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孙子兵法•第五•势篇

5 Use of Energy | The Art of War by Sun Tzu (Animated)

第一
Lesson #1.
孙子曰:“凡治众
Sun Tzu said: The control of a large force
如治寡:
is the same principle as the control of a few men:
分数是也”
it is merely a question of dividing up their numbers.
一战中 英国军队最多达到了近400万
In World War I, the British Army grew in size to a peak of nearly four million men.
为了提供饮食 住宿 训练并使部队组织化
To keep the troops fed, housed, trained and organised,
人们施行了等级制度
a system of structures and ranks were used.
一支部队被细分成数个单位 每个单位有一名指挥官
By dividing and subdividing an army into units with officers in command of each,
大股军事力量得到有效控制:如此一来 无论人数多少
a large force can be controlled and directed regardless of size
军队的领导都是大同小异的
as the principals are the same.
商业中 规模化管理也是门学问
Size management is also a problem in business.
严格的等级制度保证了高水平策略能渗透到管理运营中去
A strict hierarchy can ensure high level strategy reaches operational management.
第二
Lesson #2.
“斗众如斗寡
Fighting with a large army under your command is nowise different from fighting with a small one:
形名是也”
it is merely a question of instituting signs and signals.
费迪皮迪兹为传捷报 奔走于马拉松与雅典间
Pheidippides ran between Marathon and Athens to give news of a military victory.
罗马人将一整个单位军力用于军队交流
The Romans dedicated entire units to military communication
并开通了专用的州际通讯通道“公用通道”
and had a state run courier service, Cursus publicus.
现代通讯即时且不受距离限制
Modern day communications are now instantaneous, regardless of distance.
最重要的体现就在于 指令能很快传给前线
The important common factor is that instructions reach the front line quickly.
只要信息没被封锁 曲解 等级制就有巨大作用
Hierarchies help as long as the information is not blocked or distorted.
对于各等级间信息的
A well-managed communications network is vital
快速高效传输而言 严密的通讯系统至关重要
to get information in both directions along the hierarchy, quickly and efficiently.
第三
Lesson #3.
“兵之所加 如以碫投卵者
That the impact of your army may be like a grindstone dashed against an egg –
虚实是也”
this is effected by the science of weak points and strong.
据圣经记载
In the biblical account of David and Goliath,
大卫与巨人哥利亚相比虽然力量悬殊
David is victorious against his much stronger opponent
但大卫用石块击中巨人的前额而取得了胜利
by hitting him with a stone in the forehead.
强者可能被看似弱小的东西打败
A strong item, like a grindstone can be ruined
正如碫石可能毁于鸡卵之手
by something that appears weak, like an egg.
成败在于是“硬碰硬”还是“以奇制胜”
What is required is for the physics to be understood.
第四
Lesson #4.
“故善出奇者
Indirect tactics, efficiently applied,
无穷如天地
are inexhaustible as Heaven and Earth,
不竭如江海
unending as the flow of rivers and streams;
终而复始 日月是也
like the sun and moon, they end but to begin anew;
死而更生 四时是也”
like the four seasons, they pass away to return once more.
波斯第二次入侵希腊时
When the Persians tried to invade the Greeks for the second time,
双方短兵相接于萨拉米斯
they fought in the Battle of Salamis.
波斯人有四倍于希腊人的船只
The Persians had four times as many ships
但在狭窄水域中交战
but in the narrow stretches of water where the battle took place,
使得众多船只成为了累赘
their huge numbers became a hindrance.
希腊人从侧翼打乱了波斯人的阵脚
The Greeks were able to flank the disorganised Persian ships,
最终希腊完胜
resulting in a decisive Greek victory.
一对一的战斗太过直接
Fighting is a direct method, challenging soldier against soldier.
因此产生了出奇制胜的打法作为代替
There are also indirect alternative methods to fighting,
例如侧翼截断和后翼突击
attacking from the side or rear being two examples which cause surprise and reaction.
通过多种策略的综合应用
By using numerous indirect assaults,
让敌方陷入混乱
you can compound the confusion of your opponent,
就能胜得轻而易举
yielding an easier victory.
第五
Lesson #5.
“声不过五
There are not more than five musical notes,
五声之变 不可胜听也”
yet the combinations of these five give rise to more melodies than can ever be heard.
一局国际象棋中 只有6种棋子 64个空格
In a game of chess, there are only six different types of pieces and 64 spaces on the board.
但四步之后 就会出现2880亿种
However, the number of different possible positions after four moves each
可能的变化
is over 288 billion.
为了使色彩 字体 措辞 受众等的组合最优化
In business, online ads can be tweaked endlessly
在线商业广告甚至会把事实扭曲得体无完肤
to find the most successful combination of colours, fonts, wording, audience and so on.
这些组合仅由几个元素组成
Combinations begin with a few items that are combined into patterns.
简单的元素形成了各种可能 最终有的成功 有的失败
These simple items combine into many possibilities that may ultimately succeed or fail.
对这些组成元素必须深入了解
Understand the elements.
才能组合出与需求相协调的形式
Design blends and patterns that suit the situation.
第六
Lesson #6.
“战势
In battle, there are not more than two methods of attack—
不过奇正
the direct and the indirect;
奇正之变 不可胜穷也”
yet these two in combination give rise to an endless series of manoeuvres.
1863年5月2日 联盟国“石墙将军”杰克逊运用
Confederate General “Stonewall” Jackson used a classic indirect flanking attack
古典侧翼突击战术大败合众国将领约瑟夫•胡克
to defeat Union General Joseph Hooker, on 2nd May 1863.
在胡克深陷于与另一名将领的会战中时
By sweeping around the Union while Hooker concerned himself with a direct threat from another general,
杰克逊军以排山倒海之势发起冲锋 冲入敌营
Jackson’s initial assault surprised the Union soldiers so much
让正休养生息的合众国军大吃一惊
that Jackson’s battle line charged through camps where soldiers were still resting and cooking their meals.
正面交战与奇袭战术的综合运用 能让对手防不胜防
Direct and indirect methods can be used in various arrangements to confuse an adversary.
敌军措手不及地迎接佯攻时
A series of indirect feints that cause troops to move
另一支部队便有机可乘了
can be followed by direct attacks into the gaps that were created.
胜利不一定需要别出心裁
You don’t need to always invent new ways of competing to succeed.
灵活运用现有的资源并巧妙组合
Find new ways of combining existing methods.
也能达到同样的效果
They can be just as successful.
第七
Lesson #7.
“奇正相生
The direct and the indirect lead on to each other in turn.
如环之无端
It is like moving in a circle—you never come to an end.
孰能穷之?”
Who can exhaust the possibilities of their combination?
爱德华二世的自负与疏于准备
The overconfidence and lack of preparation
使得英格兰军队在班诺克本战役中
led to the disastrous defeat of the English, led by Edward II,
惨败于罗勃特•布鲁斯率领的苏格兰军
to the Scots, led by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn.
“胜利病”指的就是胜者的自满与狂妄
Victory disease refers to when complacency or arrogance brought on by victory
可能导致全班人马死于非命
causes an encounter to end in disaster for a leader and his forces.
领导者的战术可能在之前成效斐然
A leader may employ strategies which were previously effective
而面对新的强敌却显得力不从心
but prove disastrous against a new or smarter enemy.
所谓阴阳相生
As yin and yang, each entity creates its opposite.
进攻必然存在弱点
Attacking the enemy creates a counter-attack.
根据战势优劣 战术奇正 攻防理念
Design your battles in terms of ebbs and flows,
而巧妙应敌
indirect and direct, defence and attack.
傲慢会使胜者草率行事 导致其落败
Winning can lead to losing by arrogance leading to sloppiness.
化悲愤为力量 也能让输家反败为胜
Losing can lead to winning by turning sorrow into determination.
第八
Lesson #8.
“激水之疾
The onset of troops is like the rush of a torrent
至于漂石者 势也”
which will even roll stones along in its course.
1296年 苏格兰被英格兰征服
After Scotland was conquered in 1296, an uprising began the following year
翌年 威廉•华莱士暗杀了一名英格兰官员 掀起了新一轮起义浪潮
when William Wallace assassinated an English sheriff.
他的举动使得苏格兰又一次陷入叛乱中
This initial act led to a revolt spreading through Scotland.
人们不断参与起义军 发起袭击 并抗击政府军的镇压
The uprising gained momentum as men joined Wallace to carry out raids
随着华莱士解放一个又一个地区 起义军声势越来越大
and separate rebellions occurred elsewhere, liberating large parts of the country.
所谓“激水漂石”
Water flows fast over and under stones, rolling them onwards.
当战争的号角在各地吹响 军队也将无坚不摧
When warriors flow fast, they will bowl over anything in their way.
强大的攻势如滔天巨浪
Flow occurs when a rapid sequence of blows
令敌人应接不暇
leaves the enemy no time to recover or resist before the next attack arrives.
公司运营也是如此 他们先发布一项很不错的新产品
A company can flow by releasing a superb new product,
然后 还没等竞争对手作出任何回应
then, even before competitors bring out a response,
就再次更新换代成更加完美的产品
they advance again with another, even better replacement.
第九
Lesson #9.
“鸷鸟之疾
The quality of decision is like the well-timed swoop of a falcon
至于毁折者 节也”
which enables it to strike and destroy its victim.
特拉法加战役中 正当英国皇家海军渐渐看到胜利的曙光时
When HMS Victory slowly went into action at the Battle of Trafalgar,
她又一次陷入数分钟的枪林弹雨之中
she was exposed to a storm of shot and shell
最后以一声枪响予以还击
for several minutes before replying with a single gun.
纳尔逊上将冷静地等待着近身的时刻
Admiral Lord Nelson calmly waited until he was within close range,
并在那一瞬间下令击沉了最近的敌舰
then wrecked havoc on the enemy’s nearest ships.
如鹰隼一般 先耐着性子等待最好的时机 然后一举歼敌
Like a falcon, harness self restraint to keep from swooping on your target until the right moment.
时机在不少场合都无比重要
Timing is critical in many situations.
不同的处境下 同样的努力 其结果可能大相径庭
The same effort will have very different effects at different times.
第十
Lesson #10.
“势如弩
Energy may be likened to the bending of a crossbow;
节如发机”
decision, to the releasing of a trigger.
“一分钟人”组织是美国独立战争时期的自发性民兵组织
Minutemen were settlers who organised themselves forming militia groups.
他们在战时受过武器及战术训练
They trained themselves in weapons, strategy and tactics during the American War of Independence.
该组织名称源于其成员在一分钟内恢复战斗力的能力
Their name came from their capacity to be ready at a minute’s notice,
这一特性使之成为高机动性铺张式作战单位
providing highly mobile, rapidly deployed units.
弓被拉弯后具有静态的势能
When you bend a bow, it has potential but static energy.
放箭的刹那 能量变为动能
When letting go of the bow, it releases dynamic and kinetic energy.
静待释放的弓代表了待命的士兵们
The bent bow represents the readiness of your fighters.
疾飞的箭寓指他们对敌人的闪电般的打击
The release of the bow leads quickly to them flowing rapidly over the enemy.
放箭的时机决定了是一击制敌还是错失目标
Your decision when to release the arrow determines whether it hits or misses its target.
第十一
Lesson #11.
“纷纷纭纭
Amid the turmoil and tumult of battle,
斗乱而不可乱也
there may be seeming disorder and yet no real disorder at all;
浑浑沌沌
amid confusion and chaos, your array may be without head or tail,
形圆而不可败也”
yet it will be proof against defeat.
阿登战役中
At the Battle of the Bulge,
德军装甲部队在德国边境秘密集结
German armoured divisions secretly assembled near the German border
在比利时境内的一片森林重创美国步兵部队
smashed through American infantry divisions in a Belgian forest.
盟军之前认为装甲部队难以深入 不料大型坦克直冲向茂林之中
Large tanks rolled down wooded roads the allies considered unfavourable to armoured warfare,
导致德军的进攻几乎畅通无阻
so they were barely defended.
在“敌军大势已去”的舆论之下
Despite many believing the enemy was nearly defeated,
美军受到德军陆空联合部队的
the Americans experienced the power of a German blitzkrieg;
闪电战术袭击
a coordinated manoeuvre involving coordination between air and land forces.
当局势失控时 混乱才真正开始
True chaos occurs when there is a loss of control.
当战术变得难以捉摸时 混乱便彻底显现了出来
Apparent chaos occurs where patterns cannot be distinguished.
纷纭四起 变幻莫测 使得局势难以预料
Complex sequences of quick movement mean patterns are hard to detect.
在无尽的迷雾之中对一切了如指掌 这需要极强的技巧
Control amidst disorder comes with skill.
而这种技巧正是从不断学习 经历 准备中得来的
This comes from learning, training and preparation.
第十二
Lesson #12.
“乱生于治
Simulated disorder postulates perfect discipline,
怯生于勇
simulated fear postulates courage;
弱生于强”
simulated weakness postulates strength.
黑斯廷斯一役中 盎格鲁—撒克逊军以国王的名义
In the Battle of Hastings, the Anglo-Saxon force consisted of many working men
召集了众多工人并强征为军队
called up to form an army for their kings.
战斗过程中 诺尔曼人佯装不敌
During the combat, the Normans pretended to run away,
毫无作战经验的撒克逊兵在追击途中伤亡惨重
then turned and cut down the Saxons when the inexperienced men chased them.
如果战术一成不变 你确实能有效掌控部队
You display control if you act in an unvarying way.
但为了使对手误以为你已乱成一团 部队中的每个人就要各行其所
To show disorder, each person must be acting differently.
如果对手误以为你已经无力回天 你的目的就达到了
If your rival thinks you have lost control, they will make mistakes.
恐惧引发混乱
Fear leads to disorder
表现出恐惧可能意味着暴露自己
but the risk in showing fear is that it may spur your opposition on.
将自己置身不利需要相当的勇气
To put yourself at a disadvantage takes bravery,
但这样的误导
but by misleading the enemy in this way,
就能使敌军误入歧途
you can lead them into mistakes.
第十三
Lesson #13.
“故善动敌者 形之
Thus one who is skilful at keeping the enemy on the move maintains deceitful appearances,
敌必从之
according to which the enemy will act.
予之 敌必取之”
He sacrifices something, that the enemy may snatch at it.
在高卢之战中
During his conquest of Gaul,
尤里乌斯•凯撒运用欺骗战术成功渡江
Julius Caesar used deception in his tactics to achieve the crossing of a river.
敌军与凯撒军隔江对峙
The enemy shadowed Caesar’s force from the opposite side of the river,
阻止一切企图渡江的行为
challenging any attempted crossing.
在林中驻扎一夜后
Camping in a wood one night; when leaving the next day,
凯撒令三分之一的部队原地待命
Caesar left a third of his army behind,
其余人保持最强的战斗力
dividing the remaining men to appear at full strength.
待安全后 待命部队立即修复了断桥 向对岸进攻
Once safe to proceed, the hidden army rebuilt a damaged crossing and established a bridge.
当欺骗战术十分成熟时 对其有效的运用能使对方不战而屈
Wars can be won with little fighting using the skill of deceit, if it is highly developed.
商业也是如此
Business can also be won using this same method.
第十四
Lesson #14.
“以利动之
By holding out baits, he keeps him on the march;
以卒待之”
then with a body of picked men he lies in wait for him.
1796年 一支奥地利贵族武装
In 1796, a Baron commanding Austrian forces
企图把法国人赶出维罗那
attempted to remove the French from Verona.
但在拿破仑的诱骗之下
However, he was drawn forward by Napoleon
贵族武装的冒进使其侧翼空虚
and in doing so, exposed his force’s flank,
最终被波拿巴围歼而团灭
letting Bonaparte surround and then defeat him.
欺骗战术多种多样 比如诱骗和伏击
There are many forms of deceit, including baiting and ambushes.
把敌人引入陷阱之中能大大提升兵不血刃的可能
Lure the enemy into traps to increase the chance of achieving an easy win.
第十五
Lesson #15.
“故善战者 求之于势
The clever combatant looks to the effect of combined energy,
不责于人
and does not require too much from individuals.
故能择人而任势”
Hence his ability to pick out the right men and utilise combined energy.
蒙古军队战术繁多 而其战术组合
The Mongol armies used several different tactics which, when combined,
运用到战场上也成效颇丰
made them extremely successful in battle.
他们会用少量部队佯败
They used units that would charge the enemy and then retreat,
引诱敌人进入不利地形
trying to draw the enemy onto more favourable terrain.
蒙古军将领会四处散布谣言 谎称军队规模浩大
The Mongol leaders used trickery by spreading rumours about the size of their armies.
他们还会在骑兵队伍中混入稻草人骑兵
They also tried to deceive their opponents visually
欺骗敌人的眼睛
by keeping several spare horses in their cavalry, mounted with dummies made of straw.
战场上的蒙古人则有更多骗术
On the battlefield, the Mongols used many other tactics to deceive the enemy,
包括用明火作为烟雾弹 把敌人引入陷阱中
including lighting fires to act as a smokescreen and enticing enemies into traps.
多种战术的组合使蒙古潜在战斗力大增
Using numerous tactical methods so that their potential is multiplied
而同时让敌人疲于应对
causes the enemy to be quickly overwhelmed.
协同作战相比单独的战术使用
Combined energy provides synergy,
有效地强化了战斗力
where the effect is greater than if the various tactics were used independently.
懂得如何将大部队的震摄力
Understand the power both of the army as a whole
与单兵的特殊作战能力相结合
and of talented individuals, and how these are best combined.
将百战百胜
This will ensure success.

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孙子兵法之势篇的解读与实战例析

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