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五种高效学习的好方法 – 译学馆
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五种高效学习的好方法

5 BEST Ways to Study Effectively | Scientifically Proven

Stop studying
请停下学习
What you’re doing right now might be a waste of time
你现在在做的可能只是在浪费时间
Read over your notes
仔细阅读你的笔记
Review the class material, highlight things
复习课程资料 划重点
Repetition repetition repetition
重复 重复 再重复
These study tactics have been drilled into you for years
多年以来 这些学习策略早已灌输给你了
But the science is very clear
但科学已明确表明
certain study techniques are more beneficial than others
某些学习技巧会比其他方法更有效
So instead of you spending hours and hours
你不必花费很多时间
trying to search for the right answer
试着去寻找正确答案
I’ve done the work for you
我已为你找到了答案
And in today’s video
在今天的视频里
you’re going to develop a significant advantage
你将会形成自己独特的优势
over the rest of your class your friends and your peers
从而超过其他的同学 朋友和同龄人
You’re going to learn the five best techniques
你将会学到五个最棒的技巧
for studying effectively in less time than anyone else
使你能花更少的时间 更有效地学习
Now if you want this to sink in
现在 如果你想完全理解这些方法
And you want to be a master student is while you watch
如果你想成为一名优秀的学生 那么
you’re going to take action immediately
在观看视频的同时 你将会立刻采取行动
And this video is the first in a free five part video course
这个视频是五个免费视频课程中的第一期
on becoming the most remarkable student that you can be
关于如何成为你可以成为的最卓越的学生
and motivation to study and I
以及我是如何激发学习动力
We want this information to be available to anyone
我们想将这些信息免费提供给所有人
anywhere at no cost
无论在多穷的地方
Because we believe you shouldn’t have to pay for this
因为我们认为你不应该为此买单
It should have been taught to you in your school in your lesson.
这本就应该在学校的课堂上教给你的
And since it wasn’t
既然学校没教
We got you covered. We’re giving these all away for free
那我们给你补上 我们全都免费教给你
So just make sure you subscribe to
所以请确认你订阅了
both of our channels and you ring the bell icon
我们的两个频道并点击了铃形提醒图标
So you know when new lessons are released
这样你才知道新课何时发布
Let’s get into it
那我们就进入课程吧
Did you know there are people out there
你是否知道有这样一群人
so good at remembering things
非常擅长记忆事物
that they compete in tournaments of learning
他们在学习竞赛里竞争
And they are known as memory athletes in an annual contest
他们在一年一度的世界记忆锦标赛中
called the world memory championships
作为记忆型选手被大家熟知
They were given 20 minutes
他们有20分钟的时间
to remember a list of 72 random words
记住72个随机词汇
And on average
一般来说
they scored nearly seventy one of the 72
他们的成绩几乎都是72个对71个
By contrast an untrained control group
相比之下 未经训练的实验对照组
could only manage 26
一般只能记住26个
Another example Akira HaIa Guchi
另一个是阿基拉•哈拉•古奇的例子
a 69 years old much older than most of you listening
一位69岁 比在座的大多数人都要年长的老人
in 2006 recited a hundred and eleven thousand seven hundred digits of pi
在2006年背诵了111700位圆周率
from memory a public event near Tokyo
此事件发生在东京附近的一场公开活动中
for 16 hours
用时16小时
He kept going and going and going
他一直一直不停地背
Imagine the power of having a memory like that
想象一下拥有如此记忆力是有多恐怖
and starting today I want you to imagine yourself as one of them
从今天起 我希望你想象自己是他们的一员
you’re not just a student
你不仅只是个学生
or a teenager or a grad
也不仅只是个青少年或毕业生
But you are a memory athlete
你是一位记忆能手
You’re going to become someone with such power over your mind
你将成为一个记忆力爆表的人
that you can recall pages of notes equations formulas that you need
你能记起你所需的数页笔记 方程以及公式
without the endless hours
却不需要花费太多时间
of beating information into your head
将这些信息灌输给你的大脑
But how?
但是怎样才能做到?
Do you need an innate gift?
你需要有天赋吗?
Can you learn it?
你能学会吗?
Well, actually you already have.
事实上你已具备这样的条件
Picture where the spoons are kept in your kitchen
想一下汤匙放在了厨房哪个位置
the socks in your room, the color of your toothbrush
袜子放在房间哪儿 牙刷是什么颜色
These memory athletes use an ancient Greek technique
这些记忆能手运用了一种古希腊的技巧
called Memory Palaces
它被称为“记忆宫殿”
and once you master this technique
一旦你掌握了这个技巧
you too, are going to dramatically improve your ability
你也能显著地提升你的能力
to study effectively
让学习更高效
and finally open up your dormant reserves of memory
并最终打开你休眠的储存记忆
The idea is simple
这个方法很简单
You walk through an environment like your house
你走过一个地方 比如你的房子
and you place objects in specific places
把一些物品放在特定的地方
And then you match the things you want to learn with those objects
然后把你想学的东西和这些物品匹配起来
So when you’re trying to remember that information
所以当你想要记住那些信息时
Perhaps the notes you took that day in class
或许那些信息就是你当天的课堂笔记
You don’t just think back to your notes
你不要仅仅只回想你的笔记
You think of where those notes are in your house
你要想这些笔记被你放在了房间什么位置
which object did you attach it to?
和哪个物品搭配在一起
What’s the color
是什么颜色
and you reapply this
重复运用这个技巧
until it becomes crystal clear in your mind
直到它在你的脑海里变得非常清晰
This technique maps new information onto something
这个技巧将新信息
that your brain has already evolved to do extremely well
对应到你的大脑能轻松搞定的事情上
recall imagery in specific locations
使你回想起特定地点的图像
The second technique for thousands of years people have known that
第二个技巧人们已经熟知上千年
the best way to understand the concept
理解一个概念最好的方法
Explain it to someone else
就是将它解释给别人听
The second technique I want to introduce you to is
我想介绍给大家的第二个技巧
also known as the protege effect aka
也被称为“门徒效应”
teach someone what you want to learn
又名 把你想学的东西教给别人
A 2007 study looked at this
2007年有一项关于这个的研究
how does teaching someone impact your learning?
当你教他人时 你的学习是如何被影响到的
Students in this study who were also teachers to younger students
在研究中 被测学生也是低年级学生的老师
They scored higher on tests
和只为自身利益学习的同学比
than pupils who were learning only for their own sake
他们往往取得更高的考试成绩
Why?
为什么会这样?
Well the researchers found
研究者发现
when you choose to teach someone else
当你选择教别人时
You have to work harder to understand the material
你必须更加努力的学习以求理解学习资料
to recall it more accurately
更准确地回想起它
and apply it more effectively
更有效地应用起它
something known as depth of processing
这种方法被称为“深度处理”
Physicist Robert Fineman created a mental model called the Fineman technique
物理学家罗伯特•芬曼开创了一种被称为“芬曼技巧”的脑力模型
now some of you may have already seen videos about this on YouTube
目前有些人或早已在YouTube上看过这种视频
This technique has four steps to it
这个技巧分为四步
Number one write the name of a concept
第一 将你想学习的概念的名称
on a top of a blank page that you want to learn
写在一张白纸的顶端
Number two write down an explanation of the concept
第二 写下你对此概念的理解
as if you’re teaching a new student
就如同你正在教导一个新学生一般
Number three identify what’s missing?
第三 检查是否遗漏了什么
go back, relearn
然后返回去 重新学习
And step four review everything
第四 回顾所有内容
make sure you’re avoiding using complicated language
确保避免使用复杂的语言表达
and try to simplify everything on the page as much as possible
尽可能地简化纸上的一切内容
Now this technique
现在这个技巧
it forces you to deconstruct and then reconstruct ideas
迫使你拆分并重组你的思路
To use this method and learn how to study effectively
为了运用这个方法并学会如何高效学习
Identify first what do you want to learn
首先明确自己想要学什么
and then try to imagine you’re explaining it to a five-year-old
然后试想着要将其解释给一个五岁的孩子
Number three master students are committed to effective study strategies
其三 聪明的学生都热衷于有效的学习策略
But shipwrecked students are committed to ineffective study strategies
而学习吃力的学生却深陷在无效的学习方法中
If I asked you right now
如果我现在问你
is reading again and again a good way to learn
一遍又一遍的阅读是好的学习方法吗
is highlighting a good way to learn
划重点是好的学习方法吗
is using keyword mnemonics?
使用关键字记忆法是吗
While all of these
所有的这些方法
they’re scientifically proven to be relatively low
科学研究表明 在长期学习中
in effectiveness for long term learning
它们是相对低效的
At the other end of the scale
从另一角度来看
things like practice tests
像练习测试之类
Spreading out your learning,
当测试内容超出所学时
they are scientifically proven to boost your performance
科学论证这反而可以提高你的表现
Let’s take a look
我们来看个例子
In 2005 a guy called Reagan AR Gurum
2005年 一个叫里根•阿尔•古鲁姆的人
assessed 229 students using 11 different techniques of studying
对229名使用11种不同的学习方法的学生进行了评估
He then matched their techniques with their final exam scores
然后将他们的学习方法和期末成绩相匹配
and many but not all of the techniques they used
发现那些使用了很多但非全部方法的学生
They did achieve better exam scores
他们获得更优的考试成绩
for example the number of hours they put in
比如他们所投入的时间
It did help
这确实有帮助
but things like starting studying early
但类似尽早开始学习
or reading material before and after class
课前预习或课后复习课程资料
That didn’t seem to be effective
这些方法似乎都不太有效
Reagan also found detriments to studying
里根也发现了一些不利于学习的事
and one of them was listening to music
听音乐就是其中之一
So what did he find that does work?
那么他发现了哪些行之有效的方法呢?
Well Reagan actually found the technique
事实上 里根发现了一种方法论
that strongly predicted your exam score
它能很好地预言你的考试成绩
and that was the number of times a student did practice tests
那就是学生做练习测试的次数的多少
This one thing above all others
最重要的是
had a significant impact on how well they did on their final exam
这一点对他们期末考试的成绩有很大影响
He even found that rewriting notes, reviewing highlighted material
他甚至发现 整理笔记或复习重点资料
it didn’t really impact the final exam score that much
对期末成绩都没有如此大的影响
So like I said
如我之前所说
master students are committed to effective study strategies
聪明的学生热衷于有效的学习策略
but shipwrecked students are committed to ineffective study strategies
但学习吃力的学生深陷于无效的学习方式当中
And if you want to know which type of student you are
如果想知道你是哪类学生
click on the link in the description and take the quiz
点击说明里的链接然后进行这个测试
To find out if you’re a master
看你在学习中究竟是一个聪慧的
a dabbler or a shipwrecked castaway when it comes to your study
是一个浅尝辄止的 还是一个被学习抛弃的学生
Not all hustle is created equal
不是所有的努力都是同等有效的
Have you ever heard of number 4 the Zeigarnik effect
你是否听过第四个技巧 蔡加尼克效应
it’s a concept in psychology that argues
这是一个心理学概念
You remember uncompleted or interrupted tasks
说的是与完成的任务相比
better than the ones that you complete
你更容易记住未完成的或被打断的任务
Why?
为什么会这样?
When we start a task and then interrupt it
当我们开始一项任务然后打断它时
It creates a task specific tension
会产生一种对任务的特定紧张感
that can improve your cognitive function
这种紧张感会提升你的认知功能
So step away from your desk as you study
所以当你学习时 请离开你的书桌
That tiny little tension that you feel –
这种微小的紧张感会让你觉得
I still need to finish reviewing that chapter.
我还需复习完那一章
I haven’t done the next paper yet
另外下一章也尚未完成
It keeps the task at the top of your mind
它会让你把任务放在首位
and this keeps your brain focused on it.
也将使你的大脑专注于完成任务
This way you can easily access that information
这样你就能轻易地获取信息
and remember it better.
并很好地记住
So how do you take advantage of this technique?
那么该如何利用这个技巧呢?
You take frequent breaks during your deep work
在深入工作中 你需要频繁的休息
the Zeigarnik effect suggests
蔡加尼克效应表明
that students who take breaks during which
那些中途休息时
they perform totally unrelated activities
做完全不相干活动的学生
studying other subjects, reading a book,
如学习其他科目 读书
going on a three minute walk, playing the piano
散几分钟的步 弹钢琴
They remember material better
与那些进行更长时间学习
than the students who go through longer study sessions
而没有休息的同学相比
without taking a break
他们能更好的记住材料
A popular way that I’m sure most of you have heard of
一种受欢迎且大部分人都听说过的方法是
is the Pomodoro Technique
番茄工作法
Where you work for 25 minutes
每当你工作25分钟
you take a five-minute break
就休息5分钟
you work for 25 minutes
接着又工作25分钟
you take a five-minute break
再休息5分钟
And the final tip of this first lesson in our course
我们课程第一节课的最后一个技巧
Cramming is better than not studying in the short term
短时期内临时抱佛脚总比不学习要好
But is seven hours in one day
但是一天学习7个小时
better than one hour every day for a week?
会比一周内每天学习一个小时效果要好吗
If you are given the same amount of time for study
如果你投入学习的总时长是相同的
Would you be better off spreading it out
你把时间分散开你能学的更好吗
and the answer is a resounding yes
答案是肯定的
Space it out
将时间分散开来学习
This is known as distributed practice
被称作是分散式学习
Distributing learning over time
无论是把学习分散在
either in a single study session or across study sessions
一个学习阶段还是多个学习阶段
It benefits long-term retention
它都更有利于长期记忆
more than massive cramming and learning back-to-back
相比起大量的死记硬背或反复学习来说
space your study out
分散你的学习时间
and how general are the effects, how consistent
进而观察对学习的影响有多普遍 有多一致
Well one group of scientists looked at 254 studies
一支科学家团队进行了254项研究
involving over 14,000 people
涉及14000个参与者
and overall students recalled more after spaced study
比起死记硬背式学习或是集中复习
than after cramming and massed study
分散式学习后 所有的学生回想起更多
So look
如此看来
at the end of the day you have to do what works for you
在一天结束的时候 你必须做对你有用的事
having family and friends around
和家人朋友待在一起
replying to your messages on your smartphone
回复手机短信
missing class, having the TV on
翘课 看电视
That’s not going to help you
这些将不会帮到你
but doing practice tests
但是做练习测试
getting to sleep on time
准时睡觉
eating the proper nutrition, exercising,
摄入适当的营养 锻炼身体
explaining what you’ve learned to others
向别人阐述清楚你的所学知识
Using these techniques
使用这些技巧
They are going to help
它们都将对你有所帮助
So you know what the techniques are
所以你知道了这些方法是什么
You have to prepare effectively,
你也必须进行有效的准备
you have to focus on the right things effectively
高效地专注于正确的事
and most of all
并且最重要的是
You have to take action every single day
你必须每一天都要有所行动
Hope you guys enjoy this video
希望你们能喜欢这个视频
Make sure you subscribe
请确认已订阅这个栏目
and I’ll see you in the next lesson of the series.
我们将在这个系列的下期课程中见
peace [Music]
拜拜[音乐]

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视频概述

介绍五种高效学习方法,打破了我们的认知,并围绕着如何提高效率,提升记忆力展开话题

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Jack

审核员

审核员_SF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N5R-RX4fbbk

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