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单选题拿高分的5个策略(还有一个秘密武器)

5 Rules (and One Secret Weapon) for Acing Multiple Choice Tests

当提到做选择题测试时
When it comes to taking multiple choice tests,
有这样常见并被人们到处传遍的建议
there’s this common piece of advice that often gets thrown around.
“只要不确定就选C”
“When in doubt, always choose C.”
这对吗?
Right?
要不然你就选B 因为每个人都这样说
Or maybe for you it was B’cause this advice comes from everywhere.
可能你从父亲或老师也听到
Maybe you heard it fromyour dad or your teacher
或从网上看到
or you read it on the internet.
而我很肯定的是我是从一个在我八年级的历史课
I’m pretty sure that I heard it from some
那一位名叫吉米的孩子那里听说过这个
kid in my eighth grade history class named Jimmy,
但是正如“亚伯拉罕·林肯”曾经说过的
but as Abraham Lincoln once didn’t say,
“总是要把八年级那个叫吉米给你的建议
“Always independentlyverify advice given to you
单独证明才行”
“by eighth graders named Jimmy.”
事实总是如此
Truer words have never not been said.
所以现在我们复习有依据
So today we are gonna goover some more well-founded
又有用的建议
and useful advice
这样你就可以用这个确保
that you can use to make sure you ace
干掉你在未来将要面临的测试中的选择
that next multiple choice test you got coming up in the future.
我有五个主要的
And I’ve got five main
策略来看完 同时
strategies to go through as well as
我还有一种秘密武器 所以 我们开始吧
one secret weapon of sorts,so let’s just get started.
首先 当测试卷飘落到你的桌上时
First off, when those testpapers flutter down to your desk,
不要一开始就按照顺序
don’t just start immediatelygoing through the questions
一道道浏览问题 而是
one by one in a linear fashion. Instead,
花几分钟来
take a few minutes to go
浏览和略读文本
through and skim the test
这样对问题有个大致了解
and just get a generaloverview of the questions.
浏览时 你可以回答一些
Now, as you’re doingthis, you can answer any of
明显很简单的题目
the questions that standout as really, really easy
或者你自信能做对的
or that you’re really, really confident in,
在你认真开始做之前
but another thing you’re doing by doing this whole little
你通过对试题通读
skim once over the test beforeyou actually start in earnest
是给大脑对整个测试的问题
is you’re priming your brainfor some of the questions
和细节做准备
and details that areon the test as a whole.
这些是非常非常有用的 原因如下
And this can be really, really useful for a couple of different reasons. One,
你的大脑是为开始思考一些比较难的问题做准备
you’re priming your brain to start thinking about some
我们之后会解释这一点
of the harder questions and we’re gonna get to that
第二 有时候 单选
in a minute, but number two, sometimes multiple
测试题有一些问题会包含了细节
choice tests will havequestions that hold details
和暗示 或者测试题直接给
and hints or sometimesoutright full answers
其它问题提供了答案
to other questions on the test.
比如 一天 你正在进行历史测试
For example, say you’retaking a history test one day
你遇到了这么个问题
and you come across a question like this.
哪个美国总统的死亡让拿破仑
Which American president’sdeath caused Napoleon
在法国进行了为期十天的哀悼?
to order 10 days of mourning in France? Now,
你马上要浏览答案了 你可以立即排除
as you’re going over theanswers, you can eliminate
他们中的一个 但是另外的几个
one of them right off thebat, but the other ones,
“托马斯·杰斐逊” “约翰·亚当” “乔治·华盛顿”
Thomas Jefferson, JohnAdams, George Washington,
你不知道他们三个中哪个是正确的
you don’t know which of thethree is the correct answer.
所以 或许你可以跳过这道题 你继续看文章
So maybe you skip it,you go on into the test
然后接下来 你遇到了这样一个问题
and then later, you comeacross a question like,
正确还是错误
true or false.
尽管“托马斯·杰斐逊”和“约翰·亚当”在事业全盛时期
Even though Thomas Jeffersonand John Adams were bitter
是竞争激烈的政治对手
political rivals during theheyday of their careers,
但是他们最终还是又成了朋友
they eventually regained their friendship and kept it
直到1826年他们都去世
until both of their deaths in 1826.
现在问题已经确定“托马斯·杰斐逊”
Now that question justestablished that Thomas Jefferson
和“约翰·亚当”都死于
and John Adams both died
1826年 而且 你从另外的
in 1826 and say that you knew
地方了解到拿破仑
from some other sourcethat Napoleon himself
在1821年就已经死了
had died in 1821.
如果你知道那个 那么 那个问题就回答了之前
If you knew that, then thatquestion answers the previous
的问题 所以“托马斯·杰斐逊”和“约翰·亚当”
question because both ThomasJefferson and John Adams
都不可能是答案 所以 答案是华盛顿
are not possible answers,therefore, it’s Washington.
这些细节和问题并不会总在测试中
These kind of details and questions aren’t always gon na crop up
出现 而且 无论如何
in your tests, and in any case,
你不应该浪费你的整个测试时间来
you probably shouldn’t wastea whole ton of your test time
发掘他们 因为考前的准备才是更好的策略
digging around for’em because, you know, preparation is a much better strategy.
你应该在考试前就准备好
You should hopefully come
这样大部分问题在测试时就知道答案
into the test prepared to answer most the questions in the first place,
但在某些场景 的确很有用
but it can be helpfulin certain occasions,
所以 在你认真开始做之前
so just prime your brain with a little bit
先让你的大脑做好初步的准备
of a preliminary pass before you start in earnest.
列表上的第二个技巧来自“芭芭拉·奥克雷”的书《学习之道》
The second technique on my list is what Barbara Oakley’s book A Mind for Numbers
先从困难的开始
calls the Hard Start,
然后跳到简单的技巧
Jump to Easy technique.
这是一个很基础的技巧
And this is a techniquewhere, basically, you jump
你遇到难题花了几分钟
into a difficult problem andyou spend a couple of minutes
很认真的思考 但是仍无法
thinking really deeplyabout it, but if you can’t
得出答案的时候 你就往下做
get the answer to thatproblem, you move on.
这个也大概是你老师曾经告诉过
Now this is something you’reteachers have probably
你的技巧
told you in the past,
仅是为了在你考试时省点时间
just to save time on your tests,
但是 他们一定没告诉你另一个好处
but there’s another benefit that they might not have told you about.
如果你花了很多时间思考一个很难的问题
If you spend some timethinking about a hard problem,
你大脑的专注模式就被激发了
you’re engaging your brain’s focus mode.
我知道这个集中和扩散的二分法
And I know this focusand diffused dichotomy
是我在这个视频里谈论过很多的东西
is something I talk about a lot in these videos,
但是它真的很重要
but it’s really, really important.
所以 当你专注时 你的注意力都在
So while you’re using focusmode, you are concentrating
问题上并且你在使用你的认知资源
on the problem and you’reusing your conscious resources
来解决它
to try to solve it.
但是 一旦你跳到一个不同的问题上
But once you jump intoa different problem,
你的潜意识资源 会在大脑中
your subconscious resources,the more distributed parts
分布较多的部分 然后会在那
of your brain, work onthat difficult problem
继续解决那个难的问题
in the background.
那过一会儿
And then when you go back
当再回到那个问题的时候
to the problem a little bit later,
你可能会更好的回答它 噢对了
you probably have a betterchance of answering it. Oh,
我要向奥克雷博士道歉 我们会找到一个
and my apologies toDr. Oakley, but we have got
比“先难后易”更好的技巧
to get a better name than Hard Start, Jump to Easy technique.
所以 我要继续了
So I’m gon na go
我叫它以小击大技巧
ahead and recoin it the Tiny the Tiger
因为它就像在游戏《碰撞翘曲 》里面打怪一样
technique’cause it’s like that one boss battle
在那里你花了很长时间来打怪
in Crash Warped where you spend some time fighting the boss
并会交换位置
and then you switch
来躲避这些老虎然后在那里来来回回
over to avoid these tigers and go back and forth from there.
第三点 一定要把
Tip number three is to make sure
试卷上的每个问题都读两遍
that you read each question on your exam twice.
这么做真的很重要 因为单选
Doing this is really, reallyimportant because multiple
的问题是很狡猾 答案的
choice questions can betricky and because they have
数量是有限的并且是专门为你
a limited number of answersand those answers are just
而写的 它引诱你使你
written out for you, it canbe really tempting to simply
很快地浏览问题然后去选择
skim over the questionvery quickly and then go
那个看起来最相似的答案
to the answer that looks most familiar.
但是 教授们在写各种
But professors can be prettysneaky when they’re writing
答案时都很狡猾 所以你要注意
these kinds of questions,so you need to watch out
一些会使你失误的事情
for a few things that can trip you up.
例如 试题里的一些问题
For example, some of thequestions on your exams
可能会问下列哪一个不是X Y或者Z
might ask you which of the following is not X, Y or Z.
“不是”这个词
And it can be really easy
真的很容易看不到
to fail to see that word, not,
尤其是如果你飞快地浏览了一下问题的话
if you’re going throughreally fast and just skimming the questions.
另一个问题是可能有
Other questions might actually have more
不止一个正确答案 而你要做的是找出
than one correct answer and your job there will be to find
最正确的那个答案
the answer that is most correct.
当然 在这种趋势下 也有各种各样的
And of course, in that vein,there are also all sorts
问题 比如
of questions that have all
以上都包含或者以上一个也不含
of the above or none of the above
来作为潜在的答案
as potential answers and I am
我很不想承认
not too proud to admit that
在我大学期间的课程中 我迅速地完成了
in several classes during mycollege career, I took tests
测试并没有看到这种类型的问题
very quickly and failed tosee these types of answers
当然 我还做错了
on a few questions, whichI, of course, got wrong.
第四点是我发现的一个很有用的策略
Tip number four is a tacticthat I found personally useful
它贯穿了我的整个高中和大学时期
all throughout high schooland college and it’s to double
那就是当你做到每一页最后的时候
check your answers
再次检查你的答案
as you get to the end of each page
而不是等到全都做完了最后才检查
of your test instead of just waiting to do it all at the end.
这招这么好的原因是
And the reason this is so
一旦你
useful is that once you get
做到了一页题的最后
to the end of a page
你可能只有五个
on your test, you probably only have
或者十个问题要过一遍
five or 10 questions to go
而且 因为只有几个
over and because you have so few,
你可能就不会觉得赶或者被
you’re probably not gonnarush or get intimidated
你要检查的问题数量吓到
by the number of questions you have to check and
同时也会降低你略过
that’s gon na decrease the likelihood that you’ll skip
一个愚蠢或者显而易见的错误的可能性
over a dumb mistake or somethingthat just should glaringly
并且这样可以提高你的分数
stick out and that’s gonnaincrease your scores.
但这并不能替代
Now this is not a replacement
你测试后要进行的一个完整的检查
for giving your test a good once-over once you’ve finished it.
而且 我完全认为你应当在
And I definitely think youshould be budgeting time
考试开始前就预算好时间
at the outset of the test to do that,
但是
but by adding
这些技巧加进你的应试库里
this technique into yourtest-taking arsenal,
你可以提高更多分数 是吧
you can increase your scores even more. Alright,
接下来我们来到了第五点
let’s move onto tip number five here.
如果遇到了得不出答案的
So if you come across aquestion that you just
一个问题
can’t get the answer to,
或者你可能觉得答案
or maybe you feel like the answer’s
就在嘴边
on the tip of your tongue,
但就是想不起来
but you just can’t quite get it,
那试着想象自己在房间里
try to envision yourself in the room
这个房间可以是你学习那部分信息的地方
in which you learned thatpiece of information.
也可能是你的教室 也可能在你平常
Maybe it was your classroom,maybe it was your normal
学习场所 但不管是哪个地方 科学表明
study spot, but either way,science has shown that if you
如果你能想象你学习的地方
can envision the area whereyou learned something,
它能激发一种叫做与上下文相关的记忆 基本上
it activates something calledcontext-dependent memory. Basically,
人类在最初学习这个东西的情境或者位置的时候
humans are moreable to remember things
更能记住东西
when they’re in the contextor location in which they
但是 一个1984年的实验显示
learned them, but researchdone in 1984 showed that if
如果人们简单地想象出他们学习某样东西的地点
people simply envisioned theplace in which they learned something,
他们可能引导那种能力
they can sort of,channel some of that ability
尽管实际上并不在那房间
even though they’re notphysically in that room. Now,
如果这个没起效果 或者你偶然遇到一个题目
if even that doesn’t work,or maybe you’ve run across
答案你一点线索也没有
a question where you justabsolutely have no clue what the
你之前从来没看到过这种题或者就是你
answer is, you’ve never seenit before or you just can’t
无论如何都没法排除任何一个选项 好吧
eliminate any of thechoices whatsoever, well,
那是时候该扔掉秘密武器了
it’s time to break out that secret weapon. So,
所以还记得我们的朋友吉米给我们的那个
remember our friend Jimmy who gave us
老建议 “有疑问的时候 选C”
that old advice, you know,”When in doubt, pick C?” Well,
好了 吉米其实是错的 但是没关系
yeah, Jimmy waswrong, but that’s okay,
因为除了遵从一些愚蠢的条例或者一些随便的猜想
because instead of following some dumb rule or just randomly guessing,
你其实可以用一些统计资料
you can actually use statistics
来发现一些人类做单选的典型方法
to exploit the way in which human beings typically write multiple choice tests.
因为 正如“威廉·庞德斯通”
And that’s because, as theauthor William Poundstone
在他的书《石头剪刀布的必胜技》中指出的
points out in his book Rock Breaks Scissors,
人类相当不擅长创造
humans are pretty bad at creating
一些随机的答案
actual random distributions of answers.
在他的研究中
During his research,
“庞德斯通”从所有不同的地方收集了超过一百个单选测试题
Poundstone collected over a hundred multiple choice tests from all sorts of different sources. Schools,
比如大学测试 驾考测试啊
colleges, drivers exams,
在线测试啊 你叫得出名字的他都找到了
online quizzes, you name it, he got it.
大概超过了2400多个问题
And that totaled over 2,400 questions.
他从这些问题的统计分析中得出的结论
And what he learned fromdoing statistical analysis
是十分令人惊讶的
on all those questionswas pretty surprising.
首先 他的确发现了单个单词答案的倾向
First off, he did discoverbiases for individual
但是这些倾向还是会改变 因为在
letter answers, but thosebiases changed based
问题上会有许多个适合的答案
on how many answers wereavailable on the question.
对于三项 A B C选择题
For three answer questions,you know, A, B, C,
没有倾向于哪一方
there was no bias.
但是对于四个选择
And for four answer questions,
结果是倾向于B
the bias turned out to be B,
而不是C 尽管它在统计学上有小优势
not C, though it was a verystatistically small advantage.
就像28%与预期的25%相抗
28% versus the expected 25%.
然后 当我们有五个答案的问题时
And then, when we go overto five answer questions,
你懂的 A到E
you know, A through E,
实际上E是最
it was actually E that was the most
普遍的答案 而C一般都不是正确答案
common answer and C was theleast commonly right answer.
尽管那些发现只是冰山一角
Those findings are just thetype of the iceberg though,
但是 就我而言 我觉得它们远没有
and personally, I findthem far less interesting
他发现的其他事情有趣
than all the other things he discovered.
包括一些判断对错的问题
Including the fact that with true/false questions,
有一个明确的倾向 朝向正确答案的是正确的
there’s a definite bias toward true answers being correct.
在他的研究当中 56%的时候
In his research, 56 % of the time,
判断题的答案是“对”时 只有44%的时候
true was the correct answer and only 44 % of the time
答案是“错”
was false the correct answer.
还有甚至更有趣同时它也可能有用
Even more interesting andpotentially useful to you
的是一个选项的答案与上一个
is the fact that a questionhas a higher than average
选项答案不一样的可能性高于平均数
likelihood of not having the same answer as the question that came before it.
所以 如果你知道这个问题的答案选C
So if you have one question on a test where you knew the answer was C,
你还特别确定
you’re definitely sure of that,
那你继续
and then you move
做下一道题 但是 你被卡住了
on to the next question and you’re stuck,
或者你已经把答案缩小到了C或D
or maybe you’ve narrowedit down to C or D,
那么答案很有可能是D而不是C
then it’s likely thatD is the answer, not C.
或许 最令人惊讶地的是 对这些问题来说
And perhaps most astoundingly,for questions that had either
“以上的答案都对”或
an all of the above or none
“以上出现的答案都不对”
of the above answer present,
那么那种选项有52%的可能是正确的 这就意味着
that answer was correct 52%of the time, which means
如果你在一个问题上卡住了并且你没法缩小范围
that if you’re stuck on a question and you can’t narrow it down,
那个答案就是最好的答案了
that answer’s your best bet.
现在 尽管我开玩笑把这发现
Now even though I had funcalling these findings
叫“秘密武器”之类的 但我强调
a”secret weapon” of sorts,I really want to emphasize
一点只有当你完全不知所措并且你
that you should only usethem when you’re completely
真的是很想做出来
at a loss and you have to take a shot in the dark.
你应该用书里的其他技巧来
You should use every othertechnique in the book
缩小选择范围并给你自己一些思考空间
to narrow things down, togive yourself some space,
像这样用“缩小老虎”技巧 因为
to use that Tiny theTiger technique because,
总的来说
at the end of the day,
你做的所有事情都是在寻找一条人们做测试的方法
all you’re doing is exploiting the way that people write tests.
你实际上并没有学到任何东西而且
You’re not actually learninganything and you’re not
实际上你根本没有用你的智力来
actually using yourmental faculties to work
处理考试的实际信息和内容 不管怎么样
with the actual informationand content of the exam. Anyway,
除了这个视频里的窍门
beyond all the tips in this video,
在做任何单选或者其他类型的测试中
the most important aspect to your success on any multiple
走向成功最重要的方面在于好好准备考试
choice test or any kind oftest at all is preparation.
如果你还想了解怎样能更有效的准备你的测试
And if you want to learn how to prepare for your tests more effectively,
我刚整理了一份叫做《期末考试终极指南》
I actually just put together a resource
已经放到了我的网页上
on my website called The Ultimate Guide to Acing your Final Exams.
它收集了我实践过的和考试相关的东西
And it collects everythingthat I’ve ever made
所以 如果你没有看完所有视频
related to exams, so if youhaven’t seen all those videos
或者你正在找些详细的窍门 那你得要
or you’re looking for aspecific tip, you might wanna
看看了 而且 你此时也能在
check it out and you can find it
屏幕上的小卡片上找到
on the card on the screen
或者在下面的描述里
right now or in thedescription down below.
还有 如果你喜欢这个视频 你可以
Beyond that, if you enjoyed this video, you can
点赞来支持下这个频道
give it a like to support this channel, it’s
那就很棒了 如果你有更多我
much appreciated, and if you have additional tips
在这个视频里没说到的做单选窍门
on acing your multiple choicetests that I didn’t talk about
那我真的很乐意看
right here, I would love to hear
你们在评论区留言
from you down in the comments below.
如果你想订阅这个频道 那你就能每周看到
If you wanna subscribe to thischannel and get new videos
关于学习更有效率的视频
on being a more effectivestudent every single week,
那点击这里 你也可以点这
click right there and youcan also click right there
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if you want to get a free copy
关于得更高分的免费的书
of my book on earning better grades.
这个星期的推荐视频实际上
Now the recommended video this week is actually something
就和这个有关 因为它是关于信心跟踪
related to this because it’s about a technique
的技巧 这个可以更好地帮助你
called confidence tracking that can help you even further
在单选测试中提高分数
increase your scores onmultiple choice tests,
所以 去看看吧
so check it out.

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视频概述

视频主要讲述了如何做单项选择题,作者给出了五条策略和一个秘密武器,帮助大家提高单选分数。

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翻译译者

🍀qq

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1y8c_MZYvE

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