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提高记忆力的4个方法

4 ways to hack your memory | Lisa Genova | Big Think

好问题 尽在《大想法》频道
怎样像一个记忆大师一样学习?
Okay, let’s give some tips on studying,
好的 我们来给出一些关于如何学习
remembering what you need to know for a test or a presentation.
如何记住考试或者演讲所需内容的小技巧
One way to better remember this information has to do with self-testing.
其中一种可以更好地记住这些内容的方法 与自测有关
I can hammer and hammer the information into my brain,
我可以把信息反复灌输到脑海里
and I might remember it.
这样也许能够记住
Or I can flip it
或者 我可以把书扣过来
and also try to retrieve the information as I’m learning it.
一边学习 一边试着在大脑中检索这些信息
Because here’s what happens:
因为记忆过程是这样的:
if I’m trying to consolidate something into memory,
如果我想巩固某些事的记忆
and I’m only putting the information in,
但只是把信息塞进大脑的话
I’m traveling one way on the neurons.
那么我就是在神经元上单程旅行
If I then try to recall the information,
如果我以后试着去回忆这些信息
I’m pulling the information out,
就是要把它们提取出来
now I’m going the other way.
这时候走的是另一条路
This bi-directional highway of information in the memory
记忆中的这条双向信息通道
really helps strengthen that circuit far more
远比被动地读取信息
than just passively reading the information.
更有助于强化神经回路
So this is like flashcards.
就好比抽认卡
Instead of just reading the list of vocabulary words over and over again,
与其一遍又一遍阅读单词表
read the word and see if you can come up with the answer, flip it over.
不如把答案盖住 看看这个单词 试试能否想出答案
You’ll learn faster and better that way.
这样你能学得更快更好
When you’re studying,
你在学习时
you want to space out the studying
应该把学习的时间间隔开
rather than cramming it all together.
而不是挤在一起
So if you have seven hours to study for the exam that’s in one week,
就是说 假如你有七小时去准备一周之后的考试
do one hour a day rather than all seven hours the night before.
应该一天学一小时 而不是考前通宵学七小时
Context also matters.
环境也很重要
It turns out that memories are most robustly and confidently retrieved
事实证明 如果我们检索记忆时的环境
if the context of retrieval matches the context
与初次形成记忆时的环境相仿
when we formed the memory in the first place.
最有利于我们坚定和自信地进行记忆检索
So what does that mean?
这是什么意思呢?
If I’m studying for a test and I’m listening to Mozart
如果我准备考试时 听着莫扎特的音乐
while eating Sour Patch gummy bears,
吃着酸味小熊软糖
I’ve got a lavender scented candle,
点着一支薰衣草香味的蜡烛
and I’m drinking mocha frappuccinos.
喝着摩卡星冰乐
I am best served to recall that information on test day
那么在考试当天做同样的事情
if I’m doing those same things.
最有助于我回忆起那些知识
The context will match what was available when I was learning it,
此时的环境与我学习时的环境相似
and can serve as one of the cues to trigger the neural circuit.
可以作为触发神经回路的条件之一
So am I caffeinated while I learn something?
比如 我学习的时候 有没有摄入咖啡因?
Am I depressed while I’m learning something?
是不是很沮丧?
Am I tired while I’m learning something?
那时候累不累?
You want to match the conditions that were available
当你想要检索某个内容时
while you were learning something, when you want to retrieve it.
你应该重现你学习该内容时 相应的场景
That will give you the best opportunity to recall it.
这最有可能令你回忆起该内容
So when you’re studying for a test or for a presentation that you have to give,
当你为考试 或必须要做的报告做准备时
the kind of memory that you’re trying to create and then retrieve is semantic memory.
你努力去创建然后检索的那种记忆 是语义记忆
This is the memory for facts and information, the stuff you know.
这是对事实和信息 这些你知道的东西的记忆
And stress will have an impact on your ability
压力会影响你形成记忆
to both form those memories and retrieve them.
和检索记忆的能力
So a certain amount of stress is good for both situations,
一定程度的压力对于大脑形成记忆
for getting the memory into your brain and retrieving it out.
和检索记忆都有好处
But too much will put you in a state of overwhelm.
但是压力太大会让你处于无法承受的状态
So have you ever studied for an exam
你有没有这样的经历
and you know the information cold and you’ve got it,
你为考试做好了准备 熟练掌握了知识
and then you go in for the test, but you’re really stressed
然后去参加考试 但你特别紧张
because you really want to get an A
因为你真的很想得A
and you’re super nervous, and you choke;
结果你超级紧张 脑袋卡壳
you can’t remember what you know,
记不起自己学会的东西
you can’t retrieve the information.
无法检索那些内容了
So a certain amount is great, and optimal for remembering,
所以说一定程度的压力是很好的 是最有利于记忆的
but too much is gonna put you in overwhelm,
但是压力太大会让你不知所措
and cause you to draw a blank.
大脑一片空白
We can also take what we know about
我们还可以利用自己知道的
what our brain is really good at with respect to memory and help it.
大脑擅长的记忆方式 来帮助它强化记忆
So we can add associations that are meaningful, emotional, surprising, new.
我们可以增添有意义的 感性的 奇妙的 新鲜的联想
We can repeat things, we can rehearse what we want to know.
可以不断重复和练习需要记住的内容
We can write things down and we will better remember
可以把事情写下来 以便我们更好地牢记那些
what we might’ve forgotten if we hadn’t helped it.
若未经强化 便很有可能已经忘记的东西
So if you’re trying to memorize information
如果你正为了考试 报告 或演讲
for a test, or a presentation, or a speech,
努力想记住一些内容
there are lots of ways to optimize getting that information into your brain
有很多方法能优化我们将信息输入大脑
and then being able to retrieve it on demand.
然后得以按需检索的过程
Get smarter, faster, with videos from the world’s biggest thinkers.
来看世界上最伟大思想家的视频 变得更聪明 更高效
And to learn even more from the world’s biggest thinkers,
想从伟大思想家的故事中学到更多
get BIG THINK+ for your business.
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视频概述

为什么总是记不住东西?本视频破解记忆背后的秘密,帮助大家提高学习能力。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SCsztDMGP7o

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