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5 steps to designing the life you want | Bill Burnett | TEDxStanford

Hello, everyone.
I’m here to help you design your life.
We’re going to use the technique of design thinking.
Design thinking is something we’ve been working on at the d.School
and in the School of Engineering for over 50 years,
and it’s an innovation methodology,
works on products, works on services.
But I think the most interesting design problem is your life!
但我认为最有趣的设计问题是 设计你的人生
So that’s what we’re going to talk about.
I want to just make sure everybody knows:
this is my buddy Dave Evans, his face.
这是我的搭档Dave Evans
Dave and I are the co-authors of the book,
and he is the guy who helped me co-found the Life Design Lab at Stanford.
So what do we do in the Life Design Lab?
Well, we teach the class that helps to figure out
what you want to be when you grow up.
Now, I’m going to give you the first reframe.
下面 我将展示第一个重构
Designers love reframes.
How many of you hope you never grow up
and lose that child-like curiosity that drives everything you do?
Raise your hand. Right!
请举手 这就对了!
Who wants to grow up?
I mean, we’ve been talking about curiosity in almost every one of these talks.
几乎在每次演讲 我们都会谈到好奇心
And so I’d like to reframe this as:
we say we teach the class that helps you figure out
what you want to grow into next,
as this life of yours, this amazing design of yours, unfolds.
随着你们的人生 这一精美的设计徐徐展开
So, design thinking is what we teach and it’s a set of mindsets,
所以 设计思维是我们教授的一套思维模式
it’s how designers think.
You know, we’ve been taught probably in the university
也许在大学时代 我们被教导成为
to be so skeptical realists, rationalists,
异常多疑的现实主义者 理论主义者
but that’s not very useful as a mindset
when you’re trying to do something new,
something no one’s ever done before.
So we say you start with curiosity
所以我们说 始于好奇心
and you lean into what you’re curious about.
We say you reframe problems because most of the time
我们让你重构问题 是因为我们发现
we find people are working on the wrong problems
and they have a wonderful solution to something that doesn’t work anyway.
他们找到了完美的解决方案 却压根儿不管用
So, what’s the point of working on the wrong thing?
在错误的事上努力 意义何在?
We say radical collaboration
because the answer’s out in the world with other people.
That’s where your experience of your life will be.
We want to be mindful of our process.
There are times in the design process when you want lots of ideas,
在设计过程中 有时你需要很多灵感
and there are times when you really want to converge test some things,
prototype some things, you want to be good at that.
做些原型设计 你希望擅长于此
And the other is biased action.
Now, you know, I’ll say that we think
现在 你知道 我想说我们以为
no plan for your life will survive first contact with reality.
初次接触现实后 没有人生计划可以维持下去
Reality has the tendency to throw little things at us that we weren’t expecting,
sometimes good things, sometimes bad.
时好 时坏
So we say: just have a biased action, try stuff.
所以我们说:那就离经叛道 大胆尝试
Why? Why did we start this class?
I’ve been in office hours for a long, long time with my students.
I’ve been teaching here for a while. Dave as well.
我在这教书也有段时间了 和Dave一样
He was teaching over that community college, in Berkeley, for a while.
And what we notice,
I’m sorry, I’m sorry, it’s a Stanford TEDx.
我很抱歉 这里是斯坦福的TEDx
But we notice that people get stuck.
People really get stuck and then they don’t know what to do
and they don’t seem to have any tools for getting unstuck.
Designers get stuck all the time.
I signed up to be a designer,
which means I’m going to work on something I’ve never done, every day,
and I get stuck and unstuck, stuck and unstuck, all the time.
徘徊于困境与脱困之间 循环往复
We also noticed as we went out and talked to folks who are not just our students,
我们也注意到 外出和人聊天时-不仅是我们的学生
but people in mid-career and encore careers,
that people have a bunch of beliefs
which psychologists label “dysfunctional beliefs”,
things they believe that are true that actually aren’t true,
他们信以为真的 事实上并非为真
and it holds them back.
I’ll give you three.
First one is: What’s your passion?
Tell me your passion and I’ll tell you what you need to do.
告诉我你的激情所在 然后我来告诉你要怎么做
Now, if you actually have one of these things, these passions –
现在 如果你确实有激情这个东西
you knew at two you wanted to be a doctor,
you knew at seven you wanted to be a clown at Cirque du Soleil,
and now you are one, that’s awesome.
且现在成了其中的一员 那很棒
But we’re a sort of research space here at Stanford,
so we went over to the Center for the Study of Adolescence,
which by the way now goes up to 27
顺便一提 现在青春期到27岁
and met with Bill Damon, one of our colleagues, a fantastic guy.
我们遇到了同事Bill Damon 他是一个很棒的人
He studied this question and it turns out less than 20% of the people
他研究这一问题 而结果表明 不到20%的人
have any one single identifiable passion in their lives.
We hate a methodology which says, “OK, come to the front of the line.
我们讨厌一种方法论 即“好的 请上前来
You have a passion? Oh, you don’t? Oh, I’m sorry.
你有激情吗?哦 你没有?哦 真遗憾
When you have one, come on back and we’ll help you with that.”
等你有了再回来 我们会帮助你”
It’s terrible, eight out of 10 people say,
这很糟 十个人里有八个会说
“I have lots of things I’m interested in.”
So this is not an organizing principle for your search or your design.
所以 这不是研究或设计的组织原则
The second one is, “Well, you should know by now, right?
第二个是“你现在该知道了 对吧?
Don’t you know where you’re going?
If you don’t know, you’re late.”
如果不知道 那就太迟了”
Now, what are you late for, exactly?
I’m not quite sure.
But you know, there’s a meta-narrative in the culture
但你知道 在我成长的过程中
and when I was growing up:
by 25, you’re supposed to maybe have a relationship,
到25岁 你应该谈恋爱了
maybe have gotten married and started to get the family together.
也许要结婚 开始共同组建家庭
When I talk to my millennial students, they’ll say,
当我和千禧年出生的学生聊到这个话题 他们会说
“Oh, that’s got to be like 30 or something,”
“哦 现在要30岁左右才干那些事”
because they can’t imagine, anything past, like 22,
but 30 is a long way out.
But we know that now these people are forming their lives much more fluidly,
但我们知道 如今年轻人的生活变得更加灵活
they are staying in a lot more dynamic motion between about 22 and 35,
在22到35岁间 他们更多地处于动态变化中
and so this notion that you’re late is really kind of like,
所以 “为时已晚”这样的观念更像是
“Well, you should have figured this out by now.”
“嗯 你现在应该已经想通了”
Dave and I don’t “should” on anybody.
In the book or in the class, we don’t believe in “should.”
在书中或课堂上 我们不相信“应该”
We just think, “Alright, you are whatever you are.
我们只会想“好的 你就是你
Let’s start from where you are. You’re not late for anything.”
从你所在之处开始 一切都不迟
But the one we really don’t like is:
“Are you being the best possible version of you?”
“I mean, because you’re not settling
“意思是 因为你不会将就
for something that’s less than the best, because this is Stanford.
不会退而求其次 因为这里是斯坦福
Obviously we all are going to be the best.”
显然 我们都会成为最好的”
Well, this implies that: one, there’s a singular best;
其中暗示了:第一 只有一个最佳
two, that it’s a linear thing, and life is anything but linear;
第二 这个过程是线性的 而生活从不是线性的
and three, it kind of comes from this business notion,
第三 它有几分来自商业的理念
there’s an old business saying,
“Good is the enemy of better, better is the enemy of best,”
大善者 善之敌 至善者 大善者之敌
and you always want to do your best in business.
But if there isn’t one singular best, then our reframe is,
但如果没有唯一的最佳 我们将其重构为
“The unattainable best is the enemy of all the available betters,
“难获至善 进善者之敌
because there are many, many versions of you that you could play out,
all of which would result in a well-designed life.”
So I’m going to give you three ideas from design thinking,
five ideas, excuse me.
五个想法 抱歉
That says five, doesn’t it?
这写了五个 对吧?
Yeah, five ideas from design thinking.
是的 设计思维的五个想法
And people who’ve read the book or taken the class
have written back to us and said,
“Hey, these were the most useful, these were the most doable,
“嘿 这些想法是最有用 最可行
they were the most helpful.”
And we’re human-centered designers, so we want to be helpful.
我们是以人为本的设计师 因而希望能提供帮助
The first one is this notion of connecting the dots.
第一个观念是 整合人生的点滴
The number one reason people take our class and we hear read the book
人们上这门课 读这本书的理由排首位的是
is they say, “You know, I want my life to be meaningful,
他们说“你知道 我想让自己的人生有意义
I want it to be purposeful, I want it to add up to something.”
有目标 有进益
So, we looked in the positive psychology literature and in the design literature,
因此 我们查阅了积极心理学和设计学方面的文献
and it turns out
that there’s who you are, there’s what you believe
有三件事 “你是谁”“你相信什么”
and there’s what you do in the world,
and if you can make a connection between these three things,
if you can make that a coherent story,
you will experience your life as meaningful.
The increase in meaning-making comes from connecting the dots.
So we do two things.
We ask people:
“Write a work view. What’s your theory of work?
“写下你的工作观 什么是你的工作理念?
Not the job you want, but why do you work? What’s it for?
不是你想干的工作 而是你为何工作?为了什么?
What’s work in service of?”
Once you have that, 250 words, then – this one’s a little harder to get short,
当你写下了250字 下一题就没那么短了
“What’s the meaning of life? What’s the big picture? Why are you here?
What is your faith or your view of the world?”
When you can connect your life view and your work view together,
in a coherent way,
you start to experience your life as meaningful.
That’s the idea number one.
Idea number two:
people get stuck
and you’ve got to be careful because we can reframe almost anything,
你得小心 因为我们几乎可以重构一切
but there’s a class of problems that people get stuck on
that are really, really bad problems.
We call them gravity problems.
Essentially, they’re something you cannot change.
本质上讲 此类问题无法改变
Now, I know you have a friend
现在 我知道你有位朋友
and you’ve been having coffee with this friend for a while,
and they’re stuck.
They don’t like their boss, their partner, their job,
他们不喜欢自己的老板 搭档 工作
there’s something that they don’t like.
But nothing’s happening, right? Nothing’s happening with them.
但什么都没改变 对吗?他们什么都没改变
If Dave were here he’d say,
如果Dave在 他会说
“Look, you can’t solve a problem you’re not willing to have.”
“听着 你无法解决一个你不愿遇到的问题”
You can’t solve a problem you’re not willing to have,
so if you’ve got a gravity problem
and you’re simply not willing to work on it,
then it’s just a circumstance in your life.
And the only thing we know to do with gravity problems is to accept.
已知的解决重力问题的唯一方法 是接受它
In the design thinking chart, you start with empathy,
在设计思维表中 从同理心出发
then you redefine the problem, you come up with lots of ideas,
接着重构问题 想出很多办法
then you prototype and test things,
but that only works if it’s a problem you’re willing to work on.
但只有当你愿意面对问题时 这一切才有效
The first thing to do is accept and once you’ve accepted this as gravity problem –
首先要做的是接受 一旦你接受了这些问题像重力一样
“I can’t change it.
You know, this is a company,
the company is a family-run company and the name of the founder is on the door
一个家族企业 创始人的名字挂在大门口
and if you’re not in the family, you can’t be the president.”
如果你不属于这个家族 就无法当一把手”
You’re right, you can’t!
没错 你不能
So, now you have to decide what you want to do.
所以 现在你不得不决定自己想做什么
Is that a circumstance that you can reframe and work in,
or do you need to do something else?
So be really careful about gravity problems
because they’re pernicious and they really get in the way.
因为它们有害 并且真的会碍事
But back to this idea of multiples,
I do a little thought experiment with my students,
and I say, you know,
我说 你知道
“The physicists up in SLAC have kind of demonstrated
this multiverse thing might be real.”
You’ve heard of this, that there are multiple parallel universes,
你听说过 存在多元平行宇宙
one right next to each other.
And say, “We’ll do a thought experiment.
Let’s say you could live in all the multiverses simultaneously,
and not only that, but you’d know about your life in each one of these instances.
不仅如此 还知道每一个平行世界的人生
So, you could go back and be the ballerina,
and the scientist, and the CPA, and whatever else you wanted to be.
科学家 注册会计师以及任何你想做的事
You could have all these lives in parallel.”
在平行宇宙 你能拥有各种人生”
When I ask them, “How many lives are you? How many lives would you want?”,
I get answers from three to 10,000.
But, you know, we’ve sort of done the average: it’s about 7,5.
但你知道 我们某种程度上得到了平均值:约为7.5
Most people think they have about 7,5 really good lives that they could live.
And here’s the deal: you only get one.
But it turns out it’s not what you don’t choose,
但结果是 人生中你所选择的
it’s what you choose in life that makes you happy.
而非放弃的东西 让你感到快乐
Nevertheless, we reframed this and we say,
无论如何 我们将其重构为
“Great, there’s more lives than one in you.
“太好了 你的人生不止一个
So let’s go on an odyssey, and let’s really figure out those lives!”
所以让我们继续艰难的历程 去真正了解那些人生!”
And we ask people to do some design.
And the “ideate” bubble, it’s about having lot’s of ideas.
设想一下气泡 生成很多想法
So we say, “Let’s have some ideas.
We’ll ideate your future, but you can’t ideate just one.
我们会设想你的未来 但你不能只设想一种
You have to ideate three.”
Now, there’s some research from the School of Education
如今 教育学院有部分研究表明
that says if you start with three ideas and you brainstorm from there,
you’ve got a much wider range of ideas,
the ideas are more generative
and they lead to better solutions to the problem
rather than just starting with one and then brainstorming forward.
So we always do threes; there’s something magical about threes.
所以我们总会设想三个 这个数字有些魔力
We have people do three lives, and it’s transformational.
我们让人们设想三种人生 这是一次转变
We give them this little rubric.
One: “The thing you’re doing,
the thing you’re doing right now, whatever your career is, just do it.
无论你是何职业 大胆去做现下你正在做的事
And you’re going to do it for five years and it’s going to come out great.”
你一直做了五年 做出了骄人的成果”
I mean, in design, we’re sort of values-neutral,
我的意思是 我们在设计中保持中立
except for one thing: we never design anything to make it worse, right?
除了一点:我们从不设计变得更糟的东西 对吗?
I have been on some teams that made some pretty bad products,
我曾参加过 制作相当糟糕产品的团队
but we weren’t trying to, we were trying to make it better.
但那不是我们设计的本意 我们在尽力完善
So, thing one: your life, make it better.
所以 第一点:让你的人生变得更好
And also put in the bucket list stuff:
you want to go to Paris, to the Galapagos –
你想去巴黎 去科隆群岛 –
the guy with the ice thing –
before it’s all under water and we can’t see it anymore.
在完全沉入海底 我们再也看不到它之前
So, that’s plan one: your life goes great.
所以 第一点设计:让你的人生变得更好
Plan two:
I’m really sorry to tell you, but the robots and the AI stuff –
很抱歉地告诉你 但因为机器人和人工智能
that job doesn’t exist anymore, the robots are doing it.
你的工作不复存在 机器人代替你在做
We don’t need you to do that anymore.
Now, what are going to do?
So what do you do if the thing that you’ve got goes away?
如果你曾拥有的事不复存在了 你要怎么办?
And you know, everybody’s got a side hustle or something they can do
你知道 每个人都有副业或别的事可做
to make that work.
And three is: what’s your wild-card plan?
What would you do if you didn’t have to worry about money? You’ve got enough.
当你有足够的钱 不再担心资金问题时你会做什么?
You’re not fabulously wealthy, but you’ve got enough.
你不是非常富有 但对你而言已经足够
And what would you do if you knew no one would laugh?
当你知道没人会笑时 你会做什么?
My students come in for my office hours a lot of times, and they’ll say something like,
我的学生常来我的办公室 他们会说
“Well, what I really want to do is this, but I can’t just hear people saying,
“好吧 我真正想做的是这个 但我就是听不得别人说
‘You didn’t go to Stanford to do that, did you?'”
你去斯坦福不是为了做这事的 对吗?”
Because somehow, if you went to Stanford,
因为无论如何 如果你去了斯坦福
you have to do some of the amazing things the past speakers have been doing.
你就得做以前的演讲者一直在做的 令人惊奇的事
But what would you do if you had enough money
但若你有足够的钱 又不在意别人的想法
and you didn’t care what people thought?
Anything from “I’m going to go study butterflies”
任何事 从“我要去研究蝴蝶”
to “I want to be a bartender, you know, in Belize.”
What would you do? And people have those three plans.
Now what happens when they do this is, one, they realize,
现下当他们这么做时 一 他们意识到
“Oh my gosh, I could actually have imagined
“哦天呐 我其实能想像
my three completely parallel lives are all pretty interesting.”
Two, they rarely go become a bartender, you know, in Belize.
二 几乎没人会去伯利兹当调酒师
But a lot of times, the things that come up in the other plans
但大多数时间 会出现计划外的情况
were things that they left behind somehow.
不知何故 没被考虑到的情况
In the business of life, they forgot about those things.
在人生中 他们遗忘了这些事
And so they bring them back and put them in plan one,
所以他们回想起来 把它们纳入计划一
then they make their lives even better.
Sometimes they do pivot,
but mostly they just use this as a method of ideating
但大多数情况 他们只把这当作一种方法
all the possible wonderful ways they could have a life.
Now, you could start executing that,
现在 你可以开始执行了
but in our model, the thing you do after you have ideas is you build a prototype.
但在我们的模型中 有想法后要做的事是构建一个原型
We have met people who’ve quit their job and suddenly done something else,
我们遇到过裸辞后 突然干别的事的人
It hardly ever works.
You kind of have to sneak up on it, because in our model,
其种程度上你得偷偷去做 因为在我们的模型中
we want to set the bar really low,
try stuff, have some success, do it again.
尝试一些东西 取得一些成功 再做一次
So when we say “prototype” in our language,
what we mean is a way to ask an interesting question,
“What would it be like if I tried this?”,
a way to expose the assumptions,
“Is this even the thing I want
or is that just something I remember I wanted when I was 20?”
I’ve got to go out in the world and do this,
我必须走出去融入世界 来做此事
so I’m going to get others involved in prototyping my life,
and I’m going to sneak up on the future,
悄悄改变 步步为营
because I don’t know if this is exactly what I want.
因为我不知道 这是否正是我想要的
There’s two kinds of life-design prototypes
and what we call prototype conversation.
You know, William Gibson, the science-fiction writer has a famous quote:
你知道威廉·吉布森 这位科幻小说家有一句名言:
“The future is already here. It’s just unevenly distributed.”
“未来已至 只是分布不均”
So, there is someone who’s a bartender in Belize.
所以 有人在伯利兹当调酒师
He’s been doing it for years, I could go meet him and have a conversation, he or she.
他已经干了几年 我可以直接去找他或她聊天
Somebody else is doing something else I’m interested in.
All of these people are out there, they’re living in my future, today.
They’re doing what I want to do, today.
And if I have a conversation with them,
I just ask for their story and everybody will tell you their story.
只是问他们的故事 每个人都很乐意告诉你
If you buy them a cup of coffee, they tell you the story.
如果你请他们喝咖啡 他们会告诉你他们的故事
If I hear something in the story that rings in me –
We have this thing we call narrative resonance:
when I hear a story that’s kind of like my story, something happens,
当听到与我相似的故事时 一些事情发生了
and I can identify that as a potential way of moving forward.
The other one is a prototype experience.
Dave and I were working with a woman,
sort of mid-career in her 40s and a very successful tech executive,
她40多岁 处于职业生涯中期 是一位很成功的技术主管
but wanted to move from money-making to meaning-making,
want to do something more meaningful,
thinking of going back to school, getting an MA in education,
她想重返校园 获得教育学硕士学位
working with kids.
But she’s like, “You know, I don’t know, I’m 45, going back to school.
但她在犹豫不决“你知道 我不确定 45岁了想重回校园
It’s not going to work.
And then I heard about these millennials.
They’re kind of mean and they don’t like old people.”
他们挺难相处 不喜欢长辈”
“What am I going to do, Bill?”
“我该怎么办 Bill?”
I said, “Well, you just have to go try this, you know.”
我说“好啦 你只要去试试”
It turns out we sent her to a seminar class
and to a large lecture-hall class,
and by the way, you just put on a T-shirt that says “Stanford”
顺便说一句 你只要穿上印着“斯坦福”的T恤
and you walk into a class, nobody knows.
走进教室 没人会知道
She wasn’t registered, but you know, she went and she went to the classes
她并未注册入学 但你知道 她去上课了
and she came back and said, “You know what? It was fantastic!
I walked into the lecture hall, I sat down, my body was on fire!
我走进报告厅 坐下来 激动万分!
It was interesting, I was so interested in the way the lecture was going.
这很有趣 我对讲座的内容非常感兴趣
And then I met these millennials.
It turned out they’re pretty interesting people!
I’ve set up three prototype conversations.
And they think I’m interesting because I’m coming back to school and I’m 45.”
他们觉得我很有趣 因为45岁的我要重回校园”
So she had a felt experience, because we are more than just our brains.
她有了感观体验 因为我们不仅仅活在大脑的想像中
She had a felt experience that this might work for her.
她会觉得 自己也许能在这儿攻读研究生
So these are two ways you can prototype your way forward.
因此 这是原型设计助你前行的两种方式
The last idea:
you want to make a good decision well.
So many people make choices and they’re not happy with their choices
很多人做了选择 却对自己的选择不满意
because they don’t really know
how do they know what they know, right?
如何了解自己知道什么 对吗?
It’s a hard thing, particularly in our days when we have so many choices.
这很难 尤其是现在我们有如此多的选择
So we have a process.
Again it comes from the positive psychology guys.
Gather and create options.
Once you get good at design you’re really good at coming up with options.
一旦你擅于设计 就会非常擅于提出选项
You’ve got narrow those down to a working list that you can work with.
Then, you make the choice to make a good choice,
然后 选择做出一个好的决定
and then of course you agonize that you did the wrong thing.
然后 显然你开始焦虑自己是不是选错了
All my students have what is called FOMO, fear missing out,
我所有的学生都有所谓的FOMO 害怕错过
“What if I didn’t pick the right thing.”
Someone came into my office and said, “I’ll declare three majors and two minors”
有人来我办公室说“我要申报三个专业 两个辅修”
and I said, “Do you plan on being here for a few years?
It’s not going to happen, right?”
这不可能 对吗?”
So we don’t say that; we say you want to let go and move on,
所以我们不这么说 我们让你放下过去 继续前行
and all these have some psychological basis in them.
Let me tell you about it.
Once you get good at gathering and creating ideas,
you also want to make sure you leave room for the lucky ideas,
the serendipitous ideas.
This is a guy named Tony Hsieh.
这位仁兄名叫Tony Hsieh
He was the CEO at Zappos, he sold it to Amazon.
他是Zappos的CEO 之后把它卖给了亚马逊
But before you became an employee at Zappos you had to take a test,
而在成为Zappos的员工前 你得做个测试
and the test was, “Are you lucky?”
One, two or three “I’m not very lucky, and I’m not sure why.”
一二三号面试者说“我不够幸运 我不知道为什么”
Seven, eight, nine, ten, “I’m very lucky, great things happen to me all the time,
七八九十号说“我很幸运 好事一直发生在我身上
I’m not sure why.”
He wouldn’t hire anybody who was not lucky.
I think it’s probably illegal, but it was based on –
我想这应该合法 但这基于
but it was based on a piece of research where psychologists did the same thing,
但这基于一项研究 心理学家也做了同样的事
“Rate yourself from lucky to unlucky.”
And then they had people read the front section of the New York Times,
30 pages, lots of articles.
30页 很多文章
And the graduate students said,
“Please count the number of
either headlines or photographs, depending on the test.”
标题或照片的数量 取决于测试内容”
“And when you get the whole thing read and you count the number of photographs,
“当你完成阅读 数完了照片的数量
just tell the person at the end.”
If you got the right number, you’d get $100.
如果数字正确 你会得到100美元
Of course you all know
当然 你们都知道
when a graduate student tells you what the experiment is that’s not the experiment.
当研究生告诉你实验是什么时 那就不是实验
So, inside this thing that looked like the New York Times,
所以 在阅读像《纽约时报》这样的例子里
30 pages, front page,
30页 头版
inside all the stories were little pieces of text that said,
所有的文章里都有一小段文字 写着
“If you read this, the experiment’s over.
“如果读了这个 实验就结束了
Collect an extra $ 150.”
People who rated themselves as unlucky by and large got the right answer,
那些认为自己不走运的人 数出了正确答案
36 headlines, whatever it was,
36个头条 不管是什么
got the $ 100.
People who rated themselves as lucky – seven, eight, nine or ten –
认为自己幸运的人 七八九十号面试者
80% of the time noticed the text
and got the extra $150.
It’s not about being lucky.
It’s about paying attention to what you’re doing
and keeping your peripheral vision open because it’s in your peripheral vision
并保持视野开阔 因为在你的视野周边
that those interesting opportunities show up, right,
那些你意料之外的 有趣的机会出现了
that you were not expecting.
So you want to get good at being lucky.
Narrowing down. This is quite simple.
缩小选择范围 这很简单
If you have too many choices,
you go into what psychologists call choice overload,
and then you have essentially no choices.
Here’s the experiment. This was done at Stanford.
You walk into a grocery store and there’s a nice lady.
你走进一家杂货店 那有一位很不错的老板娘
She’s got a table and on the table, she has six jams,
她有一张桌子 桌上放着六瓶果酱
and you come over try the jams to have a sample, buy some jam.
你过去试了试果酱的样品 买了一些
Six jams; about 30 people who would go by pick a jam,
放六瓶的情况下 约30人会去挑一瓶果酱
or stop and test something,
and about a third of those actually buy a jam.
That’s the baseline.
Next week, you walk in, 24 jams:
下周你又去了 有24瓶果酱
jalapeño, strawberry, banana, whatever; all sorts of jams.
墨西哥辣椒 草莓 香蕉等等 各种各样的果酱
Well, guess what happens?
Twice as many people stop, look at all these jams,
两倍的人停下来 看着这些果酱
it’s so interesting.
Three percent of the people buy them.
When you have too many choices, you have no choice.
当拥有太多选择 你就无法选择了
What do you do when you have too many choices?
Just cross off a bunch of choices.
Psychologists tells us we can’t handle more than five to seven.
心理学家表示 我们无法处理超过五到七个选择
I’d say it’s five.
我说 不超过五个
If you’ve got a bunch of choices, cross them all off,
如果你有一堆选择 把它们都划掉
just pick the five and then make your decision there.
只留下五个 然后从中做出决定
“Oh my God! What if I pick the wrong ones? What if I cross off the wrong ones?”
“天呐 如果我选错了怎么办?如果我划错了怎么办?”
Well, you won’t,
because it’s the pizza or Chinese food thing.
You’re at the office and everybody says, “Let’s go out to lunch today.”
你在办公室 大家说“一起出去吃午饭吧”
“That sounds great. What do you want to do? Pizza or Chinese food?” “I don’t care.”
“听起来不错 你想吃什么 比萨还是中餐?”“随便”
Ok, everybody gets together.
行吧 大伙凑到一起
In the elevator on their way down, someone says, “Let’s get Chinese food.”
在下行的电梯里 有人说“去吃中餐吧”
Then you go, “No, I want pizza.”
然后你说“不 我要吃比萨”
You won’t decide how you feel about the decision till the decision’s made.
在做出决定前 你不会知道自己对决定的感受
That’s a piece of research that’s been done again and again and again.
So just cross them off.
If you cross off the wrong one,
you’ll have a feeling somewhere in your stomach that you did the wrong thing.
你内心会有一种感觉 你选错了
Choosing – this is about that feeling in your stomach.
You cannot choose well if you choose only from your rational mind.
如果只做理性的选择 你无法做出好的决定
This is Dan Goleman, who wrote the book on emotional intelligence.
这是Dan Goleman 他写了一本关于情商的书
He does a lot of research on this, a lot of brain science.
他在这方面做了很多研究 很多脑科学的研究
There’s a part of your brain,
way down in the base brain, the basal ganglia,
在大脑底部 基底神经节
that summarizes emotional decisions for you.
I did something, got good emotional response from that: good, check.
我做了些好事 从中得到了好的情绪反应:很好 收到
I did something and had a little bad emotional response to that.
我做了些坏事 得到了一些不好的情绪反应
It summarizes all of the emotions that you have felt
and how your decisions were valenced positive or negative an emotion.
The problem with that part of your brain is that it’s so early in the brain
it doesn’t talk to the part of your brain that talks.
There’s no connection to the prefrontal cortex or anything else.
It’s only connected to your GI tract and your limbic system.
So, it gives you information through felt sensations,
因此 它通过感觉提供信息
a “gut feeling”.
Without that, you can’t make good decisions.
没有它 你无法做出好的决定
And then the letting go and moving on.
然后放下过去 继续前行
This was the hardest part for me,
but this is also the work of Dan Gilbert,
而这也是Dan Gilbert的研究方向
who is a distinguished scientist at Harvard,
despite the fact that he’s doing insurance commercials now.
And he’s been studying decision-making and how do you make yourself happy.
So, you walk in another psychology experiment.
所以 你走进另一个心理学实验
The postdoc has got five Monet prints, five pictures from Monet,
and you rank them from best to least,
“I like this one the most, I like this one the least,”
“我最喜欢这张 最不喜欢那张”
number one and number five.
“Thank you very much, the experiment’s over.
“非常感谢 实验结束了
Oh, by the way, as you’re walking out, you know,
哦 顺便说一句 你离开时
I kind of screwed up and I bought too many of number two and three.
我有点搞砸了 买了太多排第二和第三的画
So if you want to take one home you can just have it.
如果你想带一幅回家 你可以拿走
Two conditions: in one case, take it home and have it,
有两种情况:情形一 带回家留着
but don’t bring it back because I’m kind of embarrassed and –
Just keep it, you can’t exchange it.
留着它 不能换掉
Second condition: I’ve got lots of these.
If you don’t like the one you picked,
you can swap it back and pick another one.”
你可以把它换回来 再挑一幅”
And of course everybody picks number two. It’s a little better than number three.
显然所有人挑了排第二的画 相比第三好一点
We bring people back in a week later and say,
“Re-rank the stimuli. Which one do you like now?”
“重新排序 现在你喜欢哪一幅?”
The people who were allowed to change their mind don’t like their painting,
那些被允许改主意的人 不喜欢自己的画
they don’t like the print,
they don’t like the other one anymore, they don’t like any of them anymore.
也不喜欢另一幅 甚至不再喜欢任何一幅画
In fact, they don’t like the whole process
事实上 他们不喜欢整个过程
and they have destroyed their opportunity to be happy.
The people who were told, “You pick it, it’s yours, you can’t return it”
被告知“挑好了就是你的 不能退”的人
love their print, they typically rank it as number one
爱他们的画 通常将其排在第一
and think the rest of them suck.
If you make decisions reversible,
your chance of being happy goes down like 60 or 70 percent.
So, let go and move on, make the decision inreversible.
所以 放下过去继续前行 让决策不可逆
And by the way, as a designer, that’s no problem,
顺便说一句 作为设计师 这没问题
because you’re really good at generating options,
you’re great at ideation,
you’re really good at prototyping to get data in the world
to see of that world will be the world you want to live in,
so you have no fear of missing out.
It’s just a process, a mindful process: collect, reduce, decide, move on.
这只是一个思维的过程:收集 减少 决定 继续
That’s how you make yourself happy.
the five ideas:
Connecting the dots to find meaning through work and life views.
连接工作观和人生观 找到你的意义
Stay away from gravity problems because I can’t fix those and neither can you;
远离“重力问题” 因为无论你我都无法解决
reframe those to something that is workable.
Do three plans, never one, always do three of everything,
做三个计划 从不做一个 每件事都做三个
three ideations for any of the problems you’re working on
to make sure that you’ve covered not just the ideas that you had when you started,
but all the other ideas that are possible.
Prototype everything in your life before you jump in and try it.
在投身及尝试前 对人生中的一切进行原型设计
And choose well; there’s no point in making a good choice poorly.
好好选择 打坏一手好牌没有意义
Choose well and you will find that things in your life are much easier.
好好选择 你会发现生活中的事变得更容易
And you can do this, we know you can,
你能做到 我们知道你可以
because thousands of students have done it.
Two PhD studies have been done in the class
that demonstrated higher self-efficacy, lower dysfunctional beliefs.
学生表现出更高的自我效能感 更低的功能失调信念
It’s a fascinating process to watch people who don’t think of themselves as creative
这是一个神奇的过程 观察自认为没有创造力的人
go through this class and walk out saying,
“You know what? I’m a pretty creative person!”
what David Kelly calls “creative confidence.”
David Kelly称其为“创意自信”
So, we know you can do it, thank you very much.
所以 我们知道你能做到 非常感谢
It’s simple:
get curious,
talk to people
and try stuff,
and you will design a well-lived and joyful life.
Thank you.
[Applause] [Cheers]



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