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5种让大脑抵抗阿尔茨海默症的办法

5 ways to build an Alzheimer’s-resistant brain | Lisa Genova

– People think that memory is supposed to be perfect.
人们认为记忆应该是完美的
They think it’s designed to remember everything
认为大脑可以记住所有
they want to remember.
他们想记住的东西
And this just isn’t how it works.
但大脑不是这样工作的
Our brains are not designed to remember people’s names,
我们的大脑并非天生擅长记住人名
to do something later,
稍后去做某件事
or to catalog everything we encounter.
或者记录我们遇到的每件事
But what I found over and over is that
但我常常发现
everybody over the age of 50, 60, 70,
不管是50 60 还是70多岁的人
they think that all kinds of forgetting
都认为他们的各种遗忘现象
mean they have Alzheimer’s.
是患上阿尔茨海默症的表现
They’d say things to me like,
他们会对我说这种话
“Well, I’m always forgetting names.
我经常忘记人们的名字
And if I don’t write down what I have to do later,
还有如果我不写下接下来要做的事
I won’t remember to do it.
我就想不起来去做
And I’m always walking into the kitchen
我常常走进厨房
and I don’t know why I’m in there.”
却不知道自己为什么在那儿
So these people are panicked and afraid
因此这些人陷入恐慌和担忧
and stressed out
压力增大
and really ashamed of these moments of forgetting,
并为自己忘事的现象感到十分惭愧
which are actually totally normal.
这些其实是完全正常的
My name is Lisa Genova.
我叫莉萨•热那亚
I am an author and neuroscientist.
我是个作家 也是一个神经学家
The name of my book is
我的书名字是
‘Remember: The Science of Memory and The Art of Forgetting.’
《记忆:记忆的科学和遗忘的艺术》
I’ve been talking about Alzheimer’s
十几年来我一直在
using ‘Still Alice’ as a vehicle for that conversation
借由《依然爱丽丝》这部电影讨论
for over a decade-
阿尔茨海默症
trying to help folks understand
尝试帮助人们了解患上
what it feels like to have Alzheimer’s,
阿尔茨海默症的感受
and to recognize what those symptoms of dementia are.
以及痴呆的症状都有哪些
Alzheimer’s begins with a protein called ‘amyloid beta.’
此病始于一种叫淀粉样β蛋白的蛋白质
It’s a sticky protein,
它是一种粘性蛋白
it’ll bind to itself and form ‘amyloid plaques.’
它可以相互绑定形成淀粉样蛋白斑
And if enough amyloid plaques accumulate
如果淀粉样蛋白斑在大脑内积累的足够多
in your brain, at some point it reaches a tipping point
在某时刻就会达到一个转折点
that causes neurofibrillary tangles, neuroinflammation,
引起神经纤维缠结 脑内神经炎症
cell death, and all of the symptoms that we classically know
细胞死亡 和所有我们已知的
of as Alzheimer’s.
阿尔茨海默症的症状
Prior to that tipping point, you’re symptom-free.
但在出现转折点之前 你没有任何症状
It’s sort of like if you have high cholesterol
就像你胆固醇高
it doesn’t mean you’re gonna have a heart attack.
不代表你会患上心脏病
So below the tipping point,
所以在转折点之前
your symptoms of forgetting are all normal.
你各种遗忘的症状都是正常的
“Why did I come in this room?”
“我为什么来这个房间?”
“Where did I park my car?”
“我把车停在哪儿了?”
“Oh, what’s his name?”
“哦 他叫什么来着?”
“I need to remember to buy something later; I forgot.”
“我要记住一会儿去买东西 但我忘了”
That’s totally normal.
这些都很正常
After the tipping point, the glitches in
在转折点之后 记忆的形成和检索过程
memory formation and retrieval are different.
会出现不同的毛病
Alzheimer’s begins in your hippocampus,
阿尔茨海默症开始于你的海马体
the very place in your brain
大脑的这个部位
that’s responsible for forming new memories.
负责形成新的记忆
So, the very first symptoms of Alzheimer’s will be
因此阿尔茨海默症的第一个症状就是
not remembering what someone said a few minutes ago,
不记得几分钟前别人说过的话
repeating yourself over and over,
不断重复自己的话
because you don’t remember what you just said,
因为你忘记自己说过了什么
not remembering what happened last week
不记得上周发生的事
even if it was really emotional, meaningful,
即使是一些激动人心的 有意义的
new, surprising or repeated.
新的 惊喜的 或者重复的事
Things that you would normally remember from last week,
那些你通常会记得的上周的事
won’t get consolidated,
不会被巩固
because your hippocampus is under attack.
因为你的海马体正遭受攻击
Alzheimer’s will move,
阿尔茨海默病会转移
it doesn’t just stay in your hippocampus.
不会一直待在你的海马体内
It invades your frontal lobe,
它会侵入你的大脑额叶
so you’ll have problems with problem solving,
让你想不出解决问题的办法
decision making.
做不了决定
It invades parts of your brain that have
它会入侵
to do with where things are in space,
你大脑和空间感有关的部分
so you might get lost in the neighborhood
所以你可能
you’ve lived in your whole life.
在你生活了一辈子的街区迷路
It will invade the parts of your brain
它将入侵
that have to do with language,
你大脑和语言有关的部分
so you’ll start having trouble coming up
所以你开始越来越
with words more and more.
难以说出每个词
The disease will move on to your limbic system
病症还会转移到你的边缘系统
and cause changes in emotion and personality.
使你的情绪和性格变化
So what’s the good news here?
所以好消息是什么呢
There’s actually a lot of it.
实际上有很多
The vast majority of what we forget every single day
我们每天忘记大部分事情
is totally normal,
是正常的
and probably will be throughout your lifetime.
很可能一忘就是一辈子
For the vast majority of us,
对我们大多数人来说
Alzheimer’s is not our brain’s destiny.
不是老了一定会患上阿尔茨海默症
Only 2% of folks have Alzheimer’s that is 100% inherited.
只有2%的患者会完全因遗传给后代
This accumulation of amyloid plaques takes 15 to 20 years,
淀粉样蛋白斑的积累需要15-20年
and can be influenced by how we live.
它会被我们的生活方式影响
So what are the things that influence
所以什么才能够影响
those amyloid plaque levels?
淀粉样蛋白斑的水平呢
Sleep.
睡眠
While you sleep, there are cells
大脑中有种细胞
in your brain called ‘glial cells.’
称作胶质细胞
These are the janitors of your brain.
它们是你大脑的清洁工
It’s the sewage and sanitation department.
属于污物处理和清洁部门
They get really busy clearing away all
睡眠时 它们忙于清理
of the metabolic debris that accumulated in your brain
你清醒时在大脑中积累的
while you were in the business of being awake.
各种代谢碎片
And one of the things it critically clears away
它清理走的很大一部分东西是
is amyloid beta.
淀粉样β蛋白
So if you don’t get enough sleep,
因此如果你没得到充足睡眠
the glial cells won’t have enough time to do their jobs
胶质细胞则不会有足够的时间工作
and you’ll wake up at the morning with some extra amyloid
早上醒来后你大脑中会有
in your brain that wasn’t cleared away.
没被清理走的多余的淀粉样蛋白
If this happens over decades, right,
如果这种情况持续几十年 好吧
15 to 20 years of amyloid plaque accumulation,
淀粉样蛋白斑积累15-20年
you are increasing your risk of developing Alzheimer’s.
会增加你得阿尔茨海默症的风险
Diet.
饮食
There have been many really good studies that have shown
许多非常棒的研究发现
that being on a ‘Mediterranean’ or ‘MIND’ diet
遵从地中海饮食或者健脑饮食法
can reduce your risk of Alzheimer’s
可以减少各处人们患阿尔茨海默症的风险
from anywhere from a third to a half.
减少1/3到一半
This means eating the rainbow:
这意味着要吃五颜六色的食物
The green leafy vegetables,
如绿色的多叶蔬菜
the brightly colored fruits and berries, fatty fishes,
颜色明亮的水果和浆果 富含脂肪的鱼
nuts, beans, olive oils.
坚果 豆类 橄榄油
That’s the food that’s gonna support your brain health
这些食物都使你的大脑健康
and help you prevent Alzheimer’s.
帮你预防阿尔茨海默症
Exercise.
锻炼
It works to reduce your risk of Alzheimer’s.
锻炼能减少你患阿尔茨海默病的概率
A brisk walk for 30 minutes,
健步走30分钟
four to five times a week is enough
一周四到五次足以
to decrease your amyloid plaque levels and reduce your risk
降低淀粉样蛋白斑水平
of developing Alzheimer’s by a third to a half.
减少1/3到一半患阿尔茨海默症的概率
Again, this is significant.
再强调一遍 这很重要
If I offered you a pill that would reduce your risk
如果我给你一粒药
of Alzheimer’s by 50%, you’d take it.
能降低一半患上阿尔茨海默病的概率 你会吃的
So we wanna get up and move around.
所以我们才想要起来运动
Chronic stress is really bad for our memory,
长期压力对记忆十分不好
both today in creating new memories
既影响当下形成新的记忆
and it will increase your risk
也会增加未来患
of developing Alzheimer’s in the future.
阿尔茨海默症的风险
With chronic stress, your cortisol levels remain elevated.
在慢性压力下 你的皮质醇水平不断提高
You’re in a constant state of fight or flight.
你会长久处于战斗或逃避状态
This is really bad for your hippocampus.
这对你的海马体非常不好
It will actually shrink the size
它会通过抑制神经形成
of your hippocampus by inhibiting ‘neurogenesis’-
使你的海马体萎缩
it will inhibit the birth of new neurons there.
也会抑制新的神经元出现
So now you’ve got a smaller structure
大脑中有一小部分结构
that’s essential for the formation of new memories
对新记忆形成很重要
and is the very first place hit by Alzheimer’s.
但也是这部分会受到阿尔茨海默病攻击
This is why we wanna do things that manage stress.
这就是我们想管理压力的原因
Yoga, meditation, mindfulness, exercise,
瑜伽 冥想 正念 锻炼
and being with people.
和人相处
All of these have been shown to restore your cortisol levels
这些都能恢复你的皮质醇水平
and it will restore the size of your hippocampus.
也会恢复海马体原有的大小
Learning new things.
学习新事物
Let’s say you haven’t done any of those things
假设你没有做我刚提到的
I just mentioned.
任何一项活动
Let’s say you’re chronically sleep-deprived,
假设你长期睡眠不足
you’re watching Netflix til 3:00 AM,
你看网飞到凌晨三点
you’ve been raising kids for decades,
你照顾了几十年孩子
you’re a woman, you’ve gone through menopause.
你是一个女人 你熬过了更年期
I don’t need to list all that.
没有必要都列举出来了
Let’s say your amyloid plaque levels
假设你的皮质醇水平
have reached that tipping point,
到达了转折点
and it’s triggered the cascade that causes Alzheimer’s.
就会触发一系列过程 患上阿尔茨海默症
If you’ve lived a life where you’re cognitively active,
如果你生活中积极动脑
you’re regularly learning new things-
你就能常常学到新东西
you are building what we call a ‘cognitive reserve.’
你就是在建造“认知储备”
Every time you learn something new,
每次你学到了新的东西
you’re building new synapses,
你就在搭建新的神经突触
you’re building new neural connections.
就会形成新的神经元联系
So what does this have to do with Alzheimer’s?
这跟阿尔茨海默症有什么联系呢?
If I have some Alzheimer’s disease pathology
如果现在我的大脑里
present in my brain,
有了阿尔茨海默症的病状
amyloid plaques are gunking up the connections
淀粉样蛋白斑阻塞了
between a certain number of neurons,
一些神经元的连接
blocking some synapses.
封锁了一些神经元突触
But what if I’ve built a lot of redundant connections?
但如果我已搭建了富余的神经元连接呢?
I’ve got an abundance and a redundancy in connections.
就是神经元间的联系多到富余
I can dance around those roadblocks.
我可以绕过这些封锁
I can take detours and still get
绕个道
to the memory I’m trying to get to.
仍能到达我要找的记忆
So learning new things gives us a way
因此学习新事物给我们一种方法
to build an Alzheimer’s-resistant brain.
让大脑能抵御阿尔茨海默症
The good news is a lot of these lifestyle factors
好消息是许多生活方式
work as well as any pill that we might develop
起到和预防阿尔茨海默病的药
for preventing Alzheimer’s.
一样的作用
We just have to do them.
我们只需要去践行
Forgetting due to Alzheimer’s is scary.
阿尔茨海默症带来的遗忘很恐怖
But normal forgetting,
但正常的遗忘现象
the stuff we forget every day,
那些我们每天都会忘的事
shouldn’t be.
并不恐怖

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视频概述

你的日常遗忘现象是阿尔茨海默症的征兆吗,有什么办法来防止大脑被阿尔茨海默症入侵呢,来听听博士的看法

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收集自网络

翻译译者

芝麻坠儿

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审核员AL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xBDGgovA1LI

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