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古时候也有空调冰箱?4种奇妙的古代工程

4 Ways Ancient Infrastructure Can Prepare Us for the Future

[♪ INTRO]
[片头曲]
科学秀
When you think of ancient engineering, you might think of Roman roads,
提起古代工程 你也许会想到罗马大道
or Roman aqueducts, or the Roman Colosseum…
或罗马水渠 亦或是罗马斗兽场
Rome gets a lot of credit.
罗马有很多杰作
And, yes, the bath houses are cool, but Romans were far from the only people
罗马的澡堂也很酷 但在同一时期
building incredible infrastructure during their time.
并不是只有罗马人能建造出伟大的工程
Civilizations around the world developed clever solutions
全球范围内 各个文明所在的环境不同
to their unique challenges and environments.
面临的挑战也不同 它们各有妙计
So here are four ways we can learn from ancient infrastructure.
下面是我们能向古代工程学到的四个方面
In difficult terrain, like the dramatic cliffs of the central Andes mountains in Peru,
面对险峻地形 比如秘鲁安第斯山脉的悬崖峭壁
you need more than just roads to get from here to there.
如果你想穿行山间 光靠修路可不够
That’s exactly where the Inca empire thrived
印加王国就在这片区域兴盛发展
until Spanish colonizers arrived in the 16th century.
直到16世纪西班牙殖民者来到这里
The Inca empire had a massive network of roads,
印加王国建造了庞大的道路网络
and where those roads encountered cliffs,
在道路被悬崖阻挡的地方
the Inca built suspension bridges.
印加人会建造吊桥来通行
The ends of the bridge are secured to the abutments,
桥的两端绑在墩石上
and tension in the ropes holds you up while you cross.
当你通过时 绳索的拉力能支撑住你
That means that as a person crosses the bridge,
也就是说 当一个人过桥时
the bridge dips and the rope gets pulled taut,
桥会略微下沉 然后绳索被拉紧
creating an upward force to support the weight of the person crossing.
就有一个向上的力来支撑过桥者的重量
Now, that is the opposite of arch-based Roman bridges,
而这是反向弯曲的罗马拱桥
the most common bridges that the Europeans
在16世纪的欧洲
would have known about in the 16th century.
这种桥是最常见的类型
Roman arch bridges use compression for stability.
罗马拱桥利用压缩来保持稳定
The weight of the stones in the arch and the people crossing over the top
拱桥石块的自重和过桥者的重量
pushes all of the force outward and toward the bridge’s foundations,
把压力向外侧传导到桥的地基上
creating a self-stabilizing, tension-free system.
形成一个无拉力的自稳结构
A few communities in Peru still maintain Inca-style bridges today,
一些秘鲁族群至今还保留着印加吊桥
which means engineers have been able to study
这意味着工程师们可以研究一下
how the bridges are built and why they work.
印加吊桥的建造方法和原理
Every year, the Q’eswachaka bridge in Huinchiri, Peru,
每年 秘鲁Huinchiri村的克斯瓦恰卡桥都会在
is rebuilt in a 3-day festival.
为期三天的节日里重建一次
People twist grasses into ropes, and those into strong braided cables,
人们编草为绳 再把草绳编成更结实的缆绳
to replace the previous year’s bridge.
建一座新吊桥替换去年的桥
But this bridge is a relatively small, local affair.
但这座桥相对较小 是当地人自己建的
During the time of the Inca empire,
而在印加王国时期
larger bridges with cables as thick as a person’s torso
有更大的吊桥 用的缆绳和人的躯干一样粗
were made of vines, branches and leather,
印加人用藤蔓 树枝和皮革来建吊桥
and could support up to 22,600 kilograms.
桥体承重可达22.6吨
The largest Inca suspension bridges could freely span over 50 meters,
最大的印加吊桥跨度超过50m
held up only by the tension in the rope and the heavy abutments on either side.
靠的仅仅是缆绳的拉力和两端厚重的墩石
A Spanish army once tried to replace a major Inca bridge with a Roman-style one.
西班牙军队曾尝试用罗马拱桥替换印加吊桥
Between 1588 and 1595, they attempted to build an arch bridge
1588年至1595年间 他们想在阿普里马克河上
over the Apurímac River to replace a suspension bridge.
建一座拱桥替换原来的吊桥
The problem is that to build an arch bridge, you need a temporary,
问题在于建造拱桥需要先放置“拱心木”
semicircular wooden structure called a centering in order to shape the arch.
也就是一个塑造拱面的半圆形临时结构
And that is tough to maintain in an Andean gorge.
但在安第斯峡谷里 安放拱心木太难了
So the Spanish attempt was abandoned.
最终西班牙人放弃了这个想法
Suspension bridges were the tools for the job.
吊桥是联结交通的工具
And at least two hundred Inca suspension bridges spanned canyons by the 1500s,
16世纪前 印加人建了至少200座横跨峡谷的吊桥
supporting the empire’s vast road and messenger network.
为王国庞大的道路和讯息网络提供支持
Suspension bridges like the Inca bridges were the best way to cross deep gorges
“印加式”吊桥一直是联通峡谷的最佳方法
until the 19th century brought steel to bridge-building.
直到19世纪钢材被用到桥梁建造上
And these still have unique benefits.
但印加吊桥依然有独特的优势
For one thing, Inca suspension bridges are totally biodegradable and sustainable to produce.
比如印加吊桥用的材料都是可降解和再生的
And today, bridges called stressed ribbon bridges use cables in the deck
现在有一种“悬板桥” 面板用钢索支承
of the bridge strung between two points to cross long distances,
钢索固定在两端 可以跨越很长的距离
holding pedestrians up with tension much like Inca suspension bridges.
用钢索的拉力撑住过桥的人 很像印加吊桥
The city of Petra is best known for the architectural marvels carved into its cliffs.
佩特拉古城因其嵌入崖壁的神奇建筑而闻名
It was the capital of the Nabataean kingdom, going back to before 312 BCE.
公元前312年之前 它是纳巴泰王国的首都
As a stopping point along trade routes between Asia and Rome,
作为罗马和亚洲商路的必经之地
the city was economically prosperous,
佩特拉城一度非常繁荣富裕
and it flaunted that wealth by building large fountains and decorative pools.
为夸耀财富 城内建了许多大型喷泉和华丽的水池
These were extra impressive because
这一点特别值得注意
Petra is five miles from the nearest major water source,
因为佩特拉城离最近的大型水源有5英里
a spring called Ain Mousa.
水源名为“爱音穆萨泉”
So how do you move water five miles across the desert?
那如何越过5英里的沙漠把水运过来呢?
With five miles of pipes!
答案是用5英里长的管道
The Nabataeans crafted thousands of terracotta pipes
纳巴泰人用陶土做了数千根泥管
that were each about 35 centimeters long and about 15 centimeters wide
每根泥管大约35厘米长 15厘米宽
and strung them together from the spring to the city.
他们把这些管子接起来 连通了水泉和城市
This required an incredible balancing act of fluid dynamics.
这需要对水流量进行极其精准的控制
See, if the incline of the pipes was too steep,
如果管道倾斜角度太大
then the water would fill them completely,
水就会完全填满管道
increasing the pressure and eventually causing a leak.
然后压力增大 最终导致泄露
But at just the right angle, water can flow smoothly without filling the pipes.
如果角度刚好 水就能顺畅流动而不填满管道
And that angle is four degrees.
而这个倾斜角度就是4度
Archaeologists have found imprints from Petra’s ancient pipelines in the nearby cliffs,
考古学家在附近的山崖找到了管道的遗迹
and they are at that ideal four degree incline.
倾斜角度就是最完美的4度
Some water from the pipelines was also directed into reservoirs
管道运送的水有一部分会流进蓄水池
to store extra water close at hand.
水储存在这里 方便随时使用
The reservoirs were covered to reduce evaporation,
蓄水池有盖 能减少水的蒸发
and had a settling area for sediment,
还有专门的沉淀区
to store the water as long and as cleanly as possible.
这些使水能长期贮存 且相对干净
Petra also got about fifteen centimeters of rain per year, mostly in winter.
佩特拉每年约有15厘米的降水量 大多在冬季
That’s a little more than notoriously dry Las Vegas.
这个降水量略高于常年干旱的拉斯维加斯
Now, climate change is causing historic droughts in regions
目前 气候变迁使很多地区出现历史性干旱
that aren’t built with this kind of water-saving infrastructure.
这些地区没有这种类型的储水设施
Take, for example, the Canadian prairies.
举个例子 比如加拿大草原
Farms in this western region of Canada rely on snowmelt for water
它在加拿大西部 农业用水主要源于融雪
to fill reservoirs called dugouts.
雪水流入名为“坑池”的蓄水池
And snowpacks are becoming increasingly unpredictable.
但现在积雪何时融化越来越难预测
But researchers have actually proposed that something like the Nabataeans’ covered reservoirs,
有专家提议用“纳巴泰式”的带盖蓄水池
which dramatically reduced evaporation,
这种蓄水池能减少水份蒸发
could help preserve water in the dugouts.
有助于在“坑池”中储水
The Gunditjmara people in southeastern Australia also have
澳大利亚东南部的贡第杰马若人
hydraulic engineering structures that are thousands of years old.
也有一些留存了数千年的水利工程
The difference is, they weren’t really out to manage the water,
区别在于 他们并不是为了获得水
but something in it: Eels.
而是为了水里的东西:鳗鱼
Using local volcanic rock, the Gunditjmara people built a vast aquaculture system
在布吉必姆文化景区 贡第杰马若人用当地的火山岩
at a site known as the Budj Bim Cultural Landscape to manage short-finned eels,
建立了一个大型的短鳍鳗鱼水产系统
which they caught in woven grass baskets,
他们用草编成篮子来抓鳗鱼
cured, and traded with neighbors.
然后把鱼腌熟 卖给周围邻居
One eel trap on Lake Condah was carbon dated
有人对康达湖的一个捕鳗装置
to about 6,600 years old,
进行碳元素分析 发现是6600年前的
with modifications added as recently as 500 years ago,
上面还有500年前添加的一些改装
which suggests that the trap was used continuously that whole time.
这意味着人们一直都在使用这个装置
The Budj Bim aquaculture system is made of hundreds of yards of channels
布吉必姆的水产系统包括数百码的沟渠
dug into the ground and dams built out of basalt blocks.
和用玄武岩块搭建的堤坝
These direct the flow of water to catch eels
当鳗鱼顺流而下时 这些设施能
in baskets and ponds as they swim downstream.
改变水流方向 引导鳗鱼到鱼篮和池塘里
Computer models of the channels and ponds showed that the Budj Bim
科学家用计算机模拟了沟渠和池塘
aquaculture system could hold eels at different stages of growth,
发现布吉必姆的水产系统能拦截各种年龄的鳗鱼
and gave the eels a protected area in which to grow.
而且有专门的保护区供鳗鱼繁殖生长
Today, Budj Bim is still managed by the Gunditjmara Aboriginal Cooperative.
如今 布吉必姆景区依然由贡第杰马若土著联盟管理
Sections of it are still being uncovered,
其中部分区域仍未被开发
like a 25-meter-long channel revealed by bush fires in 2020.
比如在2020年因灌木着火而发现的25米沟渠
And Budj Bim has a lot to offer to scientists
布吉必姆景区能提供很多信息
studying Australia’s eels and wetland ecology.
帮助科学家研究澳大利亚的鳗鱼和湿地生态
An eel can live up to 50 years old,
鳗鱼最多能活50年
and will spend most of its life in freshwater
大部分时间都生活在淡水里
until one day, it migrates out into the ocean to reproduce.
但在繁殖季 它们会迁徙到海里进行繁衍
These trips can be incredibly long, and they can even have overland segments.
去往大海的旅途极其漫长 甚至可能要经过陆地
But what sparks that migration, and how the eels traverse the rivers to the ocean,
但什么引发了迁徙 以及鳗鱼如何迁徙到海里
remains a topic of ongoing research.
依然有待研究
Scientists are working with the Gunditjmara to track eels’ paths
科学家正在与贡第杰马若人合作
through Budj Bim and out to sea.
追踪鳗鱼从布吉必姆到大海的路径
Because the aquaculture system was built with an understanding of eel migration
由于鳗鱼水产系统是根据鳗鱼的迁徙情况
and the changing water levels throughout the year,
以及全年水位变化情况而建造的
researchers can observe it for clues about eel biology.
研究者能通过观察 了解鳗鱼生物学
The more scientists understand about eels, the better we can protect them
鳗鱼面临气候变暖 商业捕捞和湿地破坏等诸多威胁
in the face of climate change, commercial fishing,
科学家对它们研究和了解的越多
and other threats to their wetland habitats.
就越能保护它们免受侵害
Persian cities in 400 BCE took hydro-engineering to another level:
公元前400年 波斯人推动水利工程到新高度
they irrigated fresh water into their cities,
他们将淡水导入城市
and used architecture and wind to cool their homes
他们利用房屋结构和风使家保持凉爽
and even make and store ice.
他们甚至还制作和存储冰块
Water in this arid environment came from alluvial aquifers,
在这个干旱的环境中 水来源于冲击含水层
which are shallow sources of groundwater at the heads of valleys.
也就是山谷里的浅地表水
And using an underground aqueduct called a qanat,
他们用了一种叫“坎儿井”的地下沟渠
which was invented about 3,000 years ago,
“坎儿井”是大约三千年前发明的
engineers could direct that water to their cities.
古代工程师能把井里的水导到城市中
Instead of using pipes, they dug tunnels large enough for a person to walk through,
他们没用管道 而是挖了可以过人的隧道
with several vertical shafts to let in fresh air.
还挖了一些竖井 让新鲜空气能进来
Rather like the Nabataeans,
和纳巴泰人一样
they had to find the right angle to keep the water flowing,
他们必须找到合适的角度让水保持流动
and they also had to avoid these underground tunnels eroding away.
还要避免这些地下隧道被侵蚀
Many qanats in Iran are still in use today for tasks like irrigating crops.
伊朗的许多坎儿井至今仍用于灌溉庄稼
But the water also had a couple of other unexpected uses:
但水还有一些其它意想不到的用途
air conditioning and ice-making.
那就是当“空调”和制冰
Both very valuable in a desert,
两者在沙漠里都很珍贵
and ancient Persia engineered solutions without refrigerants or electricity.
没用制冷剂和电 古波斯人找到了别的方法
Many buildings had tall, chimney-like structures
许多建筑有高耸如烟囱一样的结构
called bâdgir, or wind-catchers.
名叫“bâdgir” 或“招风斗”
They would catch and redirect the prevailing winds to the basement,
招风斗将恒风导入地下室 里面有个水池
where the air would be cooled by a pool of water brought in by the qanat.
池里是坎儿井流入的水 风通过水池后会冷却
Then, because there was constantly air coming in through the bâdgir,
同时因为不断有空气通过招风斗进入地下室
it would fill up the building from the bottom and push hot air out the top.
地下室的冷空气从底部不断把热空气从房顶挤出
Qanat also brought water to Persia’s ice houses, called yakhchals.
坎儿井的水还用于波斯的冰室 名叫“冰塔”
Yakhchals have three main parts: a long, rectangular pool for water;
冰塔分三个部分:一个很长的长方形水池 用于储水
a wall as long as the pool, to provide shade;
一面和水池长度一样的墙 用于遮阳
and a round building with a conical roof, to store ice.
和一个带锥形屋顶的圆形建筑 用于储冰
To make ice, people began by filling the pool with a shallow layer of water
为了制冰 人们先往池子里浅浅地倒一层水
and allowing it to freeze overnight in winter.
冬天里 一夜过后水就会结冰
Then the ice was broken up into pieces and covered with water again,
接着 把冰敲成碎片 然后再加水
which was allowed to freeze overnight.
一夜过后又会结冰
This process was repeated for eight days
这个过程一般会重复八天
or until the ice was about two meters thick,
或者当冰的厚度到达两米就停止
and at that point it would be cut into blocks and stored in the building.
之后冰会被切成块 储存在冰塔里
Layers of ice would be separated with layers of straw and wood for insulation
叠起来的冰块之间会用稻草或木头隔开
and to keep them from sticking together.
防止它们粘结在一起
By one estimate, a yakhchal would only lose about one fifth of its ice
据一些建筑师估计 经过九个月时间
to melting over the course of nine months.
冰塔里的冰只会损失五分之一
The same architects who performed that analysis also found that if they could
这些建筑师还发现
build a new yakhchal with modern insulation materials like polyurethane foam,
如果用聚氨酯泡沫等现代隔热材料建一个新冰塔
their yakhchal would only lose 6% of its ice to melt over nine months.
这个新冰塔九个月里只会损失6%的冰
These methods of climate control and ice-making that don’t use electricity could be
纵观全球 这些不用电的温度调节和制冰方法
sustainable alternatives to fossil-fuel intensive air conditioning around the world.
是更环保的选择 能替代那些费电的空调和冰箱
A wind-catcher at the visitor center of Utah’s Zion National Park
犹他州锡安国家公园的游客中心
uses this passive cooling strategy to keep the building
使用了“招风斗”这种被动降温结构
up to 16 degrees Celsius lower than the outdoor temperature,
室内温度最多能比室外低16摄氏度
and bâdgir are still widely used in Iran.
在伊朗 “招风斗”还在被广泛使用
While not all of these strategies directly inspired modern engineers,
尽管这些方法并不都能直接启迪现代工程师
many of them are still in use today.
但其中有不少至今仍被使用
Humans have been humans for a long time, and humans are pretty smart!
人类的历史很久远 人类一直都充满智慧
It just goes to show that this ancient engineering know-how
我想说的是 古代工程技术可以
can directly help us today, to build a greener, smarter world.
直接帮到我们 让世界变得更环保 更智能
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow.
感谢收看本期《科学秀》
If you enjoyed it, and you’d like to get involved with making great videos
如果你喜欢本期视频并且想为视频出一点力
like this one, you can support our channel on Patreon.
可以在Patreon平台赞助我们的频道
Patreons get to share in cool peeks behind the scenes, like monthly bloopers.
Patreon上有幕后花絮 比如每月花絮集锦
If you’re interested, you can get started at patreon.com/scishow.
感兴趣的话可以登录patreon.com/scishow
And what we do wouldn’t be possible without your help, so thanks.
我们的节目离不开你们的支持 感谢你们
[♪ OUTRO]
[片尾曲]

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视频概述

千万不要低估古人的智慧,面对自然环境带来的挑战,古人用勤劳的双手和聪明的大脑将问题一一解决。古代竟然也有空调和冰箱?来看看吧,带你了解精妙绝伦的古代工程。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EBIOLBMfpU

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