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666的邪恶起源

666 - Numberphile

嗯 666这个数很出名
PETE WATTS: Well, the number 666 is pretty famous,
或者你可能会说它“声名狼藉”
or I suppose you could say infamous.
666被称作野兽的数字
666 is called the number of the beast.
而666之所以这么声名狼藉
And the reason that the number 666 has become infamous
不只是因为它是个吉祥数
is not just because it’s some kind of nice number.
或者是因为它有很多有趣的数学性质
It has got a lot of interesting mathematical properties.
令人失望的是 数学上666
JAMES GRIME: Perhaps disappointingly, mathematically 666–
并没有什么特别之处
not that special.
它出名是因为它在圣经中
PETE WATTS: But it’s famous because of its use
表示了野兽的数量
in the Bible, where it is the number of the beast.
让我来读一下相关的文献
Let me read the relevant passage.
我知道的就是
JAMES GRIME: The one thing that I do know
它会出现在轮盘赌游戏中
where it turns up is in the game of roulette.
说到轮盘赌
So roulette–
这里有一个轮盘台
here’s a roulette table.
这是蒙特卡罗轮盘台
This is the Monte Carlo roulette table.
凡有聪明的 可以算计兽的数目
PETE WATTS: “Let him who has understanding reckon the number of the beast,
因为这是人的数目
for it is a human number.
它的数目是六百六十六
Its number is 666.”
这还有一个美式的轮盘台
JAMES GRIME: There’s an American roulette table as well,
它呢有点不一样
which is slightly different.
美式轮盘台有一个0和一个00
The American table has a 0 and a 00,
而蒙特卡罗轮盘台却只有一个0
whereas the Monte Carlo roulette table just has the one 0.
圣经新约不是用英文写的
PETE WATTS: The New Testament– the Bible wasn’t written in English.
这是英文的译本
This is just a translation.
所以在希腊文原版里
So in the original Greek manuscripts,
这个数字实际上是写成3个字母的形式
the number is actually written as three letters.
因为希腊语并没有书写数字的符号
The Greeks didn’t have symbols for writing numbers.
他们用字母来代替数字
They use letters instead.
和英语一样
It’s the same as if in English,
字母A代表1
we had to use the letter A for one,
字母B代表2 等等
the letter B for two, and so on.
希腊语也是如此
Greek is like this.
它用字母来表示数字
It uses letters to represent numbers.
希伯来语也是这样的
Hebrew is like this.
字母用来表示数字
Letters are used to represent numbers.
而且这就是圣经的两种主要的语言
And those are the two main languages of the Bible.
尽管如此 所有的轮盘台
JAMES GRIME: So all roulette tables, though,
都是用数字1到36
use the numbers 1 to 36.
所以 这个蒙特卡罗轮盘台有37个格子
So here, the Monte Carlo roulette table has 37 slots–
0 1 2 3到36
0, 1, 2, 3, up to 36.
希腊语的第一个字母α
PETE WATTS: So alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet
表示数字1
represents the number one.
第二个字母β表示数字2
Beta, the second letter, represents number two.
第三个字母γ表示数字3
Gamma, the third letter, represents number three.
这样继续下去
Now, if we carried on like this,
是写不到大的数字的
we wouldn’t be able to form big numbers very easily.
因此 我们继续 字母ι
So then, as we go on, the letter iota
表示10
comes to represent 10.
κ是20
Kappa is 20.
然后呢我们就得数到百
And then we’ve got to now go to our 100’s.
所以ρ 跟英语的字母R差不多
So rho, which is the equivalent of our letter R,
表示100
represents 100.
接下来的字母σ
Sigma, the next letter–
就像刚刚希腊语中的R S ρ σ
just like we go R, S, rho, sigma in Greek–
表示200
200.
也就是说每一个字母
Now what this means is that every word
都是一个数字
also has a numerical value.
蒙特卡罗轮盘台是一个叫
JAMES GRIME: The Monte Carlo table was invented
弗朗西斯·怀特的人发明的
by a man called Francois Blanc.
实际上 轮盘的第一个版本是由
In fact, the first version of roulette was invented by
数学家布莱斯·帕斯卡发明的
a mathematician called Blaise Pascal,
是非常早期的轮盘台
a really early version of the idea.
他是一个杰出的法国数学家
He’s a brilliant French mathematician–
他的生活很有趣
really interesting life.
但是我要说的那个轮盘的版本
But the version I want to talk about
是蒙特卡罗轮盘台
is the Monte Carlo roulette table.
它是弗朗西斯·怀特发明的
So Francois Blanc invented this.
有人说怀特为了轮盘的秘密
And they say that he made a deal with the devil
跟恶魔做了交易 因为
for the secrets of roulette, because
轮盘上的数字加起来
the numbers of a roulette table add up to
是666
666
那我们来举个例子 我叫Pete
PETE WATTS: So for example, my name is Pete.
π
Pi–
是很有名的一个数学符号 也是我名字的第一个字母
famous mathematical symbol which is the first letter of my name,
它表示80
which would be 80,
Pete的第一个字母P是π 表示80
so pi, P for Pete, 80.
ε E 就是5
Epsilon and E, that would be 5.
τ T 是300
Tau, a T, that would be 300.
最后又是一个E 5
And finally, another E, 5.
所以我名字是390
So the number of my name is 390.
这只是个巧合
JAMES GRIME: It is just a coincidence.
这是赌徒喜欢讲的一个小故事
It’s a nice little funny story told by gamblers
这些赌徒在轮盘上吃了不少苦头
who have perhaps suffered at the hands of the roulette table.
如果666是1到36中连续整数的和
666 then, if it is the sum of consecutive numbers, 1 to 36,
也就意味着它也是一个三角数
that means it’s also known as a triangle number.
这就是三角数的含义
That’s what a triangle number is.
让我们看一下这些数字
Let’s have a look at those.
OK 在圣经里
PETE WATTS: OK. So in the Bible,
著名的666出现在启示录第十三章
the famous number 666 comes in Revelation, chapter 13.
“在这里有智慧
“This calls for wisdom.
凡有聪明的 可以算计兽的数目
Let him who has understanding reckon the number of the beast,
因为这是人的数目
for it is a human number.
它的数目是666
Its number is 666.”
所以在英语中 “reckon”这个词
Now, in English, this word “reckon”
其实是源于一个希腊单词 意思是计算
actually comes from a Greek word which means calculate.
所以这段话基本是在说
So it’s almost like the text is saying,
我给你们出个谜语
I’m going to give you a riddle.
你们需要计算兽的数量
You need to calculate the number of the beast.
数字666实际上是与一个名字有关
This number, 666, actually relates to a name.
在希腊语中这个词叫“数值进位”
Now, in Greek, this is called isopsephy,
名字可以表示一个数
the idea that a name can be a number as well,
一个数也可以表示一个名字
or a number can be a name.
在希伯来语中 同样的想法被称作gematria
And in Hebrew thought, the same idea is called gematria,
实际上这就涉及到英语单词“几何学”
which actually relates to our English word “geometry.”
它们都从古希腊起源
It has the same Greek origin.
大多数人都认为圣经启示录的内容是针对罗马帝国的
Many people have seen the Book of Revelation as directed against the Roman Empire.
所以说到计算兽的数目
So when it comes to calculating the number of the beast,
即书中的邪恶势力的数目时
this evil figure within the book,
许多人认为
许多人认为
这个数字一定与罗马帝国有关
这个数字一定与罗马帝国有关
尤其是邪恶的尼禄大帝
and in particular, its particularly evil leader Nero.
所以数字666
So the way that this is calculated from the number 666
可以用尼禄·凯撒名字的字母计算得出
is to take the letters of Nero Caesar.
但有点复杂的是
But a slight complication is that
这些字母是希伯来语里的字母
the letters are actually written in Hebrew and not Greek.
只是因为它经常出现在犹太人的思想中
The reason for that is it’s often in Jewish thought,
在希伯来文化中 创造字母或是数字
in Hebrew thought, that the idea of making letters and numbers,
和制造数字游戏是同样重要的
or making names from numbers, had some significance.
这是一种用希伯来语写出尼禄·凯撒的名字的方法
One way to write Nero Caesar in Hebrew is like this.
就像希腊字母 每个字母
Now, just like in Greek, each letter
代表一个数字
corresponded to a number.
希伯来语里也是这样
The same is true in Hebrew.
所以希伯来语字母表里第一个字母是א
So the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet is alef.
这表示1
So this corresponds to number one.
这表示2
Bet corresponds to number two.
然后我们从10开始
And then we move into our 10’s as well.
这个表示10
So yod corresponds to number 10.
这个表示200
Resh corresponds to 200.
所以规则都一样
So we have a very similar system.
希腊语和希伯来语都用字母
Both the Greeks and Hebrew language used letters to
表示数字
represent numbers.
所以这是希伯来语的“尼禄·凯撒”
So this says Nero Caesar in Hebrew.
נן N 是50
The nu, the N, is number 50.
R ר  是200
The R, the resh, is 200.
ו V 是6
Vav is 6.
נן N 是50
Nu is 50.
ק K 是100
Qoph is 100.
ט K 是60
Samekh is 60.
最后 ר  R 是200
And then resh is 200.
把这些数都加起来 我们就得到了666
Now, if you add up all of these, we come to 666.
所以“尼禄·凯撒”这个名字
So Nero Caesar, the name Nero Caesar,
的数字意义是666
has a numerical value of 666.
为什么拼起来有点奇怪呢
Why is it spelt slightly funnily?
我们有N R 相当于O N四个字母
We’ve got here N, R, the equivalent of O, N.
所以这写的其实是“Neron Caesar”
So we’ve got Neron Caesar.
因为
The reason for that is that
希腊文里“尼禄·凯撒”的拼写
the Greek way of writing Nero Caesar
就是“Neron Caesar”
was Neron Caesar.
我觉得这是最明显的解释
I think this is the most obvious explanation.
可能是因为当时的
Partly because there are other examples at the time
希腊语和希伯来语文献中有类似的谜语
in other Hebrew and Greek text of this kind of riddle.
数字能代表一个人的名字的说法
The idea of a number representing a name
之所以有说服力 是因为“Neron Caesar”
is convincing because this Neron Caesar,
这种拼写方法很常用
this particular spelling, is in common use.
同时 作者约翰常用希伯来的概念
And also, John as an author uses very Hebraic concepts.
他在书中引用了许多希伯来文化中的思维
He draws on a lot of Hebrew ideas.
因此有些人说希腊语是他的第二语言
Some people argue that Greek is his second language.
他用希伯来语思考 用希腊语写作
He thinks in Hebrew, but he writes in Greek.
所以他的作品中充满希伯来的思想
So he’s imbued with Hebrew ideas.
但同时 这也增加了作品的复杂性
PETE WATTS: But also, it adds to the kind of the complexity of it
使之成为一个谜语 一个秘密
in terms of it being a riddle, a secret.
因为没人愿意在帝国的统治下写本书
So no one wants to write a book under imperial persecution
说万恶之源就是大帝尼禄·凯撒
saying the root of all evil is Nero Caesar.
你不能直接写出来
You’re not going to spell that out.
所以这就是在当时的一种方法
So this is kind of a way that the number system of the time
用这种密码的方式保护作者和读者
uses a code to kind of protect the author, protect the recipients
以防他们受到政治迫害
from an out and out criticism.
三角形数
JAMES GRIME: A triangle number, then, can be written
可以写成三角的形式
like a triangle.
我画一些点
Here, I’m going to take some dots and write them–
(笔)咯吱咯吱
squeak–
把它们按三角的形状排列
in a triangle.
然后你就会发现 每行都是各不相同的数字
And you see, each row is a different number.
现在我们有1 2 3 4
So now I’ve got one, two, three, four.
所以 第一个三角形数
So the first triangle number–
就是1自己
it’s just 1, on its own.
第二个三角形数
The second triangle number
是前两行
is the first two rows there,
1+2 就是3
so 1 plus 2, which is 3.
第三个三角形数是这个三角形
The third triangle number is this triangle–
1 2 3
one, two, three–
是6
which is 6.
第四个三角形数是这个 以此类推
The fourth triangle number is that, and so on, and so on.
第36个三角形数
And the 36th triangle number–
它的最后一行会有36个点
so the very last row would have 36 dots on it.
第36个三角形数
It would be the 36th triangle number.
就是666
That is 666.
666被用来暗指很多人
PETE WATTS: 666 has been used to indicate virtually anything,
所有那些邪恶残暴的人
where anyone who’s been evil and evil, rude, or so on,
人们发现 总能通过某种方式计算得出666这个数字
has been found to add up somehow to the number of 666,
什么稀奇古怪的计算方式都用上了
using all sorts of bizarre counting systems.
一般情况下 人们用英语字母A~Z
What generally happens is that people take the English alphabet, A to Z,
代表数字1~26
and use the numbers 1 to 26
试图造出一些密码
to try and come up with some code.
但是显而易见 这和希伯来人和希腊人
But you can see that that’s actually nothing like the genuine way
运用数字的方式大不相同
that Hebrew and Greek use their numbers.
因为在希伯来语和希腊语中
Because there, in Hebrew and Greek,
有数位 十位和百位
we get units, tens and hundreds
而今天人们编造的密码
whereas these codes that tend to be made up these days
只用到数字1~26 字母A~Z
use just the number 1 to 26, A to Z.
他们还用到好多奇奇怪怪的东西
And then they involve all sorts of bizarre things
像是把人的中间名也加起来之类的
like adding people’s middle names and so on
然后编出来一个“现代版”的数字
to come up with present-day figures.
当然 我们了解
JAMES GRIME: Of course, we know about the
666背后的联系
associations with 666.
但从数学角度来说
But mathematically speaking, it’s not a particularly
666本身是个没什么意思 平淡无奇的数字
interesting, exciting number for its own sake.
其文化意义远大于数学意义
It’s more of a cultural important number.
666这个数字的有趣之处在于
PETE WATTS: What’s very interesting about this 666 is that
在一些早期文献记载中
some manuscript, some other early manuscripts
从三世纪开始
from the third century and so on,
出现的其实是616
actually have the number 616.
所以在这些记载中 兽的数目是616
So the number of the beast in these texts is 616.
有意思的是
Now, what’s interesting is that
如果你把希伯来文中“Neron Caesar”后面的N去掉
if you take off this final N in Hebrew
只留下“Nero Caesar”尼禄·凯撒
and have just Nero Caesar,
得到的数字就是616
that equals 616.
换句话说 我早就知道
So in other words, people are saying, I already know that
答案就是尼禄·凯撒
the answer is Nero Caesar,
但是我不确定你们是怎么得出这个结论的
but I’m not sure about how you worked it out.
我想要更正一下
I’m going to correct it, if you like.
我觉得数字就是616
I think the number ought to be 616.
所以在某种程度上 这证实了从三世纪开始
So in a way, that confirms that they were thinking of Nero Caesar,
很久很久以前开始 人们就认为答案是尼禄·凯撒
even from the second, third century and so on, really early on.
这很好的证明了
So that’s a nice bit of evidence that confirms that,
在最早的基督徒中
certainly among the early Christians,
这个谜语的答案就是尼禄·凯撒
the answer to this riddle was Nero Caesar.
[激昂的音乐声]
[INTERPOSING VOICES]

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视频概述

666到底是什么意思?不要误会,本视频讲的是这个数字高大上的文化背景。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UkZqFtYtqaI

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