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孙子兵法•第四•形篇

4 Tactical Dispositions | The Art of War by Sun Tzu (Animated)

第一课
Lesson number 1.
孙子曰 昔之善战者 先为不可胜
Sun Tzu said: The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat,
以待敌之可胜
and then wait for an opportunity to defeat the enemy.
在丛林争夺战上 默罕默德·阿里拿下了比他年轻强壮的乔治·福尔曼
In the Rumble in the Jungle, Muhammad Ali took on the younger and stronger George Foreman.
阿里用以逸待劳的方式保护自己 不过多挥拳
Ali used his rope-a-dope strategy of protecting himself and not throwing many punches,
让福尔曼错失机会并消耗了体力
making Foreman miss and tire.
通过这样 阿里抓住机会赢回了他的世界冠军
Sensing this, Ali pounced to win back his world title.
找到赢的时机可能要花很长时间
It may take time to find the right opportunity to win.
在胜利真正属于你之前 你仍然可能被击败
During the time before victory is available, you may still be defeated.
防守永远排在第一位
Defence always comes first.
第二课
Lesson number 2.
不可胜在己
To secure ourselves against defeat lies in our own hands,
可胜在敌
but the opportunity of defeating the enemy is provided by the enemy himself.
在中国汉朝末期 一位将军没有直接进入战场
During the end of Han Dynasty in China, a general did not go into battle straight away
而是带着他的人马在敌后方扎营 像是在威慑对方
but camped with his men behind the enemy to act as a deterrent.
同时 他指示士兵围绕着敌人的要塞挖沟渠
Meanwhile, he instructed his men to dig trenches around a nearby enemy fortress
来欺骗敌人 让敌人误以为他们是想切断营地的粮草供应
to deceive the enemy into thinking that they were trying to cut off supplies into their camp.
敌人上当了 放弃了要塞 于是他的营地受到了攻击和毁坏
The enemy were fooled and abandoned their position, allowing their camp to be attacked and destroyed.
防御强大 你能在攻击中存活下来
With a good defence, you can survive attacks.
防御薄弱 一次最小的攻击也可能打败你
With a weak defence, even a modest attack could succeed.
这一点也适用于你的敌人
This also applies to your enemy.
使用佯攻使得对方采取防御行动 从而暴露他们的弱点
Use feints to cause defensive moves that may expose weaknesses.
第三课
Lesson number 3.
故善战者 能为不可胜 不能使敌之必可胜
Thus the good fighter is able to secure himself against defeat, but cannot make certain of defeating the enemy.
当温斯顿·丘吉尔成为英国首相 他的外交部长
When Winston Churchill became the British prime minister, his foreign secretary wanted
想向阿道夫·希特勒妥协 以保存英国的领土完整
to explore a compromise deal with Adolf Hitler to preserve Britain’s integrity.
丘吉尔让他相信 在这种糟糕的局面下 协商将得不到任何东西
Churchill convinced him there wasn’t anything to gain by trying to negotiate in such dire circumstances.
在那个时候 丘吉尔并不了解战况
He did not know the course of the War at that point,
但是他认为 只要坚持下去 胜利指日可待
but by hanging on he thought the steps to victory may come to light in the future.
阻止 躲闪 回避对手的攻击 然后等待能击败对手的机会
Block, deflect or avoid an opponent’s attacks and wait to find an opening through which you can defeat them.
两个优秀的对手互相施计 争斗 直到一方出现破绽
Two good opponents will circle one another and may fight for a long period before a mistake is made.
第四课
Lesson number 4.
不可胜者 守也 可胜者 攻也
Security against defeat implies defensive tactics; ability to defeat the enemy means taking the offensive.
贝利撒留通过多次防御收复罗马帝国的大部分土地
Belisarius reclaimed huge sections of the Roman Empire by repeatedly defending
然后进攻哥特人
and then attacking the Goths.
在通过坚定的防御让敌人发起徒劳的进攻之后
After convincing the enemy to launch a fruitless attack by defending firmly,
他继续进攻 收复了那片土地
he’d then go on the offensive, repossessing the land.
为了避免失败 你可能必须防守 但是别花太长时间在建立防御上
To avoid losing, you must be able to defend but don’t spend too long on building a strong defence.
为了胜利 你也必须有能力进攻
To win, you must also be capable to attack.
花时间来为有效的进攻做计划和准备
Spend time planning and preparing for effective assaults.
第五课
Lesson number 5.
守则不足 攻则有余
Standing on the defensive indicates insufficient strength; attacking, a superabundance of strength.
雅典的统治者伯利克里 在一场与斯巴达的持久战中 他避开陆战而选择了海上力量
Pericles, the ruler of Athens avoided land battles with Sparta, preferring naval strength in a dragged out war,
因为他计算过 雅典人的粮草储备比斯巴达人的更充足
as he calculated Athenian reserves would outlast the Spartans.
斯巴达人每年都会进攻雅典周围的领域
The Spartans would attack the area around Athens yearly,
雅典人向斯巴达人求和 而后者坚持苛刻的求和条件
leading to the Athenians to offer peace to the Spartans who insisted on ruthless terms.
通常防守比进攻更容易
It is often easier to defend than attack.
力量弱的一方更注重防守 伺机寻找进攻者的弱点
Weaker forces will defend more, hoping to see a weakness in their attackers.
第六课
Lesson number 6.
善守者藏于九地之下
The general who is skilled in defence hides in the most secret recesses of the earth;
善攻者动于九天之上
he who is skilled in attack flashes forth from the topmost heights of heaven.
故能自保而全胜也
Thus on the one hand we have ability to protect ourselves; on the other, a victory that is complete.
越南将军武元甲发现美国人经常在炮击和空袭之后开始进攻
The Vietnamese General Giap recognised the Americans often used artillery and air strikes followed by bringing troops in.
从首轮空袭存活下来的人能够伏袭美国大兵
By surviving the initial airstrikes Giap’s men could then ambush the American soldiers.
他命令士兵尽可能的与美军保持近距离
he ordered his fighters to stay as close to the Americans as possible as,
因为距离过近的话 美军就无法展开空袭
by having his men nearby, the airstrike would not be called in.
通过藏在敌人附近 他的游击战 手榴弹
By hiding in close proximity to the enemy, his tactics of guerrilla attacks, hand grenade
设圈套 埋伏以及狙击手的策略就派上了用场
traps, ambushes and snipers were highly effective.
在防守和进攻上 你必须知道自己的优势和局限性
You must know your strengths and limitations in defence and attack.
基于这些了解来展开行动
Act based on this knowledge.
如果你弱于进攻 就找到易于防守的位置
If you are weak in attack, seek a position that is easy to protect.
如果你强于进攻 快速而有力的进攻能打破诸多防御
If you are strong in attack, a fast and powerful drive can overcome many defences.
第七课
Lesson number 7.
见胜不过众人之所知 非善之善者也
To see victory only when it is within the knowledge of the common herd is not the peak of excellence.
韩信要进攻一队善战的军队 他对士兵说
Han Hsin was about to attack a superior army when he said to his men: “Gentlemen, we are
将士们 我们准备歼灭敌人 然后晚饭时会再见面
going to annihilate the enemy, and shall meet again at dinner.”
将士们并没有把他的话当真 迟疑地应和了他
The officers barely took his words seriously and only hesitantly agreed.
但其实韩信已经策划出了一个详尽而巧妙的计谋
However, Han Hsin had calculated in his head a detailed, smart strategy.
他预计他们能够大败敌军
As he predicted, he was able to inflict a crushing defeat on his opponent.
当一条铺满黄金的路摆在你面前 你前进的干扰和威胁都消失不见
When there is a road paved with gold, without distractions and threats heading directly to your goal,
上路也就不需要多费什么技巧
it takes no skill to follow it.
能看见别人看不见的东西是一种能力 它能在许多方面给予你帮助
Being able to see the unseen is a skill that can help you in numerous ways.
在需求众多的成长型市场上很容易成功
It’s easy to succeed in a growing market with plenty of demand.
越艰苦的环境越能体现真正的能力
True skill is displayed in tougher times.
第八课
Lesson number 8.
见日月不为明目 闻雷霆不为聪耳
To see the sun and moon is no sign of sharp sight; to hear the noise of thunder is no sign of a quick ear.
当史蒂夫·乔布斯重新管理濒临破产的苹果公司时
When Steve Jobs returned to take charge of a near-bankrupt Apple,
专家们建议他卖掉公司 去专营软件
experts advised him to sell the company and licence the software.
乔布斯能看到公司里专家看不到的问题 重要的是
Jobs could see problems within the company that the experts couldn’t and crucially,
他知道如何去解决它们
how to resolve them.
在发现了问题所在之后 他做了与专家们意见相左的决定 扭转了局面
After diagnosing the issues he did the opposite of what they advised, turning the business around.
看见明显存在的东西没有什么
Perceiving what is obvious does not show insight.
感知到难以察觉的东西 发现它的重要性 才是一项高超的能力
To perceive what isn’t obvious and understand its significance takes a finer skill.
花时间去磨炼你的感知能力
Take time to hone your perceptual abilities.
第九课
Lesson number 9.
古之所谓善战者 胜于易胜者也
What the ancients called a clever fighter is one who not only wins, but excels in winning with ease.
埃米利乌斯被派往西班牙去征服正在与罗马共和国作战的当地居民
Aemilius was sent to Spain to take on Barbarians who were at war with the Roman Republic.
在两场战争中轻易获胜 这个成功明显是由于他的领导力
Defeating the Barbarians in two battles with ease, the success was noticeably due to his leadership.
他选择了有利的地形 越过了一条河流 最终轻巧获胜
By selecting favourable ground and crossing a river he made winning easy for his men.
他返回罗马 留给这个地方和平 没有为他的远征要求任何金钱的回报
He returned to Rome leaving the area in peace and without claiming any money for his expedition.
一名优秀的战士既不会陷入困难的战争 也不会陷入困难的境地
A good fighter does not get into difficult fights nor gets into difficult situations.
运用高超的技巧会让你看起来像是毫不费力
Using great skill often appears to be done without much effort.
这是因为我们用的是巧劲而不是蛮力
This is because it is done with skill and not effort.
第十课
Lesson number 10.
故其战胜不忒
He wins his battles by making no mistakes.
不忒者 其所措胜
Making no mistakes is what establishes the certainty of victory,
胜已败者也
for it means conquering an enemy that is already defeated.
当汉尼拔和他的迦太基军队横穿意大利时
As Hannibal and his Carthaginian army travelled through Italy,
费比乌斯·昆克塔托和他的罗马战士们尾随着他
Fabius Cunctator and his Roman soldiers followed him around,
希望汉尼拔能犯个错误 让他们能袭击他的粮草征集队
hoping Hannibal would make a mistake so they could attack his foragers.
汉尼拔是位优秀的军事战略家
Hannibal was a great military strategist
在向罗马行军时 他并没有破坏农场和村庄
and avoided any mistakes allowing him to destroy farms and villages as he marched on towards Rome.
犯下让敌人有机可乘的错误很可能导致失败
You can lose by making defensive mistakes that allow an attack through.
不管是在象棋 战争还是生意中 原则都是一样的
The principle is the same whether in chess, war or business strategy.
第十一课
Lesson number 11.
是故胜兵先胜而后求战
Thus it is that in war the victorious strategist only seeks battle after the victory has been won,
败兵先战而后求胜
whereas he who is destined to defeat first fights and afterwards looks for victory.
在二战中 当同盟军破解了德国的恩尼格码密码机
When the Allies broke the German Enigma code in World War II,
拦截和破译了德军作战计划人员的军事信息
they could intercept and decrypt military messages sent between German planners.
这使得同盟军能就与敌方交战的时间和地点做出更英明的决定
This allowed the Allies to make more informed decisions about when and where to engage the enemy,
让他们有能力提前一步做出计划 最终赢得战争
giving them the ability to stay one step ahead and eventually win the War.
优秀的策略家比其他人看得更远
Good tacticians see further ahead than others,
计划行动和对抗手段 直到胜券在握
planning moves and counter-moves until certain victory is known.
具有前瞻性的眼光并能展开行动也是一种强有力的领导能力
The ability to see possibilities and take your business there is a powerful leadership skill.
第十二课
Lesson number 12.
善用兵者 修道而保法
The consummate leader cultivates the moral law, and strictly adheres to method and discipline;
故能为胜败之政
thus it is in his power to control success.
在一战时间 比利时国王艾勃特一世和他的人民一起战斗
During the First World War, King Albert I of Belgium fought alongside his men,
在前线上与他们共生死
sharing the risk of death with them on the frontline.
他也让十四岁的儿子入军参战
He also allowed his 14-year-old son, to enlist in the army and fight.
在战争结束时 作为军队的指挥官 艾勃特领导最后一次进攻 解放了他的国家
At the end of the war, as commander of an army, Albert led the final offensive that liberated his country.
国王和他的家庭返回布鲁塞尔时 受到英雄般的欢迎
The King and his family returned to Brussels with a hero’s welcome.
价值和道德观念从上位者向下层民众渗透
Values and morals start from the very top and filter down.
领导人怎么做 其他人就怎么学
What the leader does, others will copy.
尊重道德 方法和原则 会带来胜利
Succeeding with regards to morality, method and discipline should lead to triumph.
第十三课
Lesson number 13.
地生度 度生量
Measurement owes its existence to Earth; Estimation of quantity to Measurement; Calculation to
量生数 数生称 称生胜
Estimation of quantity; Balancing of chances to Calculation; and Victory to Balancing of chances.
惠灵顿公爵一直都尽心谋划 执行彻底
The Duke of Wellington always performed thorough and detailed preparations.
这让他的供给路线能时刻为士兵的需求做好准备
This allowed for his supply routes to be constantly prepared for the requirements of his soldiers.
在滑铁卢战役之前 惠灵顿仔细研究拿破仑
Before the Battle of Waterloo, Wellington studied Napoleon meticulously.
他非常详细地分析拿破仑的策略
He analysed his tactics in great detail.
他坚信 只有抓住一次机会 转守为攻 战争形势终将逆转
Only once he absolutely knew for sure that the clash was going in his favour did he switch to the offensive.
战争中没有确定性
There is no certainty in war.
当你拥有明辨风险与机遇的智慧 胜利也就随之而来了
Victory starts with intelligence that allows understanding of risks and opportunities.
计划每一次风险和机会的可能性 然后按照最好的结果行事
Project possibilities for each risk and opportunity, then act on the one with best outcome.
不要凭主观判断风险和机会 要利用数据和经过计算的规划
Don’t base risks and opportunities on opinion, use data and calculated projection.
提高这点将提升你成功的机会
Improving this will improve your success.
第十四课
Lesson number 14.
故胜兵若以镒称铢 败兵若以铢称镒
A victorious army opposed to a routed one, is as a pound’s weight placed in the scale against a single grain.
乔治·巴顿将军曾说过 美国人喜爱赢家
General George Patton once said: “Americans love a winner.
美国人容不下输家
Americans will not tolerate a loser”.
这句话里有真理的成分
There is an element of truth in this.
没有人喜欢失败 尤其是军人
No one likes to lose and especially not militaries.
历史上无数次显示 战士情愿忍受极端的困境和苦难
It has been shown countless times in history that soldiers are willing to tolerate extreme adversity and suffering,
只要它能带来切实的结果和胜利
so long as it ultimately leads to tangible results and victory.
胜利的军队更优秀 而且比落败的一方有着更强的士气
Armies that win are superior and have a stronger morale than those which run away.
不低估积极性的能力 能带领人们走向胜利
Never underestimate the power of motivation leading people to wins,
即使是一点点 也能提高士气 带来更多的胜利
even small ones, will increase morale and lead to more wins.
失败后应努力重建士气
Work hard to rebuild morale after failure.
第十五课
Lesson number 15.
称胜者之战民也 若决积水于千仞之溪者 形也
The onrush of a conquering force is like the bursting of pent-up waters into a chasm a thousand fathoms deep.
德国和前苏联之间的斯大林格勒战役 扭转了第二次世界大战的局势
The Battle of Stalingrad between Germany and the Soviet Union caused a turning point in the direction of the Second World War.
在这次战役之前 德军已经入侵占领了几个欧洲国家
Prior to the conflict, the Germans had invaded and occupied several European countries.
这场持续五个月的战争以及最终苏联方的胜利 给了德军最后一击
The five-month battle and eventual Soviet victory stopped any momentum the Germans had left
使苏联人民最终将敌人赶出了他们的国家
and gave the Soviets new momentum to eventually drive the enemy out of their country.
必胜的信心会生长发展
There was a growth in confidence an increased belief of victory.
从枪里射出的快速移动的子弹 比用手扔出去的会产生更大的损害
A fast-moving bullet fired from a gun will do far more damage than if it was thrown by hand.
强有力的进攻所创造的势头 能打破一场强大的防御
The momentum created by a powerful attack can break through even a strong defence.
一连串的成功能让对手或竞争者处于不利境地
Momentum can be caused by a string of successes that keeps opponents or competitors on the back foot
甚至彻底将他们驱出战场或市场
and may even drive them out of the battleground or market altogether.

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视频概述

老外是如何学习孙子兵法的?如何才能在竞争中赢得胜利?本视频介绍了孙子兵法中如何从战略方面部署兵力,并以现实战争为例进行详细了分析。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

兰代

审核员

审核员U

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66DJPcRoBAY

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