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到底该用TO还是FOR?

5 Levels of English Grammar - Should You Use TO or FOR?

Hi, I’m Kasia.
嗨 我是Kasia
Welcome to Oxford Online English!
欢迎收看《牛津英语》!
This is a ‘5 levels’ lesson.
这是一个“五阶”课程
The lesson has five parts.
意思是本节课包含五个部分
Each section will give you a challenge.
每部分都有相应的知识点
Each section is designed to be more difficult than the previous ones.
内容也是由易到难 不断加深
You’ll probably find different parts easier or more difficult.
或许你会觉得某些内容相对容易 而有的地方要难一些
This will help you to understand where you have problems;
这有助于你了解自己的问题所在
in each section, we’ll give you an idea of what you need to know
我们会告诉大家 每一部分需要掌握的内容
in order to understand the challenge fully.
以便各位充分理解这些知识点
Level one is beginner, so if you’re not a beginner,
一阶内容对应的是初学者 如果你不是
you should skip to level two.
可以直接跳到二阶部分
Ready? Let’s go!
准备好了吗?开始咯!
Look at five sentences.
看下列五个句子
Complete each sentence with either ‘to’ or ‘for’.
用to或for将每个句子补充完整
Pause the video and do it now!
现在暂停视频 开始做吧
Ready?
好了吗?
Let’s look at the answers.
我们来看看答案
‘To’ and ‘for’ both have many different uses in English.
在英语中 to和for有很多不同的用法
Some are simple.
有些很简单
You use ‘to’ to talk about going somewhere.
to可用于表示“去往某地”
For example ‘go to the shop’, ‘go to London’,
例如“去商店” “去伦敦”
‘go to China’, and so on.
“去中国” 等
There’s one common exception:
常见表达中有一个是例外的
you say ‘go home’, without ‘to’.
在“回家”这个搭配中是不加to的
Use ‘for’ when you do something for someone else.
for用于表达“为某人做某事”
For example, you can hold something for someone, carry something for someone,
例如可以用在“为某人拿东西” “为某人提东西”
buy something for someone, and so on.
“为某人买东西”等语境中
Use ‘to’ when you’re talking about an end point in time or space.
to用于表达时间或空间的结点
In these cases, you often use ‘from… to…’
“from…to…”经常用于下列语境中
For example ‘I’ll be here from Monday to Friday.’
例如 “我周一到周五都在这里”
‘The new road runs from the capital city to the south coast.’
“新建的这条路横贯首都和南海岸”
You can also use ‘to’ with verbs of giving,
to还可以跟表示“给予” 的动词连用
like in sentence four.
如例句4
However, with these verbs, it’s common to use a structure without ‘to’.
然而 这些动词也常用不带to的结构
For example, with ‘give’, you can give someone something,
例如 “give(给) ” 可以是“给某人某物”
or give something to someone.
也可以“把某物给某人”
Both structures are possible, but the first is more common.
两种结构都可以 但第一种更常见
So, you can say: ‘Give the bottle to me.’
因此你可以说“把瓶子给我”
Or: ‘Give me the bottle.’
或者说“给我那个瓶子”
Both are possible, but the second is more common.
两种皆可 但第二种更常见
These are some of the most common ways to use ‘to’ and ‘for’.
to和for还有一些更为常见的用法
Let’s move on to level two,
让我们进入二阶的内容
where you’ll see another important use of these two prepositions.
看看这两个介词其他的重要用法
Here are your sentences for level two.
以下是第二阶段的例句
In each sentence, you need to choose ‘to’ or ‘for’.
你需要选择to或for完成句子
Pause the video, and think about your answers.
暂停视频 思考一下答案
Are you ready?
准备好了吗
Here are the answers.
这是答案
You can use ‘to’ and ‘for’ to give a reason for doing something,
我们可以用to或for给出做某事的原因
or to explain the function of something.
或说明某物的用途
In sentences one and two, you’re talking about your reason for doing something.
在前两个例句中 我们要表达做某件事的原因
Why did you stop on the way home?
你为什么在回家的路上停下来?
To get a coffee.
为了买咖啡
Or, for a coffee.
或 用for表达
Look at two more examples:
再来看另外两个例子
‘We need to go to the shop to buy some batteries.’
“我们需要去商店买些电池”
‘We need to go to the shop for some batteries.’
或用for代替to buy
Again, you’re talking about *why* you’re going to the shop.
还是一样的 要表达去商店的原因
In this case, you can use ‘to’ plus an infinitive verb,
这种情况下 你可以用to加不定式动词
or ‘for’ plus a noun.
或用for加名词
In sentences three and four,
第三 四句
you’re talking about the function of something.
说的是某物的用途
What does this little metal thing do?
这个金属小物件是做什么的?
It’s used to open bottles, *or* for opening bottles.
是用来开瓶子的 或用for加动词ing的形式
Look at two more examples like this:
再来看两个例子:
‘She developed a tool to analyse data collected at different times and places.’
她开发了一个工具 用来分析不同时间和地点采集的数据
‘She developed a tool for analysing data collected at different times and places.’
或者用for来做这个句子
So, we’re talking about ‘reason’ and ‘function’.
这里讲的是关于“原因”和“用途”的表达
Are these ideas the same?
这两种意义一样吗?
No – they’re different.
显然不一样
Let’s see how.
来看看有什么区别
‘Reason’ tells you why someone does something.
“原因”表达的是某人为何做某事
Here, you can use ‘to’ plus an infinitive or ‘for’ plus a noun.
这时我们可以用to加不定式 或for加名词
*Don’t* use ‘for’ plus an -ing verb.
但不能用for加动词ing的形式
‘Function’ tells you what something is used for, for example a tool.
而“用途”表示某物用来做什么 例如一件工具
Here, you can use three structures:
这时你有三种结构可以选择
‘to’ plus infinitive verb,
to加动词不定式
‘for’ plus -ing
for加动词ing
or ‘for’ plus noun.
或者for加名词
If you’re not sure whether to use ‘to’ or ‘for’ in sentences like this,
如果你不确定这个时候该用to还是for
what can you do?
怎么办呢?
If you’re not sure whether a sentence is about reason or function,
如果你不确定一句话要表达原因还是用途
then try to use ‘to’ plus infinitive if you can,
那就用to加不定式
because you can use this in both cases.
因为这个结构在两种含义中可以通用
Review this section if you need to,
如果需要的话 把这部分好好复习下
and think more about the difference between reason and function.
思考一下表达原因和用途的区别
It’s a common mistake to use ‘for’ plus -ing when talking about reason,
我们常常会在表原因的语境中 错用了for加动词ing
for example, ‘We stopped on the way home for getting a coffee.’
例如 “回家的路上 我们停下来买了杯咖啡”
Remember, this is not correct!
记住 这种用法是错的!
But, it’s a common mistake.
但这种错误很常见
Let’s move on to level three,
下面进入三阶的内容
where you’ll see more mistakes
在这部分 你会看到更多
which English learners often make with ‘to’ and ‘for’.
英语学习者常犯的有关to和for用法的错误
Level three is a little different.
第三阶段稍有不同
Four sentences are incorrect; only one is correct.
以下句子中有四句是错误的 只有一句正确
You have two jobs.
你有两个任务
First, find the correct sentence.
首先 找出正确的句子
Second, correct the mistakes in the other four sentences.
然后 改正其他四句的错误
Got it?
明白吗
Pause the video, and find your answers.
暂停视频 找出答案吧
Take as long as you need!
多长时间都没关系
Could you do it?
你能做到吗?
Which sentence do you think is correct?
你觉得哪个句子是正确的?
Let’s see.
我们来看看
‘To’ and ‘for’ are used after many verbs,
to和for通常跟在很多动词
adjectives and nouns.
形容词和名词之后
Many of these are fixed phrases,
其中很多是固定短语
meaning you just need to remember them as you learn.
这意味着你只需在学的时候背下来
‘Good for your health’ is one expression like this.
这一类短语如 “good for your health(有益健康)”
You can also say ‘good for you’, which has the same meaning,
也可以说“good for you” 两者意思相同
and is more natural-sounding,
只是后者听起来更自然
especially in conversational English.
尤其在英语会话中
So, you could say ‘Jogging two or three times a week is good for you.’
因此你可以说“一周慢跑两到三次有益身心”
There are some verbs like ‘phone’, ‘call’, ‘ask’ or ‘answer’
在许多其他语言中 像phone call ask answer这些动词
which are used with ‘to’
后面要加to
or a similar idea in many other languages,
或意义等同于to的词
but not in English.
但英语中可不是这样
Is this true for your language?
在你的母语中是不是呢?
Do you say ‘phone to someone’ or ‘phone someone?’
你会说“phone to someone还是phone someone?”
If in your language, you say ‘phone to someone’,
如果你的语言说的是“phone to someone”
you need to be careful with mistakes like in sentence two!
那么要小心 别犯第二句那样的错误
In English, you phone *someone*, call *someone*,
在英语中 phone call
ask *someone* and answer *someone*,
ask 和 answer
without ‘to’.
后面都不加to
What about sentence three?
第三句错在哪呢?
You heard about this in level two.
这个在二阶的时候讲过
This sentence expresses reason – why did you go to the post office?
这句表原因 “你为什么去邮局?”
To express reason, don’t use ‘for’ plus an -ing verb.
表原因时 不用for加动词ing
Here, because there’s a verb – ‘send’ – you need to use ‘to’ plus an infinitive verb.
因为这里出现了动词send 你需要用to+动词不定式
Sentence four has the same problem.
第四句的问题也一样
You’re talking about reason – why are you taking a break? –
你要表达“休息”的原因
and there’s a verb – ‘eat’.
并且出现了动词——吃
So, you can only use ‘to’ plus infinitive.
因此只能用to+不定式的结构
Sentence five is correct.
第五句是正确的
Do you find it strange?
有没有觉得这句很奇怪?
Normally, we use ‘to’ to talk about the destination, or end point of a journey.
通常我们用to表“目的”或一段旅途的“目的地”
However, with verbs like ‘leave’, ‘depart’ or ‘set out’,
但像leave depart和set out这类动词或词组
you use ‘for’ instead.
要用for+目的/目的地
Remember: there’s a lot of information and different topics in this lesson.
提醒大家 本节课信息量很大 涉及话题众多
If you want more examples, go to a good online dictionary;
想要获取更多例句 可以找一个好用的在线词典查一查
we recommend Lexico,
我们推荐牛津词典
which you can find at www dot lexico dot com.
登录网站www.lexico.com即可
Look up ‘to’ or ‘for’
查一下to和for
and you can find many examples of the different ways to use these two prepositions.
你会发现好多有关这两个介词不同用法的例句
This time, there are two gaps in each sentence.
这次每个句子中有两处空白
Put either ‘to’ or ‘for’ in each gap.
请用to或for完形填空
Do you have the answers?
有答案了吗?
No?
还没?
Pause the video and think about your answers!
暂停视频 好好思考下
Don’t just wait for us to tell you!
不要坐等答案!
Ready now?
现在好了吧?
OK, here are the answers.
好的 来公布答案
With some verbs, nouns and adjectives,
对于某些动词 名词和形容词
it’s possible to use *either* ‘to’ or ‘for’ to express different ideas.
后面跟to或for 可能表达的含义截然不同
This means you can sometimes use *both* ‘to’ and ‘for’ after a verb,
这意味着有些动词后面 既可以加to 也可以加for
such as ‘wait’.
比如wait(等)
You can wait for something, wait for someone,
可以wait for something(等某事)wait for someone(等某人 )
or wait to do something.
或wait to do sth(等待做某事)
If you combine these, you can also wait for something to happen,
如果两两组合 便可以wait for sth. to happen(等待某事发生)
or wait for someone to do something.
或wait for sb. to do sth(等待某人做某事)
While it’s possible to use both ‘to’ and ‘for’ here, and with other words too,
虽然这里既能用to也能用for 其他词也一样
the order is not flexible.
但句型的顺序是固定的
You wait *for* someone *to do* something.
只能是wait for sb. to do sth.
You can’t put the ‘to’ phrase before the ‘for’ phrase.
不可以把to的部分放到for词组前面
In sentence two, you *could* change the order of the ‘to’ and ‘for’ phrases,
在第二句中 我们可以改变to和for短语的顺序
but in the other four sentences, you can’t.
而其他四句就不可以
In such cases, you need to learn the exact patterns
在这些情况下 你需要学具体的表达
which can follow each verb, noun or adjective.
了解每个动词 名词和形容词搭配什么介词
for example ‘apologise to someone’,
例如apologise to sb.(向某人道歉)
‘apologise for something’
apologise for sth.(因某事道歉)
and ‘apologise to someone for something’.
因某事向某人道歉
This is more of a vocabulary problem than a grammar one.
与其说它是语法 不如说是词汇问题
If you have problems with this,
如果你对此还有疑问
then learning grammar rules isn’t the best solution.
那么学习语法规则可不是最佳办法
Learn and practise specific phrases,
多学多练一些具体的词组
and try to use them in natural speech or writing,
并尝试在口语和写作中加以运用
like you would with other new vocabulary.
像你学其他新的词汇一样
Are you ready for the toughest challenge?
准备好迎接最困难的挑战了吗?
Let’s see the sentences
请看例句
Each sentence has three spaces.
每句话中有三处空格
In each space, you can put ‘to’, ‘for’ or nothing.
每个空格处 你可以选择to/for 或不填
You should put ‘to’ or ‘for’ if possible.
在需要的地方填上to或for
Pause the video and think about your answers now.
现在暂停视频 思考一下答案
We tried to make these sentences as challenging as we could, so take your time!
这组每个句子都具有相当的难度 所以要好好思考
Ready?
好了吗?
Let’s look together.
一起来看看吧
In this lesson, you’ve seen different ways to use ‘to’ and ‘for’.
本节课中 你了解了to和for的多种不同用法
There are other meanings of ‘to’ and ‘for’ which we haven’t covered.
但还有一些其他用法是我们没提到的
Here’s a test: can you remember three different ways to use ‘to’ ,
来测试一下:你能分别说出
and three different ways to use ‘for’?
to和for的三种不同用法吗?
Pause the video for a few seconds and think about it.
视频暂停几秒 思考一下这个问题
Could you do it?
你做到了吗?
If not, don’t worry.
做不到也别担心
You don’t need to memorise every single way to use ‘to’ and ‘for’.
你不需要死记硬背to和for的每种用法
However, you should understand that if you’re asking questions like
但你要明白 如果你这样问别人:
‘how do I use ‘to’ and ‘for’’?
“to和for怎么用呢?”
or ‘what’s the difference between ‘to’ and ‘for’’?
或“to和for有什么区别?”
then you’re not asking one question.
这可不是简单的一个问题
There are many ways to use ‘to’ and ‘for’,
因为to和for的用法五花八门
and many differences between them.
而且二者的区别也非常之多
In level five, you needed to combine different uses of ‘to’ and ‘for’
第五阶段需要你在一个句子中 把to和for的不同用法
in a single sentence.
灵活地加以组合
This is common in real-world English use;
这在实际应用中是很常见的
you may need to use ‘to’ and/or ‘for’ in different ways in the same sentence.
在一个句子中 可能涉及to和/或for的多重合用法
This is where things get complicated.
这正是它的复杂之处
So, what can you do?
那我们怎么办呢?
Here are two tips.
有两个窍门
One: learn about using ‘to’ and ‘for’ to talk about purpose and function,
第一 学会to和for表示目的和用途的用法
which we covered in levels two and three.
也就是我们在二阶和三阶的内容
This causes the most problems for English learners.
很多英语学习者的问题主要集中于此
Two: if you find it difficult to use ‘to’ and ‘for’,
第二 如果你仍觉得to和for不太会用
try to find the reason why.
试着找找原因
Which meaning of ‘to’ or ‘for’ is giving you problems?
到底是to和for的哪个含义你没有理解?
Do you just need to learn more fixed phrases using ‘to’ and ‘for’?
是不是需要多掌握一些to和for的固定短语?
Are you having problems because you’re trying to translate a structure
还是在你试图将母语的语言结构直接套用到英语时
from your language directly into English?
遇到了困难?
Remember that English might use different structures to your native language.
请记住 英语语言结构与你的母语可能不尽相同
Before we finish, a question:
节目最后 问大家一个问题
what difficulties do you have with ‘to’ and ‘for’?
关于“to”和“for”的用法 你还有那些疑问?
Can you think of any other common ways to use ‘to’ and ‘for’
你还想到了哪些to和for的常见用法
that we haven’t mentioned in this video?
是本节课没有提到的?
That’s it.
就到这里啦
Thanks for watching!
感谢观看
See you next time!
我们下期见!

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视频概述

本节课为您系统讲解to和for的常见用法 内容按照由易到难分为五大部分 还不准备好笔记本 马上开课咯!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SDO8mP45hr8

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