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去年发现这6个新物种 – 译学馆
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去年发现这6个新物种

6 of the Coolest New Species Discovered in the Last Year

在每年的这个时候 我们都会告诉你
Around this time every year, we get to tell you about some of the weirdest, coolest creatures
这一年中发现的最不可思议 最酷的物种
discovered in the past 365 days.
每年有18000多个新物种被发现
There are about 18,000 new species discovered every year, and around the end of May the
在五月底 国际物种勘测协会
International Institute for Species Exploration puts out a list of the
列出了一个十大有趣物种名单
top 10 most intriguing ones.
在今年我们着重看这个名单上的六种生物
This year we wanted to highlight six of the species on that list, including an amazingly
包括像叶子一样的叶状螽斯 血红色的血骨茄和在水里游的两栖蜈蚣
leaf-like katydid, a curiously bloody tomato, and even a swimming centipede.
让我们看看吧
So, let’s dig in!
首先 这种蜘蛛让你想起什么
First up: does this spider remind you of anything?
它看起来很吓人 它像那个把哈利波特分到格兰芬多的那顶分院帽
It looks an awful like the sorting hat that put Harry Potter in Gryffindor, which is why
这是为什么发现者给它取了一个特殊的名字叫格兰芬多毛圆蛛
the discoverers gave it the species name gryffindori.
不过 你可能对这个真实的分院帽有点害怕
Although, you might have some trouble trying on this real life sorting hat, given that
但考虑到它只有不到一厘米的大小就不要担心了
it’s less than a centimeter long.
我猜你会把它放在你的头上
I guess you could put it on your head.
即使 它是个蜘蛛
It’s a spider, though…
但它并没有魔力 在印度南部山脉森林中它附着在枯死的叶子上
While this spider is not magic, its unique shape helps protect it from predators, allowing
这样独特外形使它免受捕食者的捕杀
it blend in as just another dead leaf in the mountainous forests of southern India.
在科学界它才刚刚被发现 以至于我们只发现了一只
It’s so new to science that we’ve only found one of this species — entomologists haven’t
至今昆虫学家还未发现这种雄性蜘蛛
even tracked down a male yet.
下一个是位于第十位的马来西亚叶状螽斯 它有着令人佩服的伪装能力
Another fellow top-tenner with impressive camouflage is this Malaysian katydid.
叶状螽斯又叫作布什蟋蟀 它们的伪装能力是众所周知的
Katydids, aka bush crickets, are known for their stunning feats of mimicry, but the females
这种雌性生物脱颖而出…或者至少是粉红色的
of this species take the cake… or at least the pink icing.
不仅在身躯部分几乎像一片叶子一样
Not only does the middle section of its body look almost identical to a leaf — down to
甚至还包括绿色叶脉 并且它的两条后腿明显凸出
the green veins — but its back legs sport flat projections that also look like two other,
像两片小的叶片
smaller leaves.
在热带雨林上大部分树木叶片是红色的 当它位于红色叶片上
When it’s sitting on top of the red flush common to many rainforest plants, this new
这种新物种看起来就像这些叶片的延伸
species of katydid easily looks like an extension of the foliage.
古怪的是 可是它们被准确的发现了 因为它们在绿色叶上休息
Weirdly, though, the bug was spotted precisely because it was lounging on a branch with green
所以连调查员都不是很了解这种粉红色生物
leaves… so researchers aren’t quite sure what to make of this pink creature.
他们在想可能在一个幸运的时刻他们抓住一只叶状螽斯
They’re thinking that maybe they just caught the katydid in a lucky off-moment?
或许颜色只是一个警告标志
Or the coloring could even be a warning signal.
像这个令人毛骨悚然的水果 对于每个要吃它的人都需要一些勇气
…Like this horrific fruit would be to anyone with the courage to take a bite.
实际上 一开始这个水果外表颜色会变得像淡绿色
Actually, at first the fruit’s flesh would be a mild-looking pale green.
但不到两分钟 空气将它氧化成可怕的血红色
But within two minutes, air oxidizes it to a terrifying blood red, in a fast-tracked
这是一个快速变化的过程 就像把苹果切开变成棕色一样
version of the process that turns apple slices brown.
再等几分钟 这种水果会变成烧焦的样子 这种变化不需要火
Wait a few more minutes, and the fruit will look totally charred, no fire necessary!
因此叫它布什番茄 它生长在哪些地方呢
This so-called bush tomato grows… where else?… in the northern and western parts
在澳大利亚的北部和西部地区
of Australia.
植物学家在半个世纪前就知道这种生物
Botanists have actually known about this tomato for half a century, but it wasn’t until
但直到现在科学家们才意识到它是一个独立的物种
this year that scientists realized it should be its own species.
如果你想知道它尝起来是什么味 类似的这种水果都很咸
And if you’re wondering what it tastes like, similar fruits are known to be very salty,
因此没人愿意尝试一下
although no one seems to have tried this one yet.
无法想象这是为什么
Can’t imagine why.
在这一年中 对于科学家来说还有个有趣的物种就是苏拉威西岛的食根鼠
Another surprise for scientists this year was the Sulawesi root rat, which is the first
这是第一种完全不吃肉的鼠类
rat of its type that doesn’t feast entirely on meat.
它很小很细长 实际上很可爱
It’s small and slender, and actually kind of cute.
看这个脸部
Look at that face!
它们生活在一个印度尼西亚的大岛上
It lives on a single large island in Indonesia, where all of its closest relatives just eat
在这里所有的近亲种类的鼠类都吃昆虫
insects.
不过 这种可爱的啮齿动物 增加它的食物 它也吃树根
This adorable rodent, though, adds more to its diet: it also gnaws on roots.
基于这种老鼠的基因和身体结果相似的啮齿类动物
Based on this rat’s genetic and physical similarity to its fellow rodents, mammalogists
哺乳动物学家怀疑它可能已经从食肉的动物进化到杂食动物
suspect it might have evolved to its current omnivorous state from a carnivorous ancestor
在鼠类中这是一个从未见过的进化过程
— a never-before-seen development with these rats.
接下来 一个巨大的帝王魟只生活在地球的一个地方
Up next, a massive freshwater stingray that calls just one place on the planet home — the
巴西的托坎廷斯河
Tocantins River in Brazil.
这种鱼是一种叫黑魟属的第25类成员
This fish is the 25th member of a genus of so-called ‘black stingrays,’ which are
在背上大多数是黑棕色或者黑色 带有黄色到橙色的斑点和图案
mostly dark brown or black on their backs, with ornate yellow-to-orange spots and patterns.
这种帝王魟能长到1米长 重达20公斤
The stingray can grow to be over a meter wide, and tips the scales at 20 kilograms, so scientists
所以科学家们给它命名为帝王 这词在拉丁美洲意味着君王
gave it the species name “rex,” which means “king” in Latin.
这种帝王魟是在托坎廷斯河中发现的
This new king stingray is one of more than 100 species that are only found in the Tocantins
超过百种物种之一
River.
为什么这种生物只生活在这里的原因是这个水系有许多瀑布和激流
One reason why so many unique creatures live there is that the river system is full of
这些可以将生物隔离促进生物的形成
waterfalls and rapids, which can isolate animals and promote the creation of new species.
十大生物中 我们最后要介绍的是这个可爱的东南亚蜈蚣
The last top 10 organism we wanted to highlight is this lovely Southeast Asian centipede,
奇怪的是 它以一个瀑布命名
which, strangely enough, was named for a waterfall.
一个昆虫学家在度蜜月时偶然发现这个生物
An entomologist on his honeymoon in Thailand first stumbled upon it when he lifted up a
当时他像许多昆虫学家一样举起一块石头想要找到酷酷的虫子…在他们的蜜月中
rock looking for cool bugs–like entomologists do… on their honeymoons.
让他惊奇的是 这个蜈蚣向附近的水流游去
Much to his surprise, the centipede then proceeded to dive into a nearby stream, swimming a bit
游泳姿势像鳝鱼
like an eel.
这是我们所知道的唯一的一种两栖蜈蚣
It’s the only centipede we know of that’s happy wet or dry.
调查员猜测它大部分时间在陆地 只有在晚上去捕食水生的昆虫
Researchers suspect the centipede lives mostly on land but hunts aquatic insects at night.
它和其他可怕的蜈蚣一样是有毒的 并且是肉食生物
And it is just as nightmarish as other centipedes: it’s both venomous and carnivorous.
即使你不想遇见这种蜈蚣 或者让它像帽子一样戴在头上
But even though you might not want to encounter this centipede, or wear it as a hat, it’s
因为人类的缘故 它成为濒危物种
at risk because of humans.
它的栖息地主要靠近河流和瀑布 这些都是旅游景点
Its preferred habitats next to rivers and waterfalls are popular tourist spots, meaning
这意味着这个可怕的令人毛骨悚然的情况不会持续太久
this terrifying creepy crawly might not be around for long.
每年看这个列表是很有趣的 这是最大的消息
And while it’s fun to go through this list every year, that is the bigger message here.
我们每年发现许多奇怪的有趣的物种
For each of the strange and amazing creatures we discover every year, there are many more
但是每年我们会因生物栖息地被破坏和气候变化永久的失去许多物种
that we lose forever because of habitat destruction and climate change.
实际上 这个组织猜测在接下来的300年里
In fact, the Institute estimates that over the next 300 years, we’ll lose 70% of all
我们会失去现有的70%的物种
existing species.
让我们谢谢为我们进行最新的科学介绍的成员
So let us celebrate our newest members of scientifically described species, and try
并且让我们尝试去保护那些我们不知道的物种
to protect the ones we don’t even know we have yet.
我很好奇这些物种的哪一个是你认为最酷的
I’m curious which one of these species you think is the coolest, you can let me know
你可以在下面评论 这样我可以知道
in the comments below.
关于《科学》杂志的新闻 可以在SciShou空间上点击我们的视频观看
And for more of this week’s science news, check out our video on SciShow Space about
看‘朱诺’号太空探测器怎样首次发现木星
how the Juno space probe’s first findings are already totally changing the way we think
这一次发现已改变了我们对木星的思考方式
about Jupiter.

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视频概述

这里许多有趣的可怕的生物。你可以享受科学的魅力

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收集自网络

翻译译者

WildFight

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vicky

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mL_Hft12dIw

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