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关于堕胎的误解

6 Misconceptions About Conception and Abortion

美国阿拉巴马州的参议院最近通过了
Alabama’s Senate recently passed a bill
一个几乎完全禁止堕胎的法案
almost completely banning abortion,
可以说是美国同类法案中最严苛的
the most extreme bill of its kind in the country.
而在不久前 乔治亚州州长
It came on the tails of an only slightly-less restrictive bill
才刚签署一个稍微宽松点的法案
signed into law by the governor of Georgia.
这只是违反罗伊诉韦德案几部州法中的两部
These are just two of several state laws that undermine Roe v. Wade,
1973年最高法院判决的罗伊诉韦德案称
the 1973 Supreme Court decision that deemed “
“过度限制堕胎的州法规”是违反宪法的
unduly restrictive state regulation of abortion ” unconstitutional.
政治家和高级法院仍在争论这种立法的合法性
As politicians and higher courts debate the legality of such legislation,
可是关于这些法案的大部分讨论
much of the discourse around these bills—and,
以及一些法案的实际措辞
in some cases, their actual wording—
表现出对“怀孕”这个概念的多重误解
reveal multiple misconceptionsabout, well, conception.
堕胎是一个引起大家情绪波动的话题
Abortion is a topic that triggers strong emotions on all sides,
但是从解剖学上来讲
but when it comes to anatomical facts,
事实是无可争辩的
there’s no room for disagreement.
了解最新的堕胎法 你需要知道以下几点
Here’s what you need to know to understand the latest laws.
当我们说到各种
When we’re talking about the kinds of activities
导致怀孕的行为
that can lead to having a baby,
除了完全禁欲外 没有任何避孕方法是100%有效的
no method of contraception is 100 percent effective except for total abstinence.
除手术绝育外的最有效方法
The most effective methods, short of surgical sterilization,
是荷尔蒙植入物和宫内节育器(或称 “IUDs”)
are hormonal implants and intrauterine devices (or, “IUDs”).
但有些情况下 这些办法也会失效
But even these devices will fail in some circumstances.
一些反堕胎组织认为
Some anti-abortion groups argue that
宫内节育器有时通过终止妊娠来起作用
IUDs sometimes work by terminating pregnancies;
在极少数情况下
they can, in rare cases,
它们可以阻止受精卵附着在子宫壁上
keep a fertilized egg from attaching to the wall of the uterus.
但美国妇产科医师学会指出
But the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
受精是
refers to fertilization as
“导致怀孕的一系列复杂事件的第一步”
“ the first step in a complex series of events that leads to pregnancy. ”
就总体而言 只有约一半的受精卵
For context, only about half of all fertilized eggs
自然植入子宫
ever implant naturally in the uterus.
阿拉巴马州的法案规定 只要能够确认怀孕 就禁止堕胎
Alabama seeks to outlaw abortion as soon as a pregnancy can be confirmed.
但最近的一些堕胎法案只有在妊娠六周后才禁止堕胎
But some of the recent abortion legislation limits the termination of pregnancy only after six weeks,
这意味着他们在技术上并不完全禁止
which means they’re not technicallycomplete bans.
这里潜在的混淆在于周数的计算方式
The potential confusion here lies in the way these “ weeks ” are calculated.
医生对怀孕周期的计算方法
Doctors track gestation starting on the first day
是从最后一次正常经期的第一天开始算起的
of their patient’s last normal menstrual period.
但是 在那个时候 怀孕实际上不可能存在
But conception isn’t actually possible atthat time.
受孕仅发生在排卵后12至24小时内
Conception occurs only in the 12 to 24 hours after ovulation,
也就是卵巢释放卵子的时候
when the ovary releases an egg.
这通常是在月经周期的第一天后约14天
That’s usually about 14 days after the first day of the menstrual cycle.
所以 有点令人困惑的是
So,somewhat confusingly,
一个人可能在“怀孕”的第二周
a person is likely on their second week of “ pregnancy ”
才是他们怀孕的那一刻
at the moment they become pregnant.
这意味着大多数的孕妇
This means most pregnant people would
一旦受孕 就仅有四周的时间来发觉到怀孕
have only four weeks after conception to realize they are pregnant,
决定堕胎
decide to terminate the pregnancy,
并接受堕胎手术
and actually undergo a procedure.
四周时间可能听起来很长
Four weeks might still sound like a long time,
但要你不可能在受孕的那一刻
but the ability to know you are pregnant
就立刻知道自己怀孕了
doesn’t begin immediately at conception.
最灵敏的家庭妊娠检验
The most sensitive at-home pregnancy tests
在你的下一个经期开始前四五天有效
are effective four or five days before your next period should start.
月经周期各不相同
Menstrual cycles vary,
但对医生来说 很多人测试一旦呈阳性
but that means many people will be,as far as a doctor is concerned,
他们的孕期就至少约为三周
about three weeks pregnant by the time a test can reveal their condition.
在月经错过预期后 测试是最可靠的
Tests are most reliable after your missed period would have started,
那时你可能已经怀孕四周了
at which point you may be four weeks pregnant.
但在此之前和这期间 假阴性是可能发生的
Before and around this point, false negatives are a possibility.
所以许多人也不会怀疑
Many individuals who have no reason to suspect a pregnancy
也不会想到在此期间测孕
won’t think to take a test on the first day of their missed period.
由于许多原因 许多人的月经周期各不相同
Menstrual cycles vary in many people for many reasons,
一些避孕方法可以使月经完全停止
and some methods of birth control can make periods stop entirely.
如果你的周期常常
If it’s not unusual for your cycle to vary in length
会出现几天的变化
by a couple of days,
你可能会等到怀孕第五周
you may find yourself in your fifth week of pregnancy
才发现经期迟了
before deeming it later than usual.
虽然在此期间可能出现一些怀孕迹象
While some signs of pregnancy can appear during this time,
但许多早期症状都是
many of those early symptoms are
与月经前的症状相同
identical to those experienced right before a period.
像抽筋和轻微出血这些
Things like cramping and light bleeding
可能暂时不会让你引起对怀孕的注意
may actually delay your suspicions of pregnancy,
从而不促使你去测孕
instead of prompting you to take a test.
许多禁止六周后堕胎的法令
Many of the six-week abortion bans
被称为“心跳”法案
are referred to as “ heartbeat ” bills,
其逻辑是胎儿的心跳可以在六周内被发现
with the logic being that fetal heartbeats can be detected as early as six weeks.
但是医生此时用超声波测出的跳动
But the rhythm a doctor can pick up on an ultrasound
实际上并不是心跳
at that time isn’t a heartbeat,
因为胚胎没有心脏
because the embryo has no heart.
胚胎只有3或4毫米长 并没有发育完全的器官
The embryo is just 3 or 4 millimeters long with no developed organs.
细胞刚刚开始组合在一起
Cells are just starting to group together
最终才会形成大脑和心脏
in ways that might eventually grow into hearts and brains.
由于现代超声波技术很灵敏
Thanks to the modern-day sensitivity of ultrasound technology,
医生可以观察到这些
doctors can catch the electrical activity of these cells
有节奏脉动细胞的电流活动
as a rhythmic pulsing.
但是这时没有心跳甚至不能保证心脏会发育
But there is no beating heart or even a guarantee that one will develop.
在怀孕的这个阶段 流产是非常普遍的
Miscarriages at this stage of pregnancy are incredibly common,
还有人在并未意识到自己怀孕的情况下流产
and can occur without peopleever realizing they were pregnant.
在俄亥俄州引入的一项法案得到了很多关注
A bill introduced in Ohio got a lot of attention,
不仅仅是因为它试图禁止
and not just because it sought to ban insurance coverage
堕胎和一些避孕方法的保险覆盖
for abortion, as well as some methods of birth control.
它还允许为一项不可能的手术提供保险覆盖
It also included a provision for the coverage of an impossible alternative.
州代表约翰·贝克尔提出的法案
State Representative John Becker included an allowance
允许保险公司向患者提供补偿
for insurance companies to reimburse patients for
补偿项目为“一种异位妊娠的手术
“ a procedure for an ectopic pregnancy that is intended
旨在将受精卵重新植入孕妇的子宫内”
to reimplant the fertilized ovum into the pregnant woman’s uterus.”
所谓异位妊娠
An ectopic pregnancy is one where
指的是受精卵在子宫腔外
the fertilized egg implants—and starts growing—
着床发育的妊娠
somewhere other than the uterus.
95%的病例中
In 95 percent of cases,
受精卵是在输卵管里面着床的
the implantation occurs in the fallopian tube,
如果不进行堕胎 它将在数周内破裂
which will rupture within weeks without the intervention of an abortion,
并可能会导致孕妇死亡
and potentially kill the pregnant person.
在极少数情况下 受精卵
In extremely rare instances the egg
可以着在腹部某处
can implant somewhere in the abdomen,
那里有更多的生长空间
where there is more room to grow.
有一小部分
There have been a handful
婴儿和母亲可以在这种情况下幸存
of surviving babies and mothers under these circumstances,
但是更有可能的结果是一方或双方的死亡
but death for one or both parties is the farlikelier outcome:
胎盘 作为给发育的胎儿提供血液的器官
the placenta, the organ that provides blood to the growing fetus,
只能通过附着在其他器官上来提供足够的营养
can only provide sufficient nourishmentby attaching to other organs.
子宫的设计能够承受这一点 而其他的器官则不能
The uterus is designed to withstand this; other vital organs are not.
与贝克尔的法案相反的是
Contrary to the language of Becker’s bill,
现有的手术无法
there is no existing medical procedure that
将受精卵或生长的胚胎
moves a fertilized egg or a growing embryo
从身体的一部分移到另一部分
from one part of the body to another.
对怀孕不了解 一点也不丢脸
There’s no shame in not being an expert on how pregnancy works.
就连科学界也是直到前几年
Even science hasn’t been very knowledgeable about it
才对怀孕有透彻的理解的
until the last few years,
并且还有很多东西需要探索
and there’s still a lot to learn.
但现在 有了这些必要的知识
But now you have the facts
你就能了解与堕胎相关的新法律
you needed to understand the latest laws on abortion

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视频概述

堕胎是我们这个时代最棘手的问题之一,人们总是会对堕胎产生偏见或者误解;想要了解有关堕胎的最新法律,你需要知道以下几点。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Yi

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B0D-EwJbsT0

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