Sun Tzu said: The control of a large force
is the same principle as the control of a few men:
it is merely a question of dividing up their numbers.
In World War I, the British Army grew in size to a peak of nearly four million men.
为了提供饮食 住宿 训练并使部队组织化
To keep the troops fed, housed, trained and organised,
a system of structures and ranks were used.
By dividing and subdividing an army into units with officers in command of each,
a large force can be controlled and directed regardless of size
as the principals are the same.
Size management is also a problem in business.
A strict hierarchy can ensure high level strategy reaches operational management.
Fighting with a large army under your command is nowise different from fighting with a small one:
it is merely a question of instituting signs and signals.
Pheidippides ran between Marathon and Athens to give news of a military victory.
The Romans dedicated entire units to military communication
and had a state run courier service, Cursus publicus.
Modern day communications are now instantaneous, regardless of distance.
The important common factor is that instructions reach the front line quickly.
只要信息没被封锁 曲解 等级制就有巨大作用
Hierarchies help as long as the information is not blocked or distorted.
A well-managed communications network is vital
to get information in both directions along the hierarchy, quickly and efficiently.
That the impact of your army may be like a grindstone dashed against an egg –
this is effected by the science of weak points and strong.
In the biblical account of David and Goliath,
David is victorious against his much stronger opponent
by hitting him with a stone in the forehead.
A strong item, like a grindstone can be ruined
by something that appears weak, like an egg.
What is required is for the physics to be understood.
Indirect tactics, efficiently applied,
are inexhaustible as Heaven and Earth,
unending as the flow of rivers and streams;
like the sun and moon, they end but to begin anew;
like the four seasons, they pass away to return once more.
When the Persians tried to invade the Greeks for the second time,
they fought in the Battle of Salamis.
The Persians had four times as many ships
but in the narrow stretches of water where the battle took place,
their huge numbers became a hindrance.
The Greeks were able to flank the disorganised Persian ships,
resulting in a decisive Greek victory.
Fighting is a direct method, challenging soldier against soldier.
There are also indirect alternative methods to fighting,
attacking from the side or rear being two examples which cause surprise and reaction.
By using numerous indirect assaults,
you can compound the confusion of your opponent,
yielding an easier victory.
There are not more than five musical notes,
yet the combinations of these five give rise to more melodies than can ever be heard.
一局国际象棋中 只有6种棋子 64个空格
In a game of chess, there are only six different types of pieces and 64 spaces on the board.
However, the number of different possible positions after four moves each
is over 288 billion.
为了使色彩 字体 措辞 受众等的组合最优化
In business, online ads can be tweaked endlessly
to find the most successful combination of colours, fonts, wording, audience and so on.
Combinations begin with a few items that are combined into patterns.
简单的元素形成了各种可能 最终有的成功 有的失败
These simple items combine into many possibilities that may ultimately succeed or fail.
Understand the elements.
Design blends and patterns that suit the situation.
In battle, there are not more than two methods of attack—
the direct and the indirect;
yet these two in combination give rise to an endless series of manoeuvres.
Confederate General “Stonewall” Jackson used a classic indirect flanking attack
to defeat Union General Joseph Hooker, on 2nd May 1863.
By sweeping around the Union while Hooker concerned himself with a direct threat from another general,
Jackson’s initial assault surprised the Union soldiers so much
that Jackson’s battle line charged through camps where soldiers were still resting and cooking their meals.
Direct and indirect methods can be used in various arrangements to confuse an adversary.
A series of indirect feints that cause troops to move
can be followed by direct attacks into the gaps that were created.
You don’t need to always invent new ways of competing to succeed.
Find new ways of combining existing methods.
They can be just as successful.
The direct and the indirect lead on to each other in turn.
It is like moving in a circle—you never come to an end.
Who can exhaust the possibilities of their combination?
The overconfidence and lack of preparation
led to the disastrous defeat of the English, led by Edward II,
to the Scots, led by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn.
Victory disease refers to when complacency or arrogance brought on by victory
causes an encounter to end in disaster for a leader and his forces.
A leader may employ strategies which were previously effective
but prove disastrous against a new or smarter enemy.
As yin and yang, each entity creates its opposite.
Attacking the enemy creates a counter-attack.
根据战势优劣 战术奇正 攻防理念
Design your battles in terms of ebbs and flows,
indirect and direct, defence and attack.
Winning can lead to losing by arrogance leading to sloppiness.
Losing can lead to winning by turning sorrow into determination.
The onset of troops is like the rush of a torrent
which will even roll stones along in its course.
After Scotland was conquered in 1296, an uprising began the following year
翌年 威廉•华莱士暗杀了一名英格兰官员 掀起了新一轮起义浪潮
when William Wallace assassinated an English sheriff.
This initial act led to a revolt spreading through Scotland.
人们不断参与起义军 发起袭击 并抗击政府军的镇压
The uprising gained momentum as men joined Wallace to carry out raids
and separate rebellions occurred elsewhere, liberating large parts of the country.
Water flows fast over and under stones, rolling them onwards.
When warriors flow fast, they will bowl over anything in their way.
Flow occurs when a rapid sequence of blows
leaves the enemy no time to recover or resist before the next attack arrives.
A company can flow by releasing a superb new product,
then, even before competitors bring out a response,
they advance again with another, even better replacement.
The quality of decision is like the well-timed swoop of a falcon
which enables it to strike and destroy its victim.
When HMS Victory slowly went into action at the Battle of Trafalgar,
she was exposed to a storm of shot and shell
for several minutes before replying with a single gun.
Admiral Lord Nelson calmly waited until he was within close range,
then wrecked havoc on the enemy’s nearest ships.
如鹰隼一般 先耐着性子等待最好的时机 然后一举歼敌
Like a falcon, harness self restraint to keep from swooping on your target until the right moment.
Timing is critical in many situations.
不同的处境下 同样的努力 其结果可能大相径庭
The same effort will have very different effects at different times.
Energy may be likened to the bending of a crossbow;
decision, to the releasing of a trigger.
Minutemen were settlers who organised themselves forming militia groups.
They trained themselves in weapons, strategy and tactics during the American War of Independence.
Their name came from their capacity to be ready at a minute’s notice,
providing highly mobile, rapidly deployed units.
When you bend a bow, it has potential but static energy.
When letting go of the bow, it releases dynamic and kinetic energy.
The bent bow represents the readiness of your fighters.
The release of the bow leads quickly to them flowing rapidly over the enemy.
Your decision when to release the arrow determines whether it hits or misses its target.
Amid the turmoil and tumult of battle,
there may be seeming disorder and yet no real disorder at all;
amid confusion and chaos, your array may be without head or tail,
yet it will be proof against defeat.
At the Battle of the Bulge,
German armoured divisions secretly assembled near the German border
smashed through American infantry divisions in a Belgian forest.
Large tanks rolled down wooded roads the allies considered unfavourable to armoured warfare,
so they were barely defended.
Despite many believing the enemy was nearly defeated,
the Americans experienced the power of a German blitzkrieg;
a coordinated manoeuvre involving coordination between air and land forces.
True chaos occurs when there is a loss of control.
Apparent chaos occurs where patterns cannot be distinguished.
纷纭四起 变幻莫测 使得局势难以预料
Complex sequences of quick movement mean patterns are hard to detect.
Control amidst disorder comes with skill.
而这种技巧正是从不断学习 经历 准备中得来的
This comes from learning, training and preparation.
Simulated disorder postulates perfect discipline,
simulated fear postulates courage;
simulated weakness postulates strength.
In the Battle of Hastings, the Anglo-Saxon force consisted of many working men
called up to form an army for their kings.
During the combat, the Normans pretended to run away,
then turned and cut down the Saxons when the inexperienced men chased them.
You display control if you act in an unvarying way.
To show disorder, each person must be acting differently.
If your rival thinks you have lost control, they will make mistakes.
Fear leads to disorder
but the risk in showing fear is that it may spur your opposition on.
To put yourself at a disadvantage takes bravery,
but by misleading the enemy in this way,
you can lead them into mistakes.
Thus one who is skilful at keeping the enemy on the move maintains deceitful appearances,
according to which the enemy will act.
He sacrifices something, that the enemy may snatch at it.
During his conquest of Gaul,
Julius Caesar used deception in his tactics to achieve the crossing of a river.
The enemy shadowed Caesar’s force from the opposite side of the river,
challenging any attempted crossing.
Camping in a wood one night; when leaving the next day,
Caesar left a third of his army behind,
dividing the remaining men to appear at full strength.
待安全后 待命部队立即修复了断桥 向对岸进攻
Once safe to proceed, the hidden army rebuilt a damaged crossing and established a bridge.
Wars can be won with little fighting using the skill of deceit, if it is highly developed.
Business can also be won using this same method.
By holding out baits, he keeps him on the march;
then with a body of picked men he lies in wait for him.
In 1796, a Baron commanding Austrian forces
attempted to remove the French from Verona.
However, he was drawn forward by Napoleon
and in doing so, exposed his force’s flank,
letting Bonaparte surround and then defeat him.
There are many forms of deceit, including baiting and ambushes.
Lure the enemy into traps to increase the chance of achieving an easy win.
The clever combatant looks to the effect of combined energy,
and does not require too much from individuals.
Hence his ability to pick out the right men and utilise combined energy.
The Mongol armies used several different tactics which, when combined,
made them extremely successful in battle.
They used units that would charge the enemy and then retreat,
trying to draw the enemy onto more favourable terrain.
The Mongol leaders used trickery by spreading rumours about the size of their armies.
They also tried to deceive their opponents visually
by keeping several spare horses in their cavalry, mounted with dummies made of straw.
On the battlefield, the Mongols used many other tactics to deceive the enemy,
including lighting fires to act as a smokescreen and enticing enemies into traps.
Using numerous tactical methods so that their potential is multiplied
causes the enemy to be quickly overwhelmed.
Combined energy provides synergy,
where the effect is greater than if the various tactics were used independently.
Understand the power both of the army as a whole
and of talented individuals, and how these are best combined.
This will ensure success.