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5招帮你提升批判性思维能力 – Samantha Agoos – 译学馆
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5招帮你提升批判性思维能力 - Samantha Agoos

5 tips to improve your critical thinking - Samantha Agoos

每天 我们都要作出很多决定
Every day, a sea of decisions stretches before us.
有些是小的决定 无关紧要
Some are small and unimportant,
但有些却对我们的生活有巨大影响
but others have a larger impact on our lives.
比如 我应该给哪个政客投票?
For example, which politician should I vote for?
该尝试一下最新的减肥方法吗
Should I try the latest diet craze?
邮件会让我成为百万富翁吗?
Or will email make me a millionaire?
我们面临各种决定的狂轰乱炸
We’re bombarded with so many decisions
以至于无法做到每次都作出完美的选择
that it’s impossible to make a perfect choice every time.
但有很多方式可以增加我们的机会
But there are many ways to improve our chances,
一种特别有效的方式是批判性思维
and one particularly effective technique is critical thinking.
这是一种接近问题本质
This is a way of approaching a question
使我们能够仔细解构现象本身
that allows us to carefully deconstruct a situation,
暴露隐藏的问题(比如偏见和操控)
reveal its hidden issues, such as bias and manipulation,
并作出最佳决定的方式
and make the best decision.
如果批判的这部分听起来有点消极
If the critical part sounds negative,
那是因为 某种程度上 事实如此
that’s because, in a way, it is.
而不是选择一个感觉上对的答案
Rather than choosing an answer because it feels right.
具有批判性思维的人
A person who uses critical thinking
是会把所有选择放到审视和怀疑之下的
subjects all available options to scrutiny and skepticism.
利用身边可支配的工具
Using the tools at their disposal,
清除掉所有无关事物
they’ll eliminate everything
只留下最有用最可靠的信息
but the most useful and reliable information.
有很多类似批判性思维的不同方式
There are many different ways of approaching critical thinking,
但这里的“五步法”
but here’s one five-step process
可能会帮你解决很多问题
that may help you solve any number of problems.
第一步 明确你的问题
One: formulate your question.
换言之 知道你要找的是什么
In other words, know what you’re looking for.
这并不像它听起来这么直截了当
This isn’t always as straightforward as it sounds.
比如 如果你犹豫是否要尝试最新的减肥方法
For example, if you’re deciding whether to try out the newest diet craze,
你想尝试的原因或许会被其他因素掩盖
your reasons for doing so may be obscured by other factors,
比如宣称在两周内就能看到成效
like claims that you’ll see results in just two weeks.
但如果以一种清晰的视角
But if you approach the situation
审视这种状况 你会发现自己想要的
with a clear view of what you’re actually trying to
只是通过节食来达到减肥效果
accomplish by dieting.
而是否能减体重
whether that’s weight loss,
吸收更好的营养
better nutrition,
或拥有更多能量
or having more energy,
才是你应当仔细考虑的
that’ll equip you to sift through this information critically,
找到你想要的
find what you’re looking for,
决定这种新的时尚是否真的符合你的需求
and decide whether the new fad really suits your needs.
第二步 收集信息
Two: gather your information.
很多信息就在那儿
There’s lots of it out there,
因此清楚了解自己的问题
so having a clear idea of your question
将有助于你分辨相关内容
will help you determine what’s relevant.
如果打算通过节食来补充营养
If you’re trying to decide on a diet to improve your nutrition,
那应该问问专家的意见
you may ask an expert for their advice,
或者问问其他人是否有这样的经验
or seek other people’s testimonies.
收集信息有助你权衡不同的选项
Information gathering helps you weigh different options,
使你更接近符合自己意愿的决定
moving you closer to a decision that meets your goal.
第三步 付诸实践
Three: apply the information,
即通过提出批判性问题而做的事情
something you do by asking critical questions.
做决定前 问问自己 这件事的本质是什么
Facing a decision, ask yourself, “What concepts are at work?”
存在哪些可能?
“What assumptions exist?”
我对信息的解读合理吗?
“Is my interpretation of the information logically sound?”
比如 别人在一封邮件中 许诺你百万收入
For example, in an email that promises you millions,
这时你该考虑:是什么影响我对这种情况的看法
you should consider, “What is shaping my approach to this situation?”
我该假定这个发信人说的是真的吗
“Do I assume the sender is telling the truth?”
基于证据
“Based on the evidence,
假定我能挣得钱合理吗
is it logical to assume I’ll win any money?”
第四步 考虑后果
Four: consider the implications.
想象如果是在大选时期
Imagine it’s election time,
你已经根据候选人各自降低油价的言论
and you’ve selected a political candidate based on their promise
做出了投票
to make it cheaper for drivers to fill up on gas.
乍看 十分合理
At first glance, that seems great.
但是这项举动带来的长期环境影响呢?
But what about the long-term environmental effects?
油价下降会导致汽油使用限制放松
If gasoline use is less restricted by cost,
但也会导致空气污染大幅增加
this could also cause a huge surge in air pollution,
这无心造成的后果就需要好好斟酌一番了
an unintended consequence that’s important to think about.
第五步 探究其他观点
Five: explore other points of view.
问问自己 为什么那么多人支持
Ask yourself why so many people are drawn
反对党候选人的政策?
to the policies of the opposing political candidate.
尽管你不同意那个候选人说的每句话
Even if you disagree with everything that candidate says,
探究不同观点的方方面面
exploring the full spectrum of viewpoints
也许能解释为什么有些政策对你
might explain why some policies that don’t
没什么益处 却对他人有如此吸引力
seem valid to you appeal to others.
这样做会让你发掘其他选择
This will allow you to explore alternatives,
评估自己的选择
evaluate your own choices,
并帮你最终作出更妥当的决定
and ultimately help you make more informed decisions.
“五步法”只是一种工具
This five-step process is just one tool,
当然不能将我们生活中的艰难决定根除
and it certainly won’t eradicate difficult decisions from our lives.
但却可以帮我们作出更多积极的选择
But it can help us increase the number of positive choices we make.
批判性思维给予我们在海量信息中筛选的工具
Critical thinking can give us the tools to sift through a sea of information
并帮我们找到想要的东西
and find what we’re looking for.
如果有足够的人使用这种方法
And if enough of us use it,
世界会变得更美好
it has the power to make the world a more reasonable place.

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想要做出完美决定吗?那就来学习批判性思维吧!

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