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在机器时代,创造人性化公司的4个方法 – 译学馆
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在机器时代,创造人性化公司的4个方法

4 ways to build a human company in the age of machines | Tim Leberecht

未来二十年内 一半的人类劳动力
Half of the human workforce is expected to be replaced
将会被软件和机器人取代
by software and robots in the next 20 years.
许多企业领导把它视为 增加利润的好机会
And many corporate leaders welcome that as a chance to increase profits.
因为机器更高效
Machines are more efficient;
而人类更复杂且难于管理
humans are complicated and difficult to manage.
而我希望我们的组织保留人类
Well, I want our organizations to remain human.
事实上 我希望它们变得更美
In fact, I want them to become beautiful.
由于机器可以取代我们并且更高效地工作
Because as machines take our jobs and do them more efficiently,
很快 留给人类的仅剩的工作将是
soon the only work left for us humans will be the kind of work
需要美感而非效率的工作
that must be done beautifully rather than efficiently.
要在第二次机器时代维持人性
To maintain our humanity in the this second Machine Age,
我们别无选择 只能创造美
we may have no other choice than to create beauty.
美是一个难以捉摸的概念
Beauty is an elusive concept.
作家司汤达说美是一种幸福的承诺
For the writer Stendhal it was the promise of happiness.
而对我来说 美是梅西的一记进球
For me it’s a goal by Lionel Messi.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
所以 请容许我
So bear with me
提出四个相当主观的原则
as I am proposing four admittedly very subjective principles
它们可以被用来建立一个美丽的机构
that you can use to build a beautiful organization.
第一 做不必要的事
First: do the unnecessary.
[做不必要的事]
[Do the Unnecessary]
几个月前 哈姆迪·乌鲁卡亚
A few months ago, Hamdi Ulukaya,
Chobani 酸奶工厂的 创始人和 CEO
the CEO and founder of the yogurt company Chobani,
为他2000名全体员工授予了股份并因此上了头条
made headlines when he decided to grant stock to all of his 2,000 employees.
有人说这是公关噱头
Some called it a PR stunt,
有人认为这是一种慷慨的回馈
others — a genuine act of giving back.
但这里有一些值得注意之处
But there is something else that was remarkable about it.
这个消息突如其来
It came completely out of the blue.
没有市场或股东的压力
There had been no market or stakeholder pressure,
员工们也非常意外
and employees were so surprised
他们听到这个消息时激动地流下眼泪
that they burst into tears when they heard the news.
像乌鲁卡亚这样的行为就是美的,它瞬间击中人心
Actions like Ulukaya’s are beautiful because they catch us off guard.
他们创造出无价值的东西
They create something out of nothing
因为它们完全没有必要
because they’re completely unnecessary.
我曾在一家
I once worked at a company
由一家大型IT外包公司
that was the result of a merger
和一家小设计公司 合并而成的公司工作过
of a large IT outsourcing firm and a small design firm.
我们合并了9000名软件工程师
We were merging 9,000 software engineers
拥有1,000种创意类型
with 1,000 creative types.
为了融合这两种截然不同的文化
And to unify these immensely different cultures,
我们要建立一个全新的品牌
we were going to launch a third, new brand.
新的品牌商标是橙色的
And the new brand color was going to be orange.
我们在讨论品牌推广预算时
And as we were going through the budget for the rollouts,
在最后一分钟
we decided last minute
我们决定砍掉购买 一万只橙色气球的计划
to cut the purchase of 10,000 orange balloons,
我们本想把这些气球发给全球员工
which we had meant to distribute to all staff worldwide.
这件事看起来没有必要只是为了好玩
They just seemed unnecessary and cute in the end.
当时我并不知道
I didn’t know back then
我们的决定预示了结局——
that our decision marked the beginning of the end —
这两个机构永远不可能成为一个
that these two organizations would never become one.
果然 合并以失败告终
And sure enough, the merger eventually failed.
就因为当时没买气球吗
Now, was it because there weren’t any orange balloons?
不 当然不是
No, of course not.
但是这种砍掉气球的心态 弥漫到了其他所有事情上
But the kill-the-orange-balloons mentality permeated everything else.
你可能不会意识到 但在你砍掉“不必要”的时候
You might not always realize it, but when you cut the unnecessary,
你也砍掉了所有的东西
you cut everything.
用美领导 意味着超越单纯的必需
Leading with beauty means rising above what is merely necessary.
所以 不要砍掉你的橙色气球
So do not kill your orange balloons.
第二个原则:
The second principle:
创造亲密感
create intimacy.
[创造亲密感]
[Create Intimacy]
研究表明 我们对工作的感受
Studies show that how we feel about our workplace
很大程度上取决于 我们和同事的人际关系
very much depends on the relationships with our coworkers.
除了每天简单的交流人际关系还包括什么呢
And what are relationships other than a string of microinteractions?
我们每天在公司 有几百次这样的机会
There are hundreds of these every day in our organizations
可以让普通的一天变成美丽的一天
that have the potential to distinguish a good life from a beautiful one.
婚姻研究者约翰·戈特曼说
The marriage researcher John Gottman says
拥有良好的人际关系的秘密
that the secret of a healthy relationship
不在于伟大的姿态或崇高的承诺
is not the great gesture or the lofty promise,
而在于细小的展现人与人关系的瞬间
it’s small moments of attachment.
换句话说 亲密感
In other words, intimacy.
在我们网络化的组织中
In our networked organizations,
我们更加青睐弱连接的关系
we tout the strength of weak ties
但我们同时低估了强连接的力量
but we underestimate the strength of strong ones.
我们忘记了作家 Richard Bach 说过的话
We forget the words of the writer Richard Bach who once said,
“亲密感——
“Intimacy —
不是连通——
not connectedness —
亲密感是孤独的反义词”
intimacy is the opposite of loneliness.”
所以我们该如何设计 才能增进组织的亲密性呢?
So how do we design for organizational intimacy?
一个叫 CARE 的人道主义组织
The humanitarian organization CARE
想要在印度北部的村庄
wanted to launch a campaign on gender equality
发起一个男女平等的运动
in villages in northern India.
但他们很快意识到
But it realized quickly
他们首先需要同员工展开交流
that it had to have this conversation first with its own staff.
所以他们邀请了 36位团队成员和他们的搭档
So it invited all 36 team members and their partners
去了克久拉霍的一个庙宇
to one of the Khajuraho Temples,
这个庙宇因色情佛像而闻名
known for their famous erotic sculptures.
在那里 他们与同事和搭档一起
And there they openly discussed their personal relationships —
坦诚地讨论他们的私人关系——
their own experiences of gender equality
他们自己对性别平等的体会
with the coworkers and the partners.
这令参与者们深受启发
It was eye-opening for the participants.
这不仅帮他们在自己 与服务的社区之间建立了联系
Not only did it allow them to relate to the communities they serve,
更打破了无形的障碍
it also broke down invisible barriers
并在他们之间建立了持久的团结
and created a lasting bond amongst themselves.
结果 在接下来的四年中没有一个成员退出
Not a single team member quit in the next four years.
所以 这就是建立亲密感的方法
So this is how you create intimacy.
没有面具
No masks …
或者 有很多面具——
or lots of masks.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
当达能食品公司想要
When Danone, the food company,
把新的公司宣言转化为产品倡议时
wanted to translate its new company manifesto into product initiatives,
他们召集了管理团队
it gathered the management team
和来自不同部门 不同层级和地区的
and 100 employees from across different departments,
100名员工
seniority levels and regions
举办了为期三天的战略会议
for a three-day strategy retreat.
他们要求每个人都这么打扮:
And it asked everybody to wear costumes for the entire meeting:
假发 夸张的帽子 羽毛围巾
wigs, crazy hats, feather boas,
大眼镜 等等
huge glasses and so on.
他们都热情高涨
And they left with concrete outcomes
并且实现了了很实质性的成果
and full of enthusiasm.
我问了设计这种活动的女性
And when I asked the woman who had designed this experience
这为什么会奏效
why it worked,
她简单地回答说 千万别小看这些荒唐的假发的力量
she simply said, “Never underestimate the power of a ridiculous wig.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(掌声)
(Applause)
因为假发消除了层级
Because wigs erase hierarchy,
而层级会扼杀亲密感——
and hierarchy kills intimacy —
对CEO和实习生
both ways,
双方都是这样
for the CEO and the intern.
假发让我们能依托一种伪装
Wigs allow us to use the disguise of the false
来展示真实的自己
to show something true about ourselves.
在我们日常的工作中 是不容易做到的
And that’s not easy in our everyday work lives,
因为我们的组织中的人际关系
because the relationship with our organizations
就像已经分开的已婚的夫妻
is often like that of a married couple that has grown apart,
经历了背叛和失望
suffered betrayals and disappointments,
现在不顾一切地想要重修旧好
and is now desperate to be beautiful for one another once again.
对我们中的任何一个来说 走向美的第一步都是一个巨大的风险
And for either of us the first step towards beauty involves a huge risk.
变丑的风险
The risk to be ugly.
[变丑]
[Be Ugly]
现在很多组织热衷于设计美丽的 看上去
So many organizations these days are keen on designing beautiful workplaces
一点儿也不像工作区的工作区
that look like anything but work:
度假胜地 咖啡店 游乐场或大学校园
vacation resorts, coffee shops, playgrounds or college campuses —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
基于积极心理学的考虑
Based on the promises of positive psychology,
我们把工作变成玩耍 游戏
we speak of play and gamification,
甚至有创业公司在解雇员工的时候
and one start-up even says that when someone gets fired,
说那是他们毕业了
they have graduated.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这些美丽的语言是肤浅的
That kind of beautiful language only goes skin deep,
但丑陋却可以深入骨髓
but ugly cuts clean to the bone
这是作家多萝西·帕克的原话
as the writer Dorothy Parker once put it.
“诚实是丑陋的”
“To be authentic is to be ugly.”
这不是说你不能开心或者必须向庸俗和自私妥协
It doesn’t mean that you can’t have fun or must give in to the vulgar or cynical,
而是你应该说出丑陋的事实
but it does mean that you speak the actual ugly truth.
就像这位想要改善
Like this manufacturer
他经营不佳的业务的制造商
that wanted to transform one of its struggling business units.
他们把所有的阻碍业绩的 问题归类 命名
It identified, named and pinned on large boards all the issues —
并钉在大白板上
and there were hundreds of them —
结果有数百个
that had become obstacles to better performance.
他们把这些白板搬到一个房间
They put them on boards, moved them all into one room,
并称这间房屋为“丑陋屋”
which they called “the ugly room.”
每个人都能看见这些丑陋——
The ugly became visible for everyone to see —
他们甚至庆祝它
it was celebrated.
这个房间变成了 镜子展厅和手术室的结合——
And the ugly room served as a mix of mirror exhibition and operating room —
大家以此为鉴 切除一切官僚主义
a biopsy on the living flesh to cut out all the bureaucracy.
我们身体中最丑陋的部分是大脑
The ugliest part of our body is our brain.
不管是字面上还是神经学意义上
Literally and neurologically.
我们的大脑还会创造人们不熟悉的丑陋的东西
Our brain renders ugly what is unfamiliar …
现代艺术 无调音乐
modern art, atonal music,
爵士乐 也可能——
jazz, maybe —
在某种程度上VR眼镜也是 —
VR goggles for that matter —
奇怪的东西 声音和人
strange objects, sounds and people.
但我们每个人都曾丑陋过
But we’ve all been ugly once.
我们是个长相怪异的婴儿
We were a weird-looking baby,
是街区新生儿 是外国人
a new kid on the block, a foreigner.
我们离去时也会再次变得丑陋
And we will be ugly again when we don’t belong.
柏林一个叫“政治美学中心”的
The Center for Political Beauty,
社会活动团体
an activist collective in Berlin,
近期上演了一个极端艺术事件
recently staged an extreme artistic intervention.
经过家属同意
With the permission of relatives,
他们掘出在欧洲边境 溺水身亡的难民遗体
it exhumed the corpses of refugees who had drowned at Europe’s borders,
运送到柏林
transported them all the way to Berlin,
把他们重新埋葬在德国首都的中心
and then reburied them at the heart of the German capital.
这个计划想让他们 抵达曾经渴望的目的地
The idea was to allow them to reach their desired destination,
即便是在他们死去之后
if only after their death.
这种美化行为可能不太优雅
Such acts of beautification may not be pretty,
但它们很有必要
but they are much needed.
因为如果只有一种意义 一个真相只有答案 没有问题的话
Because things tend to get ugly when there’s only one meaning, one truth,
事物就会变得丑陋
only answers and no questions.
美的组织会持续提出问题
Beautiful organizations keep asking questions.
它们保持不完整的状态
They remain incomplete,
这是第四个 也是最后一个原则
which is the fourth and the last of the principles.
[保持不完整]
[Remain Incomplete]
最近我去了趟巴黎
Recently I was in Paris,
我的一个朋友带我去了 Nuit Debout
and a friend of mine took me to Nuit Debout,
意思是“不眠之夜”
which stands for “up all night,”
为了反对法国提出的劳动法而形成的
the self-organized protest movement
自发抗议运动
that had formed in response to the proposed labor laws in France.
每天晚上,几百人聚集在共和国广场
Every night, hundreds gathered at the Place de la République.
每天晚上 他们都会搭建起一个临时村庄
Every night they set up a small, temporary village
讨论他们自己理想中的 法兰西共和国
to deliberate their own vision of the French Republic.
这个组织的核心是一个全体大会
And at the core of this adhocracy
在会上 每个人都可以用
was a general assembly where anybody could speak
一个特别设计的符号语言
using a specially designed sign language.
就像占领华尔街 及其他抗议运动一样
Like Occupy Wall Street and other protest movements,
“不眠之夜”也是在面对危机时诞生
Nuit Debout was born in the face of crisis.
它很混乱——
It was messy —
充满争论和矛盾
full of controversies and contradictions.
不管你是否认同他们的抗议诉求
But whether you agreed with the movement’s goals or not,
每次集会都是一次 原始人性的大课堂
every gathering was a beautiful lesson in raw humanity.
对巴黎这再合适不过了
And how fitting that Paris —
这个理想之城 美丽之城–
the city of ideals, the city of beauty —
正是最合适他们的舞台
was it’s stage.
它提醒我们 就像伟大的城市一样
It reminds us that like great cities,
最美丽的组织是值得为之奋斗的理念 —
the most beautiful organizations are ideas worth fighting for —
即使 尤其是 当它们的结果不确定的时候
even and especially when their outcome is uncertain.
它们是运动
They are movements;
它们永远不完美永远不会组织完整
they are always imperfect, never fully organized,
所以它们可以避免变得平庸
so they avoid ever becoming banal.
它们有一些无以言状的东西
They have something but we don’t know what it is.
它们保持着神秘感 我们也没办法把眼睛从他们身上移开
They remain mysterious; we can’t take our eyes off them.
我们发现它们很美
We find them beautiful.
所以 做不必要的事
So to do the unnecessary,
创造亲密感
to create intimacy,
变得丑陋
to be ugly,
保持不完整——
to remain incomplete —
它们不只是美的组织的特征
these are not only the qualities of beautiful organizations,
它们也是人类固有的特征
these are inherently human characteristics.
更是我们称之为“家”的特征
And these are also the qualities of what we call home.
我们在干扰或被干扰时
And as we disrupt, and are disrupted,
我们至少可以确保
the least we can do is to ensure
自己在组织中就像在家一样
that we still feel at home in our organizations,
确保我们在组织中 为他人营造同样的感受
and that we use our organizations to create that feeling for others.
当我们拥抱并设计这些原则时
Beauty can save the world when we embrace these principles
美会拯救这个世界
and design for them.
在人工智能和机器学习面前
In the face of artificial intelligence and machine learning,
我们需要一种全新的彻底的人文主义
we need a new radical humanism.
我们必须掌握并发展 新的审美和感性教育
We must acquire and promote a new aesthetic and sentimental education.
因为如果我们不这么做
Because if we don’t,
最终我们可能在遍布智能机器的
we might end up feeling like aliens
不懂得欣赏美的组织和社会中
in organizations and societies that are full of smart machines
像外星人一样疏离地活着——
that have no appreciation whatsoever
对不必要的事
for the unnecessary,
对亲密感
the intimate,
对不完整
the incomplete
当然也对丑陋 无动于衷
and definitely not for the ugly.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

未来,很多人类的工作将会被机器取代,那么人类该干些什么?未来的公司又会变成什么样?本视频给你一些建议,快看看吧

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FPhZGD-6kVQ

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