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7种由折纸艺术启发的惊人发明

7 Amazing Origami-Inspired Inventions

要是你曾折过虱子捕手或纸飞机的话
If you’ve ever made a cootie catcher or paper airplane, then you know how useful folding
你就会知道当折叠作为一项建筑技巧时是多么有用了
can be as a construction technique, especially if you’re trying to annoy your grade school
尤其是当你想惹恼小学老师时
teachers.
但是你能折出来的作品只是一个纸球
But say the only thing you can make out of origami is a rock.
在垃圾桶旁练习你的罚球之前 仔细看看吧
Before you practice your free-throw on the recycle bin, take a closer look.
这个纸球有各种有趣的物理特性
That paper rock has all kinds of interesting physical properties.
首先 它很结实
For one thing, it’s very strong.
你用手只能把一张标准的打印纸压缩到它90%还是
You can only compress standard printer paper by hand to a point where about 90% of it is
空气的程度
still air.
它也有弹性 这也是为什么压皱了的纸是一种很好的包装材料
It’s also a little springy, which is why crumpled paper is such a great packaging material.
这个球的强度来自于由纸的扁平面堆积形成的
The ball’s strength comes from flat sections of the paper that are layered together to
厚厚的内壁
form thick walls.
这些内壁由在不同方向加固着球的坚硬折痕所支撑
Those walls are supported by stiff ridges that brace the ball in different directions.
而这只是你随手一折得到的作品
And that’s just what you can get from folding randomly.
在细心的规划下 你可以做的更多 比如用小小的包裹运输笨重的东西
With careful planning, you can do way more, like transport bulky things in small packages
或是轻松地改变物体的形状
and easily change something’s shape.
这便是最近大量的研究和折纸有关的原因
That’s led to a deluge of recent research into things that fold, collapse, or expand.
一切因折纸而起
All inspired by origami.
通过折叠 你可以把笨重的物品压缩到小小的空间里
With folding, you can compress bulky objects into a small space without sacrificing too
却不牺牲空间的太多完整性
much structural integrity.
这让它能够很好地运送东西到难以到达的地方 例如
That makes it great for transporting things to places that are hard to get to, like the
在发生自然灾害的地区 外太空 甚至人的体内
sites of natural disasters, outer space, or even the inside of the human body.
自然灾害会在像路和桥那样的基础设施最被需要的时候
Natural disasters can damage infrastructure like roads and bridges at a time when they’re
破坏它们
needed most.
受害者会在争分夺秒的紧急救援中被隔离起来
Victims can be isolated from emergency aid when every minute counts.
考虑到这一点 2015年 一个来自日本广岛大学的研究小组设计了
With that in mind, in 2015, a team of researchers from Hiroshima University in Japan designed
一个可以被折叠从而适应拖车大小的紧急渡桥
an emergency bridge that can fold small enough to fit in a trailer.
它是一种由横梁连接成为像三角形那样的稳定形状而构成的
It’s a type of truss bridge, the kind made from beams connected to form strong shapes
桁架桥
like triangles.
如果你用意面和棉花糖做一座桥 就会得到一个桁架桥
If you ever made a bridge out of spaghetti and marshmallows, you made a truss bridge.
这种桥利用了横杆的特性 例如 一捆意面
This kind of bridge takes advantage of the principle that beams, like strands of spaghetti,
当你沿意面的长度方向拉伸或压缩的时候 它们可以表现得很出色
perform well when they’re pulled or compressed along their length, even though they’ll
尽管它们在被弯曲的时候已经断裂或变形
break or deform if they’re bent.
为了避免弯曲力作用到梁上 桁架桥上键联结的关联点
To prevent bending force on its beams, it’s important that the connection points of a
是很重要的 它能像你的膝关节一样转动——这意味着
truss bridge work like pin joints, which rotate like your knee — meaning that they can only
他们只能沿着一条轨迹前后摆动
swing back and forth along one path.
在桁架桥里 键连接能分散作用在桥梁上的力
Pin joints are used in truss bridges so that if there’s a force pushing sideways on a
它围着这个节点转动 从而不会向中间弯曲
beam, it’ll rotate around the joint instead of bending in the middle.
一般来说 桁架桥上的梁之所以被安放好 是因为
Normally, the beams in a truss bridge are arranged so that overall, the beams don’t
这样桥梁不会转动太多 且能保持桥体的稳定
rotate too much and the bridge is stable.
而这座可折叠的桥 它所有的键连接 在需要的时候
But this foldable bridge is designed so that all the pin joints are free to rotate when
都能自由转动
the bridge is being folded or unfolded.
一旦你在某处固定住桥基 所有的键连接都会
Once you lock the base of the bridge in place, you end up with triangles along the sides
以三角形的稳定形态来限制销接的转动
of the bridge that constrain the rotation of the pin joints.
这就是使这座桥变得坚固稳定且适宜通车的方法
That’s how you end up with a stable, strong bridge ready for traffic.
一小时内 这座桥可以延伸二十多米长
Within an hour, this bridge can be expanded to more than 20 meters and easily hold the
并且轻松地承受住一辆运动中的车的重量
weight of a moving car.
而且 在建造过程中 由于桥还尚未折叠 每个工人都能安全地工作
And since the bridge just unfolds into place, practically anyone can build it safely.
也不需要复杂的装配
No complicated assembly required.
国家航空和航天局同样需要兼具折叠和延伸特性的东西 比如说太阳电池板和天线
NASA also needs things that can fold up, then expand — like solar panels and antennas
他们在装载时需要压缩 但在进入太空后 又得变得大
that are compact while they’re launched, but big and sturdy once they get out into
而坚固
space.
折纸手工无疑是最适合这个岗位的
A perfect job for origami.
可折叠太阳能电池板已经有了一段时间 但是更新更先进的材料被投入使用
Folding solar panels have been around for a while, but newer, more advanced materials
以求做出更为轻薄的电池板
are being used to make thinner panels.
随着电池板更薄 工程师们期望用各种新型折叠技术
And with thinner panels, engineers are hoping to use all kinds of new folding techniques
来使电池板被折叠得更小
to fold the panels up even smaller.
一些折叠方法比如三浦折叠术已经被首次运用到太空中
Some of these folds, like the Miura-ori fold, have already had their first tests in space.
这些褶皱沿着山线和谷线折叠 从而使你仅仅通过拉住两个角落
This fold uses alternating mountain and valley folds in a pattern that lets you open an entire
便能延展出一张完整的纸
sheet of paper by only pulling on two corners.
同时 对更为适宜的折叠方法仍在探索中
And the search for better folds is still going.
2014年 来自NASA喷气推进实验室的工程师们 同折纸手工专家们
In 2014, engineers from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory worked with origami experts to
一起为太阳能电池阵设计了原型 它们能轻易的从复杂的圆筒
design prototypes for solar arrays that could easily unfold from compact cylinders into
延展为一个巨大的平盘
large flat disks.
这个圆筒主要会像裙子一样缠绕在航天器四周 并利用航天器的
The cylinder would basically wrap around a spacecraft like a skirt, and use the spacecraft’s
转动来进行延展
rotation to unfold.
折叠技术同样能使东西进入如同你的身体一般
Folding techniques can also help you get things into spaces as cramped as the inside of your
的狭窄空间
body.
2015年五月 麻省理工计算机科学与人工智能实验室的研究人员证实
And in May 2016, researchers at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
一台原型机也能被折叠放进胶囊内 服入胶囊后 它会
demonstrated a prototype robot that could be folded into a capsule, swallowed, and unfold
在你的胃里展开
inside your stomach.
它主要用于把异物从胃壁出排出 例如
It would mainly be used to dislodge foreign objects from the stomach wall — say, if
在小孩误吞了纽扣电池的情况下
a kid swallows a button battery.
如果对电池置之不理的话它能灼穿组织 因此 这个机器人
Batteries can burn a hole through tissue if you leave them there, so the robot could help
能帮助医生避免危险的手术
doctors avoid risky surgery.
这台机器人的躯干由猪肠制成 同时嵌入磁铁
The robot’s body is made of a folded-up sheet of pig intestine to protect it from
从而保证机器人在胃内酸性环境下不受损害
the stomach’s acidic environment, with a magnet embedded in it.
研究员通过操纵体外磁场来控制机器人在胃壁上
The researchers can manipulate magnetic fields outside the body to move the robot along the
的移动
walls of the stomach.
目前 他们展示了机器人能在猪的胃内安全地移动异物
So far, they’ve demonstrated that their robot can safely remove objects from a pig
并且下一步他们想在活动物身上进行测验
stomach, and they want to test it on live animals next.
在最后 他们期望能重新设计这台机器人以求能在体外无磁场的环境下
And eventually, they’re hoping to redesign the robot so it can move around without those
也能操纵机器人
outside magnetic fields.
折纸手工同样被用于其他新型机器人上
Origami’s being used in other new robots, too.
哈佛大学的研究员们正使用“模块化折纸法”进行实验
Researchers at Harvard have been experimenting with using an origami technique called snapology,
这种方法能把一堆折叠好的材料连接成一个几何形状
which is a way of connecting a bunch of sheets of folded material into geometric shapes.
这项技术类似于我们先前提及的用于折叠地图的三浦折叠法 而它作用于太阳能电池板上
The technique is similar to the map-folding Miura-ori fold being used with those solar panels I
我讲的有点早 但这不是单张印刷品 而是堆在一起的图层面板集合
talked about earlier, but instead of a single sheet, several layers are stacked together.
2016年3月 他们用由小立方体组成的大立方体展示了他们的理念
In March 2016, they built a cube-shaped robot out of smaller cubes to demonstrate the concept.
通过使用加压的气体 研究者们可以在每一个小立方体内自主控制每一个折叠
Using pressurized gas, the researchers could manipulate each fold in the whole block of
这使得他们可以将机器人展开和折叠成任何形状和尺寸
cubes independently, which allowed them to expand and collapse the robot into all kinds
包括完整的平面
of different shapes and sizes — including completely flat.
同样的技术最终被运用在折叠和构造建筑材料上
And the same technique could eventually be used to fold and construct structural materials
例如 用来建造临时的避难所
— to make temporary shelters, for example.
到目前为止 我们已经谈到了用发动机、磁场和气压来进行折叠
So far, we’ve talked about things that use motors, magnetism, and air pressure to fold.
折叠机械的创造性发明的奖项最有可能到北卡罗莱纳州立大学
But the award for creativity in folding mechanisms should probably go to a group of researchers
的一个研究小组手上
at North Carolina State University.
今年三月 在先进科学日报发表的一篇文章里
In a paper published in March of this year in the journal Science Advances, the team
这个研究小组宣称他们已经想出了一个通过使用彩色光线来实现特定顺序的折叠
announced that they’d figured out a way to make folds in a specific order by using
的方法
colored lights.
他们在一张塑料薄板上印上不同类型的彩色线条
They printed different types of colored lines on a white sheet of plastic, then shined different
然后在薄板上照耀不同颜色的亮光
colors of bright light on the plastic.
光亮被大部分的白色塑料反射掉了 但是它却被那些彩色的线条
The light is reflected by most of the white plastic, but it’s absorbed along those colored
吸收了
lines.
例如 一条红色的线会吸收那些除红光以外的光
A red line, for example, will absorb colors that aren’t red, and a black line will absorb
同样的 一条黑色的线将会吸收全部颜色的光
all the colors.
当一条线吸收光时 它会变得更热 这会使有颜料在上面的塑料收缩起来
When a line absorbs light, it gets warmer, which makes the colored plastic contract,
从而将这条线转变为一个转折点
turning the line into a hinge.
当用特定的颜色标出转折点时 你就可以照耀不同颜色的光到塑料薄板上
These hinges are printed in specific colors, so you can make the plastic fold in different
来使塑料折叠成不同的形式
ways by shining different colors of light on it.
特别复杂的折叠图案通常需要以一个特殊的顺序来被折叠出来
Extra-complicated folding patterns often need to be folded in a specific order, so scientists
因此 科学家们将会运用这个系统来设计不同种类的新形状以及新功能
could use this system to design all kinds of new shapes and functions.
折纸的另一大优点便是纸很便宜
Another advantage of origami is that paper is cheap.
这使得折叠机械对那些在偏远地区工作而又可能需要一些轻巧和可降解的工具
That makes it especially useful for work in remote areas where people might need lightweight
的人们格外有用
and biodegradable instruments.
因此 纽约宾厄姆顿大学的一个研究小组已经开发了一款
So a team of researchers at Binghamton University in New York has been developing folding paper
以细菌作为能源的折纸电池
batteries, powered by bacteria.
并且 在2016年 他们提出采用单张纸来代替电池原本的材料
And in 2016, they came up with a way to make them out of a single sheet of paper.
这种电池被称为生物燃料电池 它的工作原理是将养料转化为能量
This type of battery is called a microbial fuel cell, and it works because as they turn
大部分的细菌会通过被称为电子传递链
food into energy, most bacteria move electrons through a series of chemical reactions called
的一系列反应来移动电子
the electron transport chain.
在反应过程结束时 它们会喷射出一粒通常会被氧气分子吸引过去
At the end of this process, they eject an electron, which is usually absorbed by an
的电子
oxygen molecule.
但是 如果你通过吸引细菌到电池中心来移动氧气分子
But if you remove the oxygen by drawing the bacteria into the center of the battery, that
那么电子将会被其他东西捕获 比如 电池的电极
electron can be captured by something else … like one of the battery’s electrodes.
因此专门设计了一种折叠纸张方式用来保持细菌绝缘性并同时使细菌
So the paper’s designed to fold in a way that keeps the bacteria isolated, and separates
与电池电极分离
the battery’s electrodes.
它只能提供一些微小的电流 但是 尽管是如此微小的量 它也能在一些
It only provides a few microwatts of electricity, but even that tiny amount could be used for
没有通电的地方所进行的小规模实验亦或是医疗测试中派上用场
small-scale experiments or medical tests in places that don’t have access to electricity.
几乎是任何一滴脏水就能给电池充电 因为电池几乎只由细菌来发电
Almost any drop of dirty water could power this battery, since it works with most bacteria.
并且 由于纸张是可降解的 所以折纸电池比传统电池更容易处理
And since paper is biodegradable, it’s also easier to dispose of than traditional batteries.
其他种类的折纸设备也正在被开发出来
Other kinds of paper equipment are being developed, too.
2016年 斯坦福大学的一个研究小组发明了一种纸制离心机 他们的灵感来自
In 2016, a team from Stanford built a paper centrifuge inspired by those whirligig toys,
那种只要拉紧两端的细绳就能使中间的转盘快速转动的玩具
where you pull a string to spin a small disk really fast.
传统的离心机的工作原理也是利用快速转动得到的离心力来分离
Centrifuges also work by spinning really fast, which lets them use centripetal force to separate
不同密度的东西
things with different densities.
离心机最有用的运用之一是分离出血液中的血浆 这是许多血液试验中
One of their most useful applications is separating plasma from blood — a crucial step for
的重要一步
a lot of blood tests.
一部典型的实验室用离心机需要花费700美元并且重于2千克 这意味着发展中国家
A typical laboratory centrifuge costs $700 and weighs more than 2 kilograms, which means
的大部分人 尤其是在偏远地区的人们 他们没有机会去使用一台这样的离心机
a lot of people in developing countries, especially in remote areas, don’t have access to one.
但是 这款纸制离心机仅需要花费70美分并且只重2克 使用这款离心机能得到近乎相同
But this paper centrifuge costs only 70 cents and weighs just 2 grams, and it gets similar
的结果
results.
这个研究小组表明这款离心机可以被用作诊断一些疾病 比如疟疾和昏睡症
The team showed that it can be used to diagnose conditions like malaria and sleeping sickness,
并且 下一步他们将会在临床环境中做一些实验来实际测试一下这款离心机
and the next step is to do some testing to actually test it in a clinical setting.
因此 在你胃以外的世界 能够被折叠、压缩和扩张的东西正逐渐成为
So from outer space to your stomach, things that fold, compress, and expand are becoming
未来科学一个重要角色
an important part of the future of science.
但 谁知道呢?
And who knows?
也许某天你会为你的工程学位学习折纸工艺课的
Maybe someday you’ll have to take an origami class as part of your engineering degree.
感谢观看此次科学秀的短片 此次短片由艺术家众筹平台
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Patreon.
如果你想支持我们的科学秀 你可到patreon.com/scishow
If you want to help support this show, you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
这是一个需要付款的订阅
It’s like a subscription, but you’re paying.
当然你也可以只是给我们点个赞 我们将会非常感谢
But you can also just subscribe and we appreciate that as well.
你也可以在YouTube.com/scishow上支持我们
And you can do that at youtube.com/scishow

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视频概述

7 amazing origami-inspired inventions.7种由折纸艺术启发的惊人发明。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Licia

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kkfoo0PCJvs

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