗨 大家好!
Hey, guys!
我将送出一些”Freedom in Thought”T恤
I’m giving away some Freedom in Thought T-shirts.
如果你想参与赢取一件
If you want to enter to win one,
就在推特和 Ins 上关注我
just follow me on Twitter, Instagram
然后在其中一个帖子上回复你的T恤大小
and reply to one of these posts with your shirt size.
T恤的尺寸从小号到双倍超大号不等
I have sizes ranging from small to double XL.
下周会公布赢取T恤者
The winners will be chosen by next week.
在我上一个文章中
In my last essay,
我们讨论了批判性思维的重要性
we discussed the importance of critical thinking.
现在来回答这一关键问题
Now it’s time to answer the trillion dollar question.
你如何成为一个批判性思维者?
How do you become a critical thinker?
我应该重申这个
I should reiterate that
我说的批判性思维
I am talking about critical thinking in the sense
是一种个性特点 不是技巧
that it is a personality trait and not a skill.
对世界进行批判性思考的倾向
The tendency to think critically about the world
产生于具备适当的性格特征
emerges from having the proper character traits.
我认为以下特征是一个很好的起点
I think the following traits serve as a good starting point.
“……开放和公平的心态 好奇 灵活
“…Open and fair mindedness, inquisitiveness, flexibility,
理性 见多识广的意愿
a propensity to seek reason, a desire to be well-informed
尊重并愿意接受不同的观点“
and a respect for and willingness to entertain diverse viewpoints.”
——艾米丽·赖 皮尔森评估
–Emily Lai, Pearson Assessments.
成为批判性思想家是没有捷径的
There is no quick hack to becoming a critical thinker.
但是可以建立一些习惯
But there are some habits that
让自己的性格
one can build to alter their character
朝着正确的方向转变
in the right direction.
习惯一 读得多 读得广
Habit number one, read a lot and read widely.
让自己接受独特的观点
Exposing yourself to unique points of view
是激发好奇心和保持开放心态的好方法
is a good way to spark constant curiosity and to stay open-minded.
博览群书的人知道
Well-read people understand that
一个问题有多种看待方法
there are multiple ways to look at a problem
而看待世界的角度也有很多个
and multiple lenses with which to view the world.
习惯二 别这么快地下结论
Habit number two, don’t jump to conclusions.
一个好的批判性思想家
A good critical thinker has built up
已经养成了不仓促下结论的习惯
the habit of not jumping to conclusions,
尤其是在没有数据的情况下
especially in the absence of data.
他们只有在深入研究了一个话题之后
They only make a judgement
才能做出判断
once they have studied a topic in some depth
并且能够用合理的推理来证明自己的立场
and can justify their position with sound reasoning.
习惯三 建立系统而不是目标
Habit number three, create systems, not goals.
例如 养成一种促进每天写作的系统习惯或仪式
For example, creating a system habit or ritual that promotes writing every day
比设定每周写一篇文章的目标更有效
is more effective than setting the goal of writing an essay a week.
可以对系统进行测量 细化和优化
A system can be measured, refined and optimized.
目标不能
A goal cannot.
我可以用我的系统的输入
I can work on the inputs of my system
来创造更多更优质的产出
to create better quality and quantity of outputs.
目标只关注产出
A goal only focuses on the outputs.
为了提高我的写作质量
To improve the quality of my writing,
我创建了检查单
I created checklist that
可以在完成每一篇文章后逐一检查
I can run through after completing each essay.
使用我的系统 让我写出更好的文章
Every time I use my system, I create better essays.
每写完一篇文章
With every essay I finish,
我就会回去改进我的系统
I go back and refine my system.
这是一个可以测量和改进的反馈回路
It’s a feedback loop that can be measured and improved.
习惯四 反驳自己
Habit number four, argue with yourself.
伟大的思想家经常机智的
Great thinkers routinely and intelligently
试着和自己争论
try to counter their own arguments.
直到他们根据所拥有的知识
They go back and forth until only the most rational
得出最合理和最有力的论点为止
and strongest argument exists based on the knowledge they have.
这也是所有优秀科学家的使命
This is also the mission of any good scientist.
科学家试图证明自己是错的 而不是正确的
The scientist tries to prove themselves wrong, not right.
当他们不断地失败时
When they continually fail to do so,
剩下的可能就只有真相
it’s very likely that only the truth remains.
习惯五 愿意改变你的看法
Habit number five, be willing to change your opinion.
不依附于信息
Be unattached to information,
愿意在更好的数据面前改变观点
have the willingness to change an opinion in the face of better data.
习惯六 做笔记
Habit number six, write.
写作就是思考
Writing is thinking.
我们写得越好 就越善于思考
The better we get at writing, the better we get at thinking.
写作也能帮助我们分辨自己知道的是什么
Writing also helps us separate what we actually know
自以为知道的是什么
from what we think we know.
习惯七 寻求逆境
Habit number seven, seek adversity.
这个是有争议的
This one is controversial.
但我相信它是最强大的
But I believe it’s the most powerful.
学校未能教授批判性思维的主要原因
The main reason schools fail to teach critical thinking
是它们没有创造最佳环境
is because they don’t create the optimal environment to
来培养正确的性格
foster the correct character traits.
学校过于标准化和结构化
Schools are overly standardized and structured.
规则非常严格
The rules are very rigid.
一旦学生们理解了规则 学校就成了一种游戏
Once students understand the rules, school becomes a game.
一旦建立了一个有效的游戏策略
Once they’ve established a game strategy that works,
他们可以非常被动地玩游戏 并勉强过关
they can play the game very passively and get by.
大多数学生很快就学到找到工作所需的最少努力
Most students quickly learn the bare minimum amount of effort required to get a job
之后就失去了努力工作和积极思考的动力
and then they have no incentive to work harder and to think actively.
但是如果你把他们从游戏中带出来
But if you take them out of that game,
如果你让他们远离那种环境
if you break the immersion,
他们现在就会被迫进行批判性的思考
they are now forced to think critically.
在逆境时
In adversity,
他们学会创造新的规则 打破旧的规则
they learn to create new rules and break old ones.
他们必须这样做 因为要么做要么不活
They have to because it’s either do or die.
从被动思考者到积极思考者的转变
The shift from a passive thinker to an active thinker
在表面上是非常微妙的
is very subtle on the surface
因为它发生在内心
because it happens internally.
批判性思考需要的是对自己的坚定信念
It requires internal conviction, a strong belief in oneself.
不管我怎么教导你成为
Regardless of how many tips I give someone
一个批判性思考者
to become a critical thinker,
它最终必须来自内心深处的渴望
it ultimately has to come from a deep desire within.
大多数伟大的男女都经历过逆境
Most great women and men have gone through adversity.
为什么?
Why?
因为在逆境中他们产生了很多内在的信念
Because adversity generates a lot of internal conviction.
内在信念给予他们动力
This internal conviction drives them and
不断地让他们的思维变得积极
constantly shifts them into active modes of thinking.
他们不求温饱 跟生活较劲
Instead of living defensively, they attack life with ferocity.
他们知道总有一天他们会死的
They know they’re gonna die one day.
时间正在走向尽头
Time is running out.
他们不知道那一天什么时候到来
They don’t know when that day will come.
所以他们和生活较劲
So they attack life.
他们与死亡赛跑
They race against death
因为他们有要实现的目的
because they have a purpose to fulfill.
我喜欢把批判性思维
I like to think of critical thinking
看作一种倾向而不是技能
as a tendency and not a skill.
伟大的思想家
Great thinkers constantly
在日常生活中总是倾向于批判性思维
tend towards critical thinking in their daily lives.
如果学校不教学生批判性思维
If school doesn’t teach students critical thinking,
那么人们是从哪里学来的呢?
where are people learning it?
生活 逆境 书 互联网
Life, adversity, books, the Internet.
让人们即使上过学校 也能成为批判性思想家
These people become critical thinkers, despite school, not because of it.
学会批判性思考是出于必要
They learn it because they have to.
我相信总有一天
I believe that one day
学校会迎头赶上
schools will catch up and do a better job
在培育这个环境方面做得更好
of fostering this environment.
但谢天谢地 我们总是有能力
But thankfully, we always have the power to
创造有助于学习它的环境
put ourselves in a position to learn it.
感谢Squarespace
Thanks to Squarespace,
只需点击简介框中的链接
anyone who clicks the link in the description
就能获得免费试用和第一次购买10%的折扣
will get a free trial and 10% off their first purchase.
用Squarespace的全位一体的平台
Squarespace allows you to make beautiful websites
你可以制作漂亮的网站
with their all-in-one platform.
你不需要学会编程也能开始
You don’t need to know any coding at all to get started
他们有漂亮的获奖模板
and they have beautiful award-winning templates.
当我刚创立“Freedom in Thought”的时候
When I first started Freedom in Thought,
它原本是一个工程专业学生的博客
it began as a blog for engineering students and
我用来建立这个博客的平台是Squarespace
the platform I used to set up that blog was Squarespace.
这个网站很快就让我设立了好看的网页
They made it easy for me to get a good looking website up
让我可以直接写作和发布文章
and just get started with the writing and publishing.
我现在用它们来运行我的三个网站
I now use them to run three of my websites.
工科学生的“Engineering Worth”
Engineering Worth for engineering students,
“Freedom in Thought”和我自己的个人专业网站
Freedom in Thought and my own personal and professional website.
无论你是音乐家 设计师 企业家 还是学生
Whether you’re a musician, designer, entrepreneur or student,
一个好的专业网站是必须的
a good professional website is a must
Squarespace可以帮助你轻松地建立一个网站
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再次提醒 单击简介中的链接
Again, click the link in the description to
以获得免费试用和第一次购买的10%折扣
get a free trial and 10% off your first purchase.
一如既往地感谢你的收看 下次再见
As always, thanks for watching and I’ll see you next time.

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视频概述

批判性思维养成的一些习惯,帮你提高思考效率。

听录译者

Felicity

翻译译者

甪里

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IFWbxZrjWhM

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