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6种无需药物即可治愈创伤的方法

6 ways to heal trauma without medication | Bessel van der Kolk | Big Think

– I was raised in the mainstream culture
我是在主流文化中长大的
where if you feel bad,
在主流文化中 如果你感觉不舒服
you take something to make that feeling go away.
你就会服用一些药物来消除这种感觉
Around that time that I first started to work for the VA,
在我刚就职于退伍军人管理局时
I looked at the treatments that we have.
我浏览了我们现有的治疗方法
I did the first study on Prozac for PTSD,
我首次研究的是针对创伤后应激障碍
the first study for Zoloft for PTSD,
使用的百忧解和左洛复
and a number of other conventional drugs.
和其他一些常规药物
What we found is they didn’t work very well.
我发现它们的药效不是那么好
Our conventional way of thinking about it is not working.
我们对药效的常规认知是有问题的
I thought, “Okay, if it doesn’t work,
我想 好的 如果它行不通的话
let’s see what else could work.”
让我们看看还有什么别的办法
My name is Bessel van der Kolk.
我是贝塞尔·范德科尔克
I am a physician, I’m a psychiatrist.
一名内科医生和精神病医生
I have been studying trauma for about 50 years now.
我研究创伤已经约50年
The nature of trauma is that something happens to you,
创伤的本质是当发生了一些事
your survival brain makes the first interpretation and says,
你大脑因为生存本能 做出的第一个反应
is this dangerous or is this safe?
这个事是危险的还是安全的?
So it’s very important to really be aware
所以一定要意识到 你的身体
that these reactions emanate for your body.
产生了这些反应 这很重要
And so, the big challenge of treating trauma
所以 治疗创伤的一大挑战是
is how do we help people to live in bodies
我们如何帮助人们打心底里感觉
that feel fundamentally safe?
他们是安全的
What was very clear
很清楚的是
is that very good psychotherapy is actually quite helpful.
好的心理治疗实际上帮助很大
Not to fix people, but helping people to acknowledge,
不是治愈 而是帮助人们意识到
oh my God, that was terrible what happened to me.
天哪 发生在我身上的事太可怕了
And I need to take care of the wounds that I’m carrying inside of myself.
我需要处理好内心的伤口
This issue of self-compassion
拥有自我同情心
and really knowing that your reactions are understandable
和真正认识你的反应是可以理解的
is a terribly important part
这对于创伤的初期治疗
of beginning to recover from trauma.
很重要
Can I talk about something else before we talk about MDMA?
在谈摇头丸之前 我能先谈点别的吗
Because MDMA is so sexy.
因为摇头丸太让人上瘾
Okay.
好的
For me, the opening to a new world
对我来说 来我诊所里
came when some people in my clinic
人们奇怪的行为
started to do something very strange, called EMDR.
给我打开了新世界的大门
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.
也就是眼动脱敏再加工疗法
You ask people to call up the memory
患者被要求在脑中
of what you saw back then,
回想自己所遭遇到的创伤画面
what you felt back then.
及当时的身心反应
And then what you do
然后你要做的就是
is that you ask people to follow your fingers
让患者的目光随着你的手指
as you move your fingers from side to side.
来回移动
And my first reaction was like,
我的第一反应是这样的
“Man, stop this crazy nonsense, this is a crazy method.”
“兄弟 别乱搞了 这方法既疯狂又愚蠢”
And then I got to see some of the results,
然后我看到了点成效
I go like, “Wow, this is interesting.”
我就变成了这样 “哇 太有趣”
Wiggling your fingers and full of people’s eyes
当患者回顾创伤的时候 挥动你的手指
as they think about the trauma
让患者目光专注地追随它们
made the trauma go away.
这样能让创伤在他们脑海中消失
This crazy eye movement desensitization
这种惊人的眼动脱敏疗法
actually change the circuitry of the brain
实际上改变了大脑回路
to interpret your current reality from a different angle.
从不同的角度解读你当前的现实
This had amazing effects
对于让人们忘却已经发生的事情
on people being able to let go of what happened.
它有着惊人的效果
They say, “Yes, that’s what’s happened to me.
他们会说 ”是的 我的确遭受过那些事儿
And it happened a long time ago.
但那都是很久以前发生的了
It’s not happening right now.”
现在一切都很好
That was the first time
那是我第一次
that I saw a non-conventional technique
看到一种非传统的方法
have a very profound effect.
有如此深远的影响
And then we studied yoga.
之后我学了瑜伽
Maybe if you do yoga,
也许你做瑜伽时
you can open up your relationship to your body.
你会构建起你与你身体的联系
You learn how to breathe calmly,
你会学习如何平静地呼吸
you learn to pay attention to yourself,
如何专注一致
you get to see how different movements
你会逐渐明白不同的动作
and different postures affect you.
和姿势是如何影响你
And so you form a deep relationship
这样就可以
with your internal sensory system.
和你的精神世界建立更深的联系
Yoga, at the end,
最后 瑜伽
was a more effective treatment for PTSD
是一种比我们研究过的任何药物
than any of the drugs we had studied.
都更有效的治疗创伤后应激障碍的方法
But I’ve yet to see a psychopharmacology clinic
但我还没有看到精神药理学诊所
being transformed to a yoga studio.
被改造成瑜伽室
The next thing that we studied was theater and movement.
接下来我们学习的是戏剧和活动
And it turns out that playing different roles in your body
事实证明 在内心扮演体悟不同的角色
helps you to feel that your body can feel differently,
有助于你拥有不同的感知
depending on how you organize your relationship to yourself.
这取决于你怎样与身体建立联系
When my voice gets too gravelly,
当我嗓音沙哑时
let me know and I’ll drink some water.
身体会让我知道 然后我就去喝水了
– It’s feeling a little gravelly, so why don’t-
你现在就听起来有点嗓音沙哑 所以为什么不喝水呢
– Okay.
好的
(upbeat music)
(欢快的音乐)
That’s good
感觉很不错
All right.
好了
So, I live in the Berkshires
我住在伯克郡
and we have a great program here,
我在那里有一个伟大的项目
called “Shakespeare in the Courts”
“莎士比亚在法庭”
where if you’re a juvenile delinquent in this county,
在那里如果你是那个县的一个少年罪犯
you have a 50% chance that a judge will condemn you
有50%的机率 法官会判你
to become a Shakespearian actor.
去做一个莎士比亚剧的演员
That’s civilization, huh?
这就是种文化吧 啊哈
The Shakespeare program is enormously helpful
莎士比亚项目非常有用
because it helps people to feel their bodies
因为它帮助人们去感知身体
and to feel what it feels like to be a king,
去体验成为国王
what it feels like to be a warrior.
成为勇士的感觉
And you get to really have a deep experience of yourself
在不同的可能性中
in different possibilities.
深刻领悟自己
The next piece that I studied
我研究的下一项是
is that you can actually put electrodes on your skull
你可以把电极片贴在头部
so that when you make brainwaves
这样当你产生
that help you to be calm and focused,
有助于冷静和集中注意力的脑电波时
you get a little reward.
你会得到一点奖励
We did very well with neurofeedback.
我们在神经反馈方面做得很好
So we can shape your brain
所以我们可以重塑你的大脑
to actually have a different configuration
让它拥有不同的配置
to be open to new experiences.
让你能够接受新的体验
And then, about 15 years ago,
大约15年前
two guys came to talk to me and they said,
两个人来找我谈话 他们说
“Bessel, you know a lot about trauma.
贝塞尔 你很了解创伤
But do you think about his idea?
但你思考过他的想法吗
We are thinking about psychedelics.
我们在考虑迷幻药
What do you think about psychedelics for trauma?”
你怎么看致幻剂治疗创伤?
And I go like, “Wow!
我是这样回应的 哇
You’re speaking for my heart,”
你说的简直就是我的心里话
because of course, I’m a child of the sixties
因为我是60年代的孩子
and we dabbled in LSD and psychedelic substances.
我们接触过麦角酸二乙基酰胺和迷幻物质
Wouldn’t it be great
那不是很好吗
if he could do psychedelic substances
如果他能做迷幻物质
to see if these substances can open up people’s minds?
看看这些物质是否能让人敞开心扉
To see that the reality that they live in
他们所生活的世界
is just a small part of the reality that is.
只是现实中的一小部分
But, I said, “Don’t do it.
但是 我说 不要那样做
It will destroy your career.
这样你的职业生涯就完了
These drugs are illegal.”
这些药是违法的
And they said, “Thank you very much for your opinion.
他们回答 很感谢你的意见
We’ll try it anyway.”
不论如何我们也要试试
They got permission to do a study of MDMA,
他们获得了研究应对创伤
also known as ecstasy or molly, for trauma.
使用摇头丸的许可
And it worked out pretty well.
摇头丸的效果太好了
Able to collect a large amount of money
他们有能力募集到一笔巨资
to do a very large and extremely expensive study.
来进行这样一个大型且斥巨资的研究
Lots of different sites around the US,
他们在美国有很多的基地
one in Israel, when in Canada.
在以色列和加拿大各有一个
So let me tell you how to study is set up.
让我来告诉你实验是如何实施
After all the preparation,
在做足准备工作后
you have a whole day of taking ecstasy
你得一整天躺在床上
while you lie on a bed
服用摇头丸
with two therapists in your room for eight hours.
两个治疗师会在房间里监护你八个小时
What we see in the people who get the drug is amazing.
我们在这些服药病人身上看到的一切是令人惊讶的
People are able to go to places
人们可以去到一个
they have never felt safe to go.
他们从未觉得安全的地方
This is not a picnic.
这并不容易
They see the horrible things that’s happened to them.
他们看到了曾经遭受的可怕的事情
But MDMA allows people to see themselves with compassion.
但是摇头丸使人们用同理心看待自己
All these measures we have
关于自我认知和自我意识
about self-perception and self-awareness just shoot up.
的措施办法仅仅是药物注射
And rather than blaming themselves, they’re able to say,
他们不会自我责备 而是会说
yes, this what happened to me, but it’s over.
是的 这就是发生在我身上的事 但已经结束了
Part of what has kept me so busy all these years
这些年让我如此忙碌的部分原因是
is how can we find a treatment
我们如何找到一个治疗方法
that allows the basic sense
去控制基本的
of defectiveness and self-loathing to be controlled.
缺陷感和自我厌恶
And now it looks like we have found something
现在 我们似乎已经发现了一些
that causes a very substantial drop in PTSD.
能够显著降低创伤后应激障碍的方法
Probably more than just about anything else we have studied.
它们可能比我们研究的其他任何东西都更有效
But what’s important here is that one size doesn’t fit all.
但这里重要的是 这并不适合所有人
Different people need very different things.
不同的人需要不同的治疗方式
What worked for my last patient very well
对我上一个病人效果很好的方法
may not work for you.
可能在你身上就不起作用
Everything is an experiment in life.
生活中的一切都是实践
And healing from trauma is an experiment.
从创伤中痊愈也是一次实践
(serene music)
(祥和的音乐)

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视频概述

服药这个传统的治疗心灵创伤的方法并不是对所有人起效。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

晓“昕”与“洋”

审核员

审核员SLS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZoZT8-HqI64

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