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5个世界上最危险的化学物质

5 of the World's Most Dangerous Chemicals

德国 1939
Germany, 1939
在德国和波兰边境接壤处的一个秘密掩体里
In a secret bunker on the German-Polish border
纳粹间谍正在监督生产一种新发现的化学物质
Nazi agents were overseeing the production of a recently discovered chemical
他们给它的代号是“物质N”
they’d code-named “Substance N”
这种物质暴露在空气中时会沸腾
It boiled when they exposed it to air,
接触水时会爆炸 被吸入时会致死
It exploded when it touched water, it was lethal when inhaled,
分解时会释放致命的氢氟酸
and when it decomposed it spit out deadly hydrofluoric acid.
被装进喷火器里点燃时
When loaded into a flamethrower and ignited it could burn at
它燃烧的温度超过2400℃
temperatures over 2400°C
计划是打算用“物质N”来武装军队
The plan was to arm troops with “Substance N”
然后用它把联军的掩体熔成一锅热粥
and use it to melt allied bunkers into hot porridge
但在研究了一段时间后 即使是德国士兵也忍不住感叹“哇哦”
But then after studying it for a while even the German soldiers were like “Whoa.”
“物质N”的实验被暂停了
experiments with “Substance N” were discontinued because
因为纳粹认为它用起来实在是太危险了
the Nazis decided it was too dangerous to work with.
你会对这些危险的东西有一个大概的认识
Should give you some kind of sense of what we’re dealing with
在我们讨论世界上最危险的化学品的时候
here when we talk about the most dangerous chemicals in the world.
我在讲的东西 有的一碰就会爆炸
I’m talking about things that explode when you touch them,
有的毒性极强 即使你只吸入了百万分之一克也会丧命
things so poisonous that if even a millionth of a gram went up your nose, it would end up killing you
有的气味如此强烈 使人虚弱 令人恐惧 甚至会使你致残
things that could even disable you because of their totally, debilitatingly, horrifying smell,
而且真的 这些化学物质如此危险 连纳粹都认为它们可怕
and yes, chemicals so severe, that even the Nazis thought they were crazy.
让我们从德国人在秘密武器掩体中试验的那种物质开始
Let’s start with what the Germans had in that secret weapons bunker
一开始他们打算每个月生产90吨
They originally planned to produce 90 tons of the stuff every month
但最后整个二战期间他们也只制造了大约30吨
but only made about 30 tons throughout the whole war
他们制造出的这种物质是三氟化氯
what they’d concocted was chlorine trifluoride,
人类所知的最剧烈的氟化剂
the most vigorous fluorinating agent known to humanity
氟化剂会打破分子结构 然后用氟取代原来的氢原子
fluorinating agents rip other molecules apart to replace their hydrogen atoms with fluorine
产生的结果被化学家称为“剧烈的放热反应”
the result is what chemists called a ‘violently exothermic reaction’,
也就是氟火
in this case known as a fluorine fire
氟火处理起来 甚至比氟气还要危险得多
it’s much more dangerous to handle than even fluorine gas,
任何有化学学位的人都会如此告诉你
which as anyone with a degree in chemistry could tell you
当然这句话他们不会有机会经常讲
is not a sentence that you get to say very often
氟也是比氧更好的氧化剂
it’s also a better oxidizer than oxygen
氧化剂是一种化合物 它在氧化反应中会从别的化学物质中偷取电子
oxidizers are compounds that steal electrons from other chemicals in a reaction
它们也是燃烧的必要条件
and they are what make combustion possible.
三氟化氯则厉害到会让常人看来无法起火的东西烧起来
chlorine trifluoride is so good at this, that it can burn stuff that sane people might think of as non flammable, like
比如砖块 石棉或者其他已经燃烧过了的东西
bricks or asbestos or things that have already been burned
氧化剂也常被用来为火箭燃料点火
oxidizers are also used to ignite rocket fuel and in
曾有很短一段时间美国的火箭专家们还考虑用它来做推进剂
the very short time that us rocket scientists thought about using this stuff as a propellant,
但马上他们就意识到这个想法不可取
they quickly learned that this idea was bad
20世纪50年代初 美国科学家首次尝试大量运输三氟化氯
and the early 1950s, the first time that US scientists tried to ship chlorine trifluoride in bulk
结果钢罐爆裂 整整一吨三氯化氟溢出去
the steel tank cracked and a full ton of it spilled out
燃烧温度非常之高以致于“吃掉”了一整层混凝土地面
it burned so hot that the chemical ate through an entire concrete floor
以及底下一米深的泥土和碎石
and then a meter of dirt and gravel beneath that
一名目击者形容这场溢出事故时 只说了一句话
One eye-witness described the spill only by saying
混凝土……烧起来了
“The concrete…was on fire!”
如今三氟化氯还在生产并被半导体公司用来清洁设备
Chlorine trifluoride is still manufactured and is used by semi-conductor companies to clean their equipment
以极其小心的方式
to within an inch of its life.
好消息是 人们还是能用常规的钢桶把它安全地储存起来
The good news is that you can store it safely in a regular steel drum
前提是必须密封 而且你得非常 非常小心
as long as it’s air-tight and you’re really, really careful,
因为它会马上烧焦容器的内侧
because, it instantly scorches the inside lining of the container
然后剩下一层不反应的金属氟化物电镀薄膜
leaving behind a nonreactive plating of metallic fluoride.
接下来我们要讨论的化学物 “不反应”这词是用不到了
Nonreactive is not a word that we’re gonna need when discussing the next chemical on our list
叠氮化物 史上最易爆炸的人造化合物
“Azidoazide azide”, the most explosive chemical compound ever created
这极不稳定的小东西属于一类被称为
This twitchy little compound is a part of a class of chemicals known as
“高氮能物质”的化学品
“High nitrogen energetic materials”
它做自己该做的事 因为氮只想独处
And it does what it does because nitrogen just wants to be left alone
两个氮原子结合组成的分子是世界上最稳定的分子之一
A nitrogen atom bonded with another nitrogen atom is one of the most stable molecules on earth
它们的电子形成了一个极强的三价键
Their electrons form an extremely strong triple bond with each other,
在自然界中 通常只有在分子被闪电击中时才会被破坏
which, in nature can usually only be broken by a molecule being hit by lightning
这样的强度意味着当两个氮原子结合在一起时
The strength of that bond means that when two nitrogen atoms snap together,
会释放巨大的能量
they release a tremendous amount of energy.
所以如果你观察AA分子 我们简称它为AA 因为Azidoazide Azide太难念了
So if you look in a molecule of AA.. We’re gonna call it AA cause Azidoazide Azide is hard
你可以看到它是如何爆炸的
You can see how it gets its bang.
它有14个氮原子 由于其特殊的分子结构
It has 14 nitrogen atoms and because of the way the molecule was structured,
没有一个原子处在三价键中
None of them are in a triple bond.
相反 它们处于一种松散约束的高能量状态
Instead, they’re stuck in a loosely bound high-energy state
并且极其容易向更稳定的低能量状态转变
and are dying to move to a more stable lower energy state
这就意味着在这个过程中它们会释放大量封存的能量
which means releasing a lot of pent-up energy in the process.
结果就是 AA高度不稳定 而且非常容易爆炸
As a result, AA is both highly reactive and heck-a explosive.
这玩意儿有多敏感? 实在不好说 因为它太敏感了
How sensitive is this stuff? Well, it’s actually hard to say, because it’s too sensitive
以致于人们都无法测量它到底有多敏感
even to measure how sensitive it is.
2010年在美国军方的协助下 德国化学家把它造了出来
A team of German chemists created it in 2010 with the help of the US army,
意在发展更多高能化合物
in an effort to develop more energetic compounds.
在他们第一次报告这个发现时
And their first report on the discovery,
他们说 我来引用一下 “C2N14s太敏感了 已经超出我们的测量能力…
they said, and I quote, “The sensitivity of C2N14 is beyond our capabilities of measurement…
…即使尽可能地将载荷调到最小 在抗震和摩擦实验中 它还是会分解爆炸”
…even the smallest possible loadings in shock & friction-tests led to explosive decomposition.”
来列个单子说明它有多敏感
To give you a list of how touchy this stuff is,
以下是可以让AA爆炸的原因:
here’s a list of things that make Azidoazide explode:
移动 触摸
moving it, touching it,
放入溶液 静置于玻璃盘
dispersing it in solution, leaving it undisturbed on a glass plate,
暴露于强光 暴露于X射线
exposing it to bright light, exposing it to x-rays,
放入光谱仪 打开光谱仪
putting it in a spectrometer, turning on the spectrometer,
以及我个人最喜欢的:无缘无故!
and my favourite: ABSOLUTELY NOTHING!!!
他们把它置于抗震爆炸箱中 放在恒温恒湿的暗室里……
They had it in a shock-proof explosive case, in a dark climate controlled room…
它还是爆炸了!
and it blew up!
我想有人说了它的坏话 是像这样说的
I think somebody said something mean about it somewhere, and it was like:
[消音]
(Censored Bleep)
合成团队中的首席科学家们称它为“一项非常令人振奋的发现”
The lead scientists on the team that synthesized it called it: “A very exciting discovery.”
如果我研究叠氮化物 每天早上醒来
If I worked with Azidoazide Azide, waking up every morning,
发现自己手指都还健在的话 那倒是一项令人振奋的发现
and seeing that I still had all my fingers would be a very exciting discovery.
接下来 让我们聊聊二甲基镉
Next up, let’s talk about Dimethylcadmium
这是一种有机金属化合物
This is an organometallic compound,
这意味着 它有一个碳与金属结合的分子
which means it it has a molecule in which carbon has bonded with a metal
在这里 金属即是镉
In this case, that metal is Cadmium,
这是个很让人讨厌的自以为是的家伙
a pretty nasty customer all on its own
目前为止 我们讲的化学品是会爆炸的
So far we’ve talked about chemicals that explode
或是会让一切陷入火海的
or cover everything in unquenchable fire
不要误会我(我没有要讲其它不同的东西) 二甲基镉也是会干这些事情的
And don’t get me wrong; Dimethylcadmium, it does that too
但这不是它的最危险之处
But that is not what makes it so dangerous
从综合实力来说 它可能是世界上最毒的化学物
It is, in all likelihood, gram-for-gram the most toxic chemical in the world
它有急性效应 也有慢性效应
It has both acute and chronic effects
也就是说 它可以让你马上丧命 也可以让你慢慢赴死
Which means it will kill you now AND later
一位金属有机化学的先驱发现了它
It was first prepared by a pioneer of metal organic chemistry
他叫埃里希·克劳斯 是的 他也是德国人
A fellow named Erich Krause who was from, yes, Germany
当时是1917年
It was 1917
克劳斯的一生简单来说是这样
To give you a sense of how Krause rolled
37岁时 他因意外吸入了一些氯气而死于自己的实验室
he died in his lab at the age of 37 after accidentally inhaling a bunch of chlorine
但死之前 他尽力报告了二甲基镉这一发现
but before that happened he managed to report his discovery of Dimethylcadmium
当你吸入这种物质 它会立马进入到你的血液中
When you breathe it in, it is absorbed instantly into your bloodstream,
在那里 它就像个化学司机 把有毒的镉化物
where it basically serves as a kind of chemical chauffeur for toxic compounds of cadmium
运送到你全身
to travel all around your body
它如此高效率地利用了你的血液循环系统
Because it’s so effective at exploiting your bloodstreamt,
很快就感染了你血液流入最多的那些器官
it quickly effects your most blood-infused organs
比如肺 肾 肝
Like lungs and your kidneys and liver,
制造化合物夺取你细胞中原子的电子
creating compounds that rip electrons off the atoms of your cells
但如果你吸入二甲基镉后 在最初的几个小时里努力存活下来了
But if you manage to survive your first few hours after Dimethylcadmium exposure,
别抱太大希望 它还有高度致癌性
don’t get your hopes up. It’s also extremely carcinogenic,
所以它将用癌症来刁难你打倒你
So it will take you down with cancer just to spite you
这东西非常强大 作为一种可以利用空气传播的气体
This stuff is so potent that, as an airborne vapor
每立方米空气中有百万分之几克 就是法定安全上限
just a few millionths of a gram per cubic meter of air meets the legal safety limits
但是如果不慎溢出 你将怎么清理?
But if you spill it, how are you going to clean it up?
用水吗?
Water?
当它与水发生反应 会产生大量的热和氢气
Well, when it reacts with water it produces both lots of heat and lots of hydrogen gas
氢气是可燃的 所以 是的 它会在水中爆炸
Which is flammable so, yeah, it explodes in water
也许你可以把它扫掉?
Maybe you could sweep it up?
可是……摩擦会让它起火
Eeuhh …friction makes it ignite
或许你想就这样等着它分解?
Might wanna just try waiting for it to decompose?
好吧 它确实会分解
Well, it will do that
但会生成一层二甲基镉过氧化氢 一种摩擦即燃的爆炸物
It’ll form a crust of dimethyl cadmium peroxide, which is a friction-sensitive explosive
所以你与“轰!”之间只有一步之遥
So you’re just one shoe-scuff away from “KABLAMMO”
除此之外
And on top of it all
这东西有股金属的恶臭味 会令人恶心不愉快
the chemical has an odor that has been described as foul, unpleasant, metallic, and disagreeable
但跟下一个化学物相比 这种气味根本不值一提
But that’s nothing compared to our next chemical:
丙硫酮
Thioacetone
它不会爆炸 不会起火 也不会毒到令你致癌
It won’t explode, or start fires, or even give you cancer
与其它我们介绍的化学物比起来 它就像一只可爱的毛茸茸的兔子
Compared to other chemicals on the list it’s like a cute little fluffy bunny
但是这只可爱的毛茸茸的兔子会散发出你无法想象的最恶心的恶臭
If that cute little fluffy bunny had the MOST UNGODLY STINK YOU CAN IMAGINE
没错 丙硫酮拥有“世界最臭化学物”的殊荣
That’s right, Thioacetone takes the prize for The World’s Smelliest Chemical
它属于硫醇 是一种碳原子和硫氢基结合的有机化合物
It’s a thiol, an organic compound in which a carbon atom is bonded to a sulfur-hydrogen pair
它们都很恶心
They’re all gross
臭鼬的喷出物用两种不同的硫醇达到让人流泪的效果
A skunk’s spray uses two different thiols to eye-watering effect
大多数的含硫化合物是由腐烂的肉类释放的
Most sulfur-containing compounds are released by rotting meat
这是我们想要很好地探测到它们
which is a reason why we would want to be very good at being able to detect them
并且不愿意去想像这种气味的原因之一……
and also not think that it smells…Good
但是说回臭味
But when it comes to bad smells
丙硫酮的恶臭和让人反胃可以排第一
Thioacetone takes the stinky, seriously unappetizing cake
只要一滴 你从半公里之外马上可以闻到
You can smell one drop of this substance, almost instantly, from half a kilometer away
20世纪60年代 一小瓶这东西从实验室架子上掉了下来
In the 1960s a vial of the stuff fell off a shelf in a research lab
200米开外的建筑里的人们都将他们的饼干丢掉了
People were chucking their cookies in buildings 200 meters away
关于丙硫酮沉默却要命的力量 最佳例子来自德国弗莱堡市
But the greatest example of thioacetone’s silent-but-deadly strength comes from the German city of Freiburg
那是1889年 据记载一家肥皂厂的化学人员正研究一种
where in 1889 chemists at a soap factory were, reportedly, working on a larger molecule
叫做“三聚硫酮”的大分子 以作为调料和香味剂
known as tri-thioacetone, which is used as a flavoring and a fragrance
但是 当他们把它分解成丙硫酮时 工人们开始生病
But, when they broke it apart into thioacetone workers started falling ill
报道说邻近区域的人们不约而同地都爆发了呕吐
Spontaneous outbreaks of vomiting were reported in the surrounding neighborhoods
最终整座城市都被疏散
It led to the evacuation of the whole city
也许关于丙硫酮和硫基有很多东西可以研究
There might be a lot to learn about thioacetone and thiols in general
但是科学家们并不急着去钻研 这倒也很容易理解
but, understandably, scientists are not really rushing to look into it
最后 是世界上最具腐蚀性的化学剂
And finally, there’s the strongest corrosive agent in the world
人类所制造出来的最危险的酸
The most dangerous acid ever devised by humanity
氟锑酸
Fluoroantimonic acid
危险化学物的清单怎么可能完整呢
Because what list of dangerous chemicals would be complete
如果没有超级酸的话
without a super acid
所谓酸 即是它能给它旁边的分子一个质子
What makes an acid an acid is its ability to donate a proton to another molecule nearby it
而这个质子只是一个失去了电子的氢原子
And a proton is just a hydrogen atom that’s lost its electron
这个过程叫做质子化作用
This process is called Protonation
而酸的强度取决于它给出这个质子的容易度
And an acid’s strength is determined by how willing it is to give up that proton
弱酸 比如醋酸
A weak acid, acetic acid for example
只是一种未稀释的醋
Which is just the undiluted form of vinegar
它在质子化别的分子时 显得非常艰难
will drag its feet about protonating other molecules
因为它大部分的分子压根不动
Most of it will just sit there doing nothing
但像硫酸这样的强酸 会把质子打进空气 就像春假里的沙滩排球
But a strong acid like sulfuric acid’ll punch that proton in the air like a beach volleyball at spring break
回想一下“物质N” 我们就知道氟有多疯狂
And remember from Substance N how crazy fluorine is
这么说吧 氟锑酸的强度是硫酸的万万亿倍
Well, fluoroantimonic acid is ten quadrillion times stronger than sulfuric acid
这个分子迫不及待地想要把质子喷出去
This molecule is begging for an excuse to fly apart
一旦它失去了它的氢原子
Once it’s lost its hydrogen atoms
剩下的氟原子和锑原子
the remaining atoms of fluorine and another element, antimony
就会穿透周围的任何物质 抢夺附近分子的电子
tear through everything else around them, ripping electrons off nearby molecules
身后只留下一堆黏糊糊的有机物
and leaving just organic goo in their wake
特别值得一提的是氟很喜欢与钙结合
Especially exciting is that fluorine really likes to bond with calcium
所以一旦氟锑酸腐蚀透你皮肤和肌肉的脂肪组织
So once the acid tears through the fatty organic tissues of your skin and muscles
它的氟分子接着会烧透你的骨骼
the fluorine will burn through your bones
储存氟锑酸的唯一方法是使用聚四氟乙烯容器
The only way to store fluoroantimonic acid is in Teflon containers
顺便说一下 聚四氟乙烯是靠碳氟键聚合起来的
Teflon, by the way, is held together by carbon-fluorine bonds
这是有机化学里最牢固的键 没有之一
which are the single strongest bond in organic chemistry
事实上 我们对这个酸知之甚少 因为用它做实验太困难了
We don’t actually know a lot about this acid because it’s so hard to do experiments with it
你无法将它放入注射器或者放在玻璃片上
You can’t put it in a syringe or on a slide
它吃起玻璃就像吃棉花糖
It eats through glass like it’s cotton candy
你也不能把它放在实验室通风柜下 它会吃了通风柜
You can’t put it under a fume hood – it’ll eat the fume hood
所以你真正能做的 似乎 只有看着它
All you can really do is, just like, look at it
当然最好是从……
Ideally from…
很远的地方
…very far away
感谢观看本期“特别危险的”科学秀节目
Thank you for watching this particularly dangerous SciShow infusion
特别要谢谢我们在Subbable上的捐赠者 他们帮助制作了本期节目
Thank you especially to our Subbable subscribers who help us make this show for them
为他们也为所有人 如果想要支持我们 请登录subbable.com
And for everyone else, to find our how you can support us you can go to subbable.com
如果你想跟我们一起越变越聪明
And if you want to keep getting smarter with us?
只需登录youtube.com/scishow并订阅即可
Just go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe

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视频概述

连纳粹都不敢大规模使用的化学物质有哪些呢?让人大开眼界!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

祐子祐

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赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ckSoDW2-wrc

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